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Kansas city 
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Reprinted by 





of J. O". luittle <fc C?Q. 
I*laoo, TSTevir 


whose learned and graceful pen has illustrated the History, 
Traditions, Wonders and Resources of the Great West, this 
volume, descriptive of the trials and tribulations, hopes and 
fears of brave officers and enlisted men of the regular Army, 
who did so much to conquer* and develop the empire beyond the 
Missouri, is affectionately inscribed by his admirer and friend, 

Omaha, Nebraska, 

August 12, 1891. 

cur (MO.) POBUC mm 


The reason for the rarity of Bourke's classic "On The Border 
With Crook", is not far to seek. Almost any chapter of this 
facsimilie reproduction reveals Bourke 2 s eminence as a popular 
writer, and Crook's high place in the western Indian Wars. 
These dominating features have made the work a volume to be 
read and referred to, and to be worn out in library use. 

Bourke's studious, methodical system of investigation, includ- 
ing the almost photographic preservation, in his copious note- 
books, of every useful memorandum, and mental impression, 
has netted him other more scholarly, if not more readable books. 
His treatises on the Indians of the Southwest, have gained for him 
the enviable regard of professional ethnologists. But he has 
also earned the endearment of lay readers, for reaching into the 
historic legends of the region, and the archives of the past, for 
further tales to give setting to the occurrences of the present. 

Probably no other writer ever did so much to preserve the 
atmosphere of Old Tucson, Arizona; or of the primitive Apache 
Indians of the Southwest. And he did almost as much for early 
Deadwood, Dakota, and for the Great Plains Indians, during the 
savage wars of the Seventies. 

Bourke has the rare knack of taking the reader along with 
him as a close bystander. Here he sees the complete picture, 
breathes the exciting atmosphere, feels the tension, and the heat, 
suffers the wounds, hears the dialogue, smells the odors, meets 
the participants, the men of prominence, and men not promi- 
nent until Bourke mentions them for they all bunk together in 
his hospitable notebooks. 

How could the scores of typically western adventure stories 
have been written into later prints, without cribbing from 

Bourke? This includes some stock stories still current, which 
Bourke declares were old when he first met them! The reader 
follows closely, for the stark surprises in store. He is enter- 
tained in the hostelries and eating places, in the old dancing, 
"academies of music", and in the saloons and gaming nests. He 
goes on the antelope chases, and attends the buffalo kills. And 
he witnesses the shootings, the lynchings, the hangings, the mas- 
sacres, the throat-cuttings, and the dismemberings; and even 
seems to assist with the belated burials. 

He jogs out with the cavalry, alongside the officers, the scouts, 
the guides, the packers, the cooks; and he meets such shining 
shoulder Indian braves as Pretty Voice Bull, Charging Bear, 
Tall Wild Cat, Kills First, and Brave Buffalo, with names in- 
tended to reflect their natures all on their distinguished way 
into Bourke's Memoranda files. If Bourke left anything out, the 
reader does not miss it. 

General Crook became more of an Indian by experience than 
many of the old Indian chieftains were by nature, says Bourke; 
and refers to him as a Daniel Boone, with a college education. 
These men served together, as General and aide, for fifteen of 
the hardest possible years in the wilderness, with never a rift 

Out of sheer admiration for General Crook, seventeen years 
his senior, Captain Bourke qualifies as a biographer. Thus 
every Indian collision and casualty embellishes the services of 
his respected General. But Bourke's readers have come to enjoy 
the author himself, for the intrinsic worth of his writings, much 
more than they are inclined toward his hero. 

Bourke died prematurely at fifty; but for us he still lives, be- 
cause he wrote down, just what interested him, while "on the 
border with Crook". 

Lomita, California, 
September, 1950. 


THEEE is an old saw in the army which teaches that you can 
never know a man until after haying made a scout with him in 
had weather. All the good qualities and bad in the human make- 
up force their way to the surface under the stimulus of privation 
and danger, and it not infrequently happens that the comrade 
who at the military post was most popular, hy reason of charm of 
manner and geniality, returns from this trial sadly lowered in the 
estimation of his fellows, and that he who in the garrison was 
most retiring, self -composed, and least anxious to make a display 
of glittering uniform, has swept all before him by the evidence 
he has given of fortitude, equanimity, courage, coolness, and good 
judgment under circumstances of danger and distress. But, 
whether the maxim be true or false, it is hardly too much for me 
to claim a hearing while I recall all that I know of a man with 
whom for more than fifteen years, it was my fortune to be inti- 
mately associated in all the changing vicissitudes which consti- 
tuted service on the " border " of yesterday, which has vanished 
never to return. 

It is not my purpose to write a biography of my late friend 
and commander such a task I leave for others to whom it may 
be more congenial ; speaking for myself, I am compelled to say 
that it is always difficult for me to peruse biography of any kind, 
especially military, and that which I do not care to read I do not 
care to ask others to read. In the present volume, there will be 
found collected descriptions of the regions in which the major 


portion of General Crook's Indian work was carried on; the people, 
both red and white, with whom he was brought into contact ; the 
difficulties with which he had to contend, and the manner in 
which he overcame them ; and a short sketch of the principles 
guiding him in his justly famous intercourse with the various 
tribes -from British America to Mexico, from the Missouri Eiver 
to the Pacific Ocean subjugated by him and afterwards placed 
under his charge. 

A military service of nearly forty consecutive years all of 
which, excepting the portion spent in the civil war, had been face 
to face with the most difficult problems of the Indian question, 
and with the fiercest and most astute of all the tribes of savages 
encountered by the Caucasian in his conquering advance across 
the continent made General Crook in every way worthy of the 
eulogy pronounced upon him by the grizzled old veteran, General 
William T. Sherman, upon hearing of his death, that he was the 
greatest Indian-fighter and manager the army of the United 
States ever had. 

In all the campaigns which made the name of George Crook a 
beacon of hope to the settler and a terror to the tribes in hostility, 
as well as in all the efforts which he so successfully made for the 
elevation of the red man in the path of civilization and which 
showed that Crook was not a brutal soldier with no instincts save 
those for slaughter, but possessed of wonderful tenderness and 
commiseration for the vanquished as well as a most intelligent 
appreciation of the needs and capabilities of the aborigines, I was 
by his side, a member of his military staff, and thus obtained an 
insight into the charms and powers of a character which equalled 
that of any of the noble sons of whom our country is so justly 








RANT. 34 











ING 96 





































WILLIAM P. CLARKE. .......... 344 











LITTLE BIG MAN. . ..,.,... 412 
















APACHE BAND. ... . , 480 












CHATO 304 






DANTE ALIG-H1EEI, it has always seemed to me, made 
the mistake of his life in dying when he did in the pict- 
uresque capital of the Exarchate five hundred and fifty years 
ago. Had he held on to this mortal coil until after Uncle Sam 
had perfected the " Gadsden Purchase/' he would have found 
full scope for his genius in the description of a region in which 
not only purgatory and hell, but heaven likewise, had combined 
to produce a bewildering kaleidoscope of all that was wonder- 
ful, weird, terrible, and awe-inspiring, with not a little that was 
beautiful and romantic. 

The vast region in the southwest corner of the United States, 
known on the maps as the Territories of Arizona and New Mex- 
ico, may, with perfect frankness, be claimed as the wonder-land 
of the northern part of America, with the exception, perhaps, of 
the Republic of Mexico, of which it was once a fragment, and to 
which, ethnographically, it has never ceased to belong. 

In no other section can there be found such extensive areas of 
desert crossed in every direction by the most asperous mountains, 
whose profound cafions are the wonder of the world, whose 
parched flanks are matted with the thorny and leafless vegeta- 



tion of the tropics, and whose lofty summits are black with the 
foliage of pines whose graceful branches bend in the welcome 
breezes from the temperate zone. Here one stumbles at almost 
every step upon the traces of former populations, of whom so 
little is known, or sees repeated from peak to peak the signal 
smokes of the fierce Apaches, whose hostility to the white man 
dates back to the time of Cortes. 

I will begin my narrative by a brief reference to the condition 
of affairs in Arizona prior to the arrival of General Crook, as by 
no other means can the arduous nature of the work he accom- 
plished be understood and appreciated. It was a cold and cheer- 
less dayMarch 10, 1870 when our little troop, "F" of the 
Third Cavalry, than which a better never bore guidon, marched 
down the vertical-walled canon of the Santa Catalina, crossed 
the insignificant sand-bed of the San Pedro, and came front into 
line on the parade-ground of Old Camp Grant, at the mouth of 
the Aravaypa. The sun was shining brightly, and where there 
was shelter to be found in the foliage of mesquite or cotton wood, 
there was the merry chatter of birds ; but in the open spaces the 
fierce breath of the norther, laden with dust and discomfort, 
made the new-comers imagine that an old-fashioned home win- 
ter had pursued them into foreign latitudes. A few military 
formalities hastily concluded, a few words of kindly greeting 
between ourselves and the members of the First Cavalry whom 
we met there, and ranks were broken, horses led to the stables, 
and men filed off to quarters. We had become part and parcel 
of the garrison of Old Camp Grant, the memory of which is still 
fragrant as that of the most forlorn parody upon a military gar- 
rison in that most woe-begone of military departments, Arizona. 

Of our march over from the Eio Grande it is not worth while 
to speak; as the reader advances in this book he will find refer- 
ences to other military movements which may compensate for 
the omission, even when it is admitted that our line of travel 
from Fort Craig lay through a region but little known to people 
in the East, and but seldom described. For those who may be 
sufficiently interested to follow our course, I will say that we 
started from Craig, marched to the tumble-down village of 
"Paraje de San Cristobal," at the head of the < Jornada del 
Muerto" (The Day's Journey of the Dead Man), which is the 
Sahara of New Mexico, then across to the long-since abandoned 


camp at what was called Fort MacRae, where we forded the 
river to the west, and then kept along the eastern rim of the 
timber-clad Mimbres Mountains, through Cow Springs to Fort 
Cummings, and thence due west to Camp Bowie, situated in the 
" Apache Pass " of the Chiricahua Mountains in Southeastern 
Arizona, a total distance of some one hundred and seventy miles 
as we marched. 

There were stretches of country picturesque to look upon and 
capable of cultivation, especially with irrigation ; and other ex- 
panses not a bit more fertile than so many brick-yards, where all 
was desolation, the home of the cactus and the coyote. Arizona 
was in those days separated from " God's country" by a space of 
more than fifteen hundred miles, without a railroad, and the 
officer or soldier who once got out there rarely returned for years. 

Our battalion slowly crawled from camp to camp, with no inci- 
dent to break the dull monotony beyond the ever-recurring sig- 
nal smokes of the Apaches, to show that our progress was duly 
watched from the peaks on each flank ; or the occasional breaking 
down of some of the wagons and the accompanying despair of the 
quartermaster, with whose afflictions I sympathized sincerely, as 
that quartermaster was myself. 

I used to think that there never had been such a wagon-train, 
and that there never could again be assembled by the Govern- 
ment mules of whose achievements more could be written whose 
necks seemed to be ever slipping through their collars, and whose 
heels never remained on terra firma while there was anything in 
sight at which to kick. Increasing years and added experience 
have made me more conservative, and I am now free to admit 
that there have been other mules as thoroughly saturated with 
depravity as "Blinky Jim/ 3 the lop-eared dun " wheeler" in the 
water-wagon team ; other artists whose attainments in profanity 
would put the blush upon the expletives which waked the echoes 
of the mirage-haunted San Simon, and other drivers who could 
get as quickly, unmistakably, emphatically, and undeniably drunk 
as Mullan, who was down on the official papers as the driver of 
the leading ambulance, but, instead of driving, was generally 

There would be very little use in attempting to describe Old 
Fort Grant, Arizona, partly because there was really no fort to 
describe, and partly because few of my readers would be suffi- 


ciently interested in the matter to follow me to the end. It was, 
as I have already said, recognized from the tide-waters of the 
Hudson to those of the Columbia as the most thoroughly God- 
forsaken post of all those supposed to he included in the annual 
Congressional appropriations. Beauty of situation or of construc- 
tion^ had none ; its site was the supposed junction of the sand- 
bed of the Aravaypa with the sand-bed of the San Pedro, which 
complacently figured on the topographical charts of the time as 
creek and river respectively, but generally were dry as a lime- 
burner's hat excepting during the "rainy season." Let the 
reader figure to himself a rectangle whose four sides were the row 
of officers' "quarters/' the adjutant's office, post bakery, and 
guard house, the commissary and quartermaster's storehouses, 
and the men's quarters and sutler's store, and the "plan," if 
there was any "plan/' can be afc once understood. Back of the 
quartermasters and commissary storehouses, some little distance, 
were the blacksmith's forge, the butcher's "corral," and the cav- 
alry stables, while in the rear o'f the men's quarters, on the banks 
of the Sau Pedro, and not far from the traces of the ruins of a 
prehistoric village or pueblo of stone, was the loose, sandy spot 
upon which the bucking "bronco" horses were broken to the sad- 
dle. Such squealing and struggling and biting and kicking, and 
rolling in the dust and getting up again, only to introduce some 
entirely original combination of a hop, skip, and jump, and a 
double back somersault, never could be seen outside of a herd 
,of California "broncos." The animal was first thrown, blind- 
folded, and then the bridle and saddle were put on, the latter 
girthed so tightly that the horse's eyes would start from their 
sockets. Then, armed with a pair of spurs of the diameter of a 
soup-plate and a mesquite club big enough to fell an ox, the 
Mexican " vaquero " would get into the saddle, the blinds would 
be cast off, and the circus begin. There would be one moment of 
sweet doubt as to what the " bronco " was going to do, and now 
and then there would be aroused expectancy that a really mild- 
mannered steed had been sent to the post by some mistake of the 
quartermaster's department. But this doubt never lasted very 
long ; the genuine " bronco " can always be known from the 
spurious one by the fact that when he makes up his mind to 
" buck " he sets out upon his work without delay, and with a 
vim that means business. If there were many horses arriving in 


a " bunch/' there would be lots of fun and no little danger and 
excitement. The men would mount, and amid the encouraging 
comments of the on-lookers begin the task of subjugation. The 
bronco, as I have said, or should have said, nearly always looked 
around and up at his rider with an expression of countenance 
that was really benignant, and then he would roach his back, get 
Ins four feet bunched together, and await developments. These 
always came in a way productive of the best results ; if the rider 
foolishly listened to the suggestions of his critics, he would 
almost always mistake this temporary paroxysm of docility for 
fear or lack of spirit. 

And then would come the counsel, inspired by the Evil One 
himself : " Arrah, thin, shtick yer sphurs int 7 him, Moriarty." 

This was just the kind of advice that best suited the " bronco's " 
feelings, because no sooner would the rowels strike his flanks than 
the air would seem to be filled with a mass of mane and tail rap- 
idly revolving, and of hoofs flying out in defiance of all the laws 
of gravity, while a descendant of the kings of Ireland, describing 
a parabolic orbit through space, would shoot like a meteor into 
the sand, and plough it up with his chin and the usual elocu- 
tionary effects to be looked for under such circumstances. 

Yes, those were happy, happy days for the "broncos" and 
the by-standers. 

There were three kinds of quarters at Old Camp Grant, and he 
who was reckless enough to make a choice of one passed the rest 
of his existence while at the post in growling at the better luck 
of the comrades who had selected either one of the others. 

There was the adobe house, built originally for the kitchens of 
the post at the date of its first establishment, some time in 1857 ; 
there were the " jacal " sheds, built of upright logs, chinked 
with mud and roofed with smaller branches and more mud \ and 
the tents, long since " condemned " and forgotten by the quar- 
termaster to whom they had originally been invoiced. Each and 
all of these examples of the Renaissance style of architecture, as 
it found expression in the valley of the Gila, was provided with a 
" ramada " in front, which, at a small expenditure of labor in 
erecting a few additional upright saplings and cross-pieces, and a 
covering of cotton wood foliage, secured a modicum of shelter 
from the fierce shafts of a sun which shone not to warm and 
enlighten, but to enervate an<3 kill. 


The occupants of the ragged tentage found solace in the pure 
air which merrily tossed the flaps and flies, even if it brought 
with it rather more than a fair share of heat and alkali dust from 
the deserts of Sonora. Furthermore, there were few insects to 
bother, a pleasing contrast to the fate of those living m the 
houses, which were veritable museums of entomology, with the 
choicest specimens of centipedes, scorpions, <f vinagrones," and, 
occasionally, tarantulas, which the Southwest could produce. 

On the other hand, the denizens of the adobe and the " jacal 
outfits " became inured to insect pests and felicitated themselves 
as best they could upon being free from the merciless glare of the 
sun and wind, which latter, with its hot breath, seemed to take 
delight in peeling the skin from the necks and faces of all upon 
whom it could exert its nefarious powers. My assignment was to 
one of the rooms in the adobe house, an apartment some four- 
teen by nine feet in area, by seven and a half or eight in height. 
There was not enough furniture to occasion any anxiety in case 
of fire : nothing but a single cot, one rocking-chair visitors, 
when they came, generally sat on the side of the cot a trunk, a 
shelf of books, a small pine wash-stand, over which hung a mir- 
ror of greenish hue, sold to me by the post trader with the assur- 
ance that it was French plate. I found out afterward that the 
trader could not always be relied upon, but Til speak of him at 
another time. There were two window-curtains, both of chintz ; 
one concealed the dust and fly specks on the only window, and 
the other covered the row of pegs upon which hung sa-bre, forage 
cap, and uniform. 

In that part of Arizona fires were needed only at intervals, and, 
as a consequence, the fireplaces were of insignificant dimensions, 
although they were placed, in the American fashion, on the side 
of the rooms, and not, as among the Mexicans, m the corners. 
There was one important article of furniture connected with 
the fireplace of which I must make mention the long iron 
poker with winch, on occasion, I was wont to stir up the embers, 
and also to stir up the Mexican boy Espendion, to whom, in the 
wilder freaks of my imagination, I was in the habit of alluding 
as my t( valet." 

The quartermaster had recently received permission to expend 
" a reasonable amount " of pam upon the officers' quarters, pro- 
vided the same could be done "by the labor of the troops." 


This " labor of the troops" was a great thing. It made the 
poor wretch who enlisted under the vague notion that his ad- 
miring country needed his services to quell hostile Indians, sud- 
denly find himself a brevet architect, carrying a hod and doing 
odd jobs of plastering and kalsomining. It was an idea which 
never fully commended itself to my mind, and I have always 
thought that the Government might have been better served had 
such work, and all other not strictly military and necessary for 
the proper police and cleanliness, of the posts, been assigned to 
civilians just as soon as representatives of the different trades 
could be attracted to the frontier. It would have cost a little 
more in the beginning, but it would have had the effect of help- 
ing to settle up our waste land on the frontier, and that, I be- 
lieve, was the principal reason why we had a standing army at all. 

The soldier felt discontented because no mention had been 
made in the recruiting officer's posters, or in the contract of 
enlistment, that he was to do such work, and he not unusually 
solved the problem by " skipping out" the first pay-day that 
found him with enough money ahead to risk the venture. It 
goes without saying that the work was never any too well done, 
and in the present case there seemed to be more paint scattered 
round about my room than would have given it another coat. 
But the floor was of rammed earth and not to be spoiled, and the 
general effect was certainly in the line of improvement. Colonel 
Dubois, our commanding officer, at least thought so, and warmly 
congratulated me upon the snug look of everything, and added 
a very acceptable present of a picture one of Prang's framed 
chromos, a view of the Hudson near the mouth of Esopus Creek 
which gave a luxurious finish to the whole business. Later on, 
after I had added an Apache bow and quiver, with its comple- 
ment of arrows, one or two of the bright, cheery Navajo rugs, a 
TOW of bottles filled with select specimens of tarantulas, spiders, 
scorpions, rattlesnakes, and others of the fauna of the country, 
and hung upon the walls a suit of armor which had belonged to 
some Spanish foot-soldier of the sixteenth century, there was a 
sybaritic suggestiveness which made all that has been related of 
the splendors of Solomon and Sardanapalus seem commonplace. 

Of that suit of armor I should like to say a word : it was found 
by Surgeon Steyer, of the army, enclosing the bones of a man, in 
the arid country between the waters of the Rio Grande and the 


Pecos, in the extreme southwestern corner of the State of Texas, 
more than twenty years ago. Various conjectures were advanced 
and all sorts of theories advocated as to its exact age, some people 
thinking that it belonged originally to Coronado's expedition, 
which entered New Mexico in 1541. My personal belief is that 
it belonged to the expedition of Don Antonio Espejo, or that of 
Don Juan de Onate, both of whom came into New Mexico about 
the same date 1581-1592 and travelled down the Concho to its 
confluence with the Rio Grande, which would have been just on 
the line where the skeleton in armor was discovered. There is 
no authentic report to show that Coronado swung so far to the 
south ; his line of operations took in the country farther to the 
north and east, and there are the best of reasons for believing 
that he was the first white man to enter the fertile valley of the 
Platte, not far from Plum Creek, Nebraska. 

But, be that as it may, the suit of armor breast and back plates, 
gorget and helmet nicely painted and varnished, and with every 
tiny brass button duly cleaned and polished with acid and ashes, 
added not a little to the looks of a den which without them would 
have been much more dismal. 

For such of my readers as may not be up in these matters, I 
may say that iron armor was abandoned very soon after the Con- 
quest, as the Spaniards found the heat of these dry regions too 
great to admit of their wearing anything so heavy ; and they also 
found that the light cotton -batting " escaupiles " of the Aztecs 
served every purpose as a protection against the arrows of the 
naked savages by whom they were now surrounded. 

There was not much to do in the post itself, although there 
was a sufficiency of good, healthy exercise to be counted upon at 
all times outside of it. I may be pardoned for dwelling upon 
trivial matters such as were those entering into the sum total of 
our lives in the post, but, under the hope that it and all in the 
remotest degree like it have disappeared from the face of the 
earth never to return, I will say a few words. 

In the first place, Camp Grant was a hot-bed of the worst kind 
of fever and ague, the disease which made many portions of 
Southern Arizona almost uninhabitable during the summer and 
fall months of the year. There was nothing whatever to do ex- 
cept scout after hostile Apaches, who were very bold and kept 


the garrison fully occupied. What with sickness, heat, bad 
water, files, sand-storms, and utter isolation, life would have been 
dreary and dismal were it not for the novelty which helped out 
the determination to make the best of everything. First of all, 
there was the vegetation, different from anything to be seen 
east of the Missouri : the statuesque " pitahayas," with luscious 
fruit J the massive biznagas, whose juice is made into very pala- 
table candy by the Mexicans ; the bear's grass, or palmilla ; the 
Spanish bayonet, the palo verde, the various varieties of cactus, 
principal among them being the nopal, or plate, and the cholla, 
or nodular, which possesses the decidedly objectionable quality 
of separating upon the slightest provocation, and sticking to 
whatever may be nearest ; the mesquite, with palatable gum and 
nourishing beans ; the mescal, beautiful to look upon and grate- 
ful to the Apaches, of whom it is the main food-supply ; the 
scrub oak, the juniper, cottonwood, ash, sycamore, and, lastly, 
the pine growing on the higher points of the environing moun- 
tains, were all noted, examined, and studied, so far as oppor- 
tunity would admit. 

And so with the animal life : the deer, of the strange variety 
called "the mule""; the coyotes, badgers, pole-cats, rabbits, 
gophers but not the prairie-dog, which, for some reason never 
understood by me, does not cross into Arizona ; or, to be more 
accurate, does just cross over the New Mexican boundary at Fort 
Bowie in the southeast, and at Tom Keam's ranch in the Moqui 
country in the extreme northeast. 

Strangest of all was the uncouth, horrible " escorpion," or 
" Gila monster/' which here found its favorite habitat and at- 
tained its greatest dimensions. We used to have them not less 
than three feet long, black, venomous, and deadly, if half the stories 
told were true. The Mexicans time and time again asserted that 
the escorpion would kill chickens, and that it would eject a poison- 
ous venom upon them, but, in my own experience, I have to say 
that the old hen which we tied in front of one for a whole day was 
not molested, and that no harm of any sort came to her beyond 
being scared out of a year's growth. Scientists were wont to rid- 
icule the idea of the Gila monster being venomous, upon what 
ground I do not now remember, beyond the fact that it was a 
lizard, and all lizards were harmless. But I believe it is now well 
established that the monster is not to be handled with impunity. 


although, like many other animals, it may lie torpid and inoffen- 
sive for weeks, and even months, afcatime. It is a noteworthy fact 
that the Gila monster is the only reptile on earth to-day that ex- 
actly fills the description of the basilisk or cockatrice of medieval 
fable which, being familiar to the first-ccmers among the Castil- 
ians, could hardly have added much to its popularity among them. 

It may not be amiss to say of the vegetation that the mescal 
was to the aborigines of that region much what the palm is to 
the nomads of Syria. Baked in oyens of hot stone covered with 
earth it supplied a sweet, delicious, and nutritive food ; its juice 
could be fermented into an alcoholic drink very acceptable to 
the palate, even if it threw into the shade the best record ever 
made by "Jersey lightning" as a stimulant. Tear out one of 
the thorns and the adhering filament, and you had a very fair 
article of needle and thread ; if a lance staff was needed, the sap- 
ling mescal stood ready at hand to be so utilized ; the stalk, cut 
into sections of proper length, and provided with strings of sinew, 
became the Apache fiddle I do not care to be interrupted by 
questions as to the quality of the music emitted by these fiddles, 
as I am now trying to give my readers some notion of the eco- 
nomic value of the several plants of the Territory, and am not 
ready to enter into a disquisition upon melody and such matters, 
in which, perhaps, the poor little Apache fiddle would cut but a 
slim figure and in various other ways this strange, thorny- 
leafed plant seemed anxious to show its friendship for man. And 
I for one am not at all surprised that the Aztecs reverenced it as 
one of their gods, under the name of Quetzalcoatl.* 

The "mesquite" is a member of the acacia family, and from 
its bark annually, each October, exudes a gum equal to the best 
Arabic that ever descended the Nile from Khartoum. There are 
three varieties of the plant, two of them edible and one not. 
One of the edible kinds the " tornillo," or screw grows luxu- 
riantly in the hot, sandy valley of the Colorado, and forms the 
main vegetable food of the Mojave Indians ; the other, with pods 
shaped much like those of the string-bean of our own markets, 
is equally good, and has a sweet and pleasantly acidulated taste. 
The squaws take these beans, put them in mortars, and pound 
them into meal, of which bread is made, in shape and size and 

* Quetzalcoatl is identified with the maguey in Kingsborough, vol. vi., 107. 


weight not unlike the elongated projectiles of the three-inch rifled 

Alarcon, who ascended the Colorado Eiver in 1541, describes 
such bread as in use among the tribes along its banks ; and 
Cabeza de Vaca and his wretched companions, sole survivors of 
the doomed expedition of Panfilo de Narvaez, which went to 
pieces near the mouth of the Suwanee Biver, m Florida, found 
this bread in use among the natives along the western part of 
their line of march, after they had succeeded in escaping from 
the Indians who had made them slaves, and had, in the guise of 
medicine-men, tramped across the continent until they struck 
the Spanish settlements near Ouliacau, on the Pacific coast, in 
1536. But Vaca calls it " mizquiquiz." Castaneda relates that 
m his day (1541) the people of Sonora (which then included 
Arizona) made a bread of the mesquite, shaping it like a cheese ; 
it had the property of keeping for a whole year. 

There was so little hunting in the immediate vicinity of the 
post, and so much danger attending the visits of small parties to 
the higher hills a few miles off, in which deer, and even bear, 
were to be encountered, that nothing in that line was attempted 
except when on scout ; all our recreation had to be sought within 
the limits of the garrison, and evolved from our own personal re- 
sources. The deficiency of hunting did not imply that there was 
anv lack of shooting about the post ; all that any one could desire 
could be had for the asking, and that, too, without moving from 
under the " ramadas " back of the quarters. Many and many a 
good line shot we used to make at the coyotes and skunks which 
with the going down of the sun made their appearance in the 
garbage piles in the ravines to the north of us. 

There was considerable to be done in the ordinary troop duties, 
which began at reveille with the "stables," lasting half an hour, 
after which the horses and mules not needed for the current tasks 
of the day were sent out to seek such nibbles of pasturage as they 
might find under the shade of the mesquite. A strong guard, 
mounted and fully armed, accompanied the herd, and a number 
of horses, saddled but loosely cinched, remained behind under 
the grooming-sheds, ready to be pushed out after any raiding 
party of Apaches which might take a notion to sneak up and 
stampede the herd at pasture. 


Guard mounting book place either before or after breakfast, 
according to season, and then followed the routine of the day : 
inspecting the men's iness at breakfast,, dinner, and supper; a 
small amount of drill, afternoon stables, dress or undress parade 
at retreat or sundown, and such other occupation as might sug- 
gest itself in the usual visit to the herd to see that the pasturage 
selected was good, and that the guards were vigilant ; some ab- 
sorption in the recording of the proceedings of garrison courts- 
martial and boards of survey, and then general ennui, unless the 
individual possessed enough force to make work for himself. 

This, however, was more often the case than many of my read- 
ers would imagine, and lean certify to no inconsiderable amount 
of reading and study of Spanish language and literature, of min- 
eralogy, of botany, of history, of constitutional or of interna- 
tional law, and of the belles-lettres, by officers of the army with 
whom I became acquainted at Old Camp Grant ; Port Craig, New 
Mexico, and other dismal holes more than I have ever known 
among gentlemen of leisure anywhere else. It was no easy matter 
to study with ink drying into gum almost as soon as dipped out 
by the pen, and paper cracking at the edges when folded or bent. 

The newspapers of the day were eagerly perused when they 
came ; but those from San Francisco were always from ten to fif- 
teen days old, those from New York about five to six weeks, and 
other cities any intermediate age you please. The mail at first 
came every second Tuesday, but this was increased soon to a 
weekly service, and on occasion, when chance visitors reported 
some happening of importance, the commanding officer would 
send a courier party to Tucson with instructions to the post- 
master there to deliver. 

The temptations to drink and to gamble were indeed great, 
and those who yielded and fell by the way-side numbered many 
of the most promising youngsters in the army. Many a brilliant 
and noble fellow has succumbed to the ennui and gone down, 
wrecking a life full of promise for himself and the service. It 
was hard for a man to study night and day with the thermom- 
eter rarely under the nineties even in winter at noon, and often 
climbing up to and over the 120 notch on the Fahrenheit scale 
before the meridian of days between April 1st and October 15th ; 
it was hard to organize riding or hunting parties when all the 
horses had just returned worn out by some rough scouting in 


the Final or Sierra Ancha. There in the trader's store was a 
pleasant, cool room,, with a minimum of flies, the latest papers, 
perfect quiet, genial companionship, cool water in fc ollas " swing- 
ing from the rafters, and covered by boards upon which, in a 
thin layer of soil, grew a picturesque mantle of green barley, and, 
on a table conveniently near, cans of lemon-sugar, tumblers and 
spoons, and one or two packs of cards. My readers must nofc 
expect me to mention ice or fruits. I am nofc describing Del- 
monico's ; I am writing of Old Camp Grant, and I am painting 
the old hole in the most rosy colors I can employ. Ice was 
unheard of, and no matter how high the mercury climbed or 
how stifling might be the sirocco from Sonora, the best we could 
do was to cool water by evaporation in es ollas" of earthenware, 
manufactured by the Papago Indians living at the ruined mis- 
sion of San Xavier, above Tucson. 

To revert to the matter of drinking and gambling. There is 
scarcely any of either at the present day in the regular army. 
Many things have combined to bring about such a desirable 
change, the principal, in my opinion, being the railroads which 
have penetrated and transformed the great American continent, 
placing comforts and luxuries within reach of officers and men, 
and absorbing more of their pay as well as bringing them 
within touch of civilization and its attendant restraints. Of 
the two vices, drunkenness was by all odds the preferable one. 
For a drunkard, one can have some pity, because he is his own 
worst enemy, and, at the worst, there is hope for his regener- 
ation, while there is absolutely none for the gambler, who lives 
upon the misfortunes and lack of shrewdness of his comrades. 
There are many who believe, or affect to believe, in gaming 
for the excitement of the thing and not for the money involved. 
There may be such a thing, but I do not credit its existence. 
However, the greatest danger in gambling lay in the waste of 
time rather than in the loss of money, which loss rarely amounted 
to very great sums, although officers could not well afford to 
lose anything. 

I well remember one great game, played by a party of my 
friends but at Fort Laramie, Wyoming, and not in Arizona 
which illustrates this better than I can describe. It was an all- 
night game ten cents to come in and a quarter limit and there 
was no small amount of engineering skill shown before the first 


call for reveille separated the party. "Fellows," said one of 
the quartette, in speaking of it some days afterward, I tell 
you it was a struggle of the giants, and when the smoke of battle 
cleared away, I found I'd lost two dollars and seventy-five cents. 

4s it pr-sents itself to my recollsction now, our life wasn't so 
very monotonous ; there was always something gomg on to 
interest and instruct, even if it didn't amuse or enliven. 

" Corporal Dile's har-r-r-se 'B bit by a ratthler 'n tn aff hind 
leg"- and, of course, everybody turns out and gets down to the 
stables as fast as possible, each with his own prescription, which 
are one and all discarded for the great Mexican panacea of a poul- 
tice of the "golondrina" weed. Several times I have seen this 
used, successfully and unsuccessfully, and I do not believe in its 
vaunted efficacy by any means. 

" Oscar Hutton 's bin kicked 'n th' jaw by a mewel." Hutton 
was one of the post guides, a very good and brave man. His jaw 
was hopelessly crushed by a blow from the lightning hoofs of a 
miserable " bronco " mule, and poor Hutton never recovered from 
the shock. He died not long after, and, in my opinion, quite as 
much from chagrin at being outwitted as from the injury in- 

Hutton had had a wonderful experience in the meanest parts 
of our great country and be it known that Uncle Sam can hold 
his own with any prince or potentate on God's footstool in the 
matter of mean desert land. All over the great interior basin 
west of the Eockies Hutton had wandered in the employ of the 
United States with some of the Government surveying parties. 
Now he was at the mouth of the Virgin, where there is a salt mine 
with slabs two and three feet thick, as clear as crystal ; next he 
was a wanderer in the dreaded "Death Yalley," below the sea- 
level, where there is no sign of animal life save the quickly dart- 
ing lizard, or the vagrant duck whose flesh is bitter from the 
water of " soda " lakes, which offer to the wanderer all the com- 
forts of a Chinese laundry, but not one of those of a home. At 
that time I only knew of these dismal places from the relation 
of Hutton, to which I listened open-mouthed, but since then I 
have had some personal acquaintance, and can aver that in caught 
did he overlap the truth. The ground is covered for miles with 
pure baking-soda I decline to specify what brand, as I am not 


writing this as an advertisement, and my readers can consult 
individual preference if they feel so disposed which rises in a 
cloud of dry, irritating dust above the horse's houghs, and if 
agitated by the hot winds, excoriates the eyes, throat, nostrils, 
and ears of the unfortunate who may find himself there. ISTow 
and then one discerns in the dim distance such a deceiving body 
of water as the e> Soda Lake," which tastes like soapsuds, and 
nourishes no Jiving thing save the worthless ducks spoken of, 
whose flesh is uneatable except to save one from starvation. 

Hutton had seen so much hardship that it was natural to 
expect him to be meek and modest in his ideas and demeanor, 
but he was, on the contrary, decidedly vain and conceited, and 
upon such a small matter that it ought not really to count 
against him. He had six toes on each foot, a fact to which he 
adverted with pride. "Bee gosh," he would say, "there hain't 
ennuther man ; n th' hull dog-goned outfit 's got ez menny toes 's 

Then there was the excitement at Felmer's ranch, three miles 
above the post. Felmer was the post blacksmith, and lived in a 
little ranch in the fertile " bottom " of the San Pedro, where he 
raised a " patch " of barley and garden-truck for sale to the gar- 
rison. He was a Russian or a Polynesian or a Turk or a Theoso- 
phist or something he had lived in so many portions of the 
world's surface that I never could keep track of him. I distinctly 
remember that he was born in Germany, had lived in Russia or 
in the German provinces close to Poland, and had thence trav- 
elled everywhere. He had married an Apache squaw, and from 
her learned the language of her people. She was now dead, 
but Joe was quite proud of his ability to cope with all the 
Apaches in Arizona, and in being a match for them in every wile. 
One hot day all the days were comfortably warm, but this 
was a " scorcher " there was a sale of condemned Government 
stock, and Joe bought a mule, which the auctioneer facetiously 
suggested should be called "Lazarus," he had so many sores all 
over his body. But Joe bought him, perfectly indifferent to the 
scoffs and sneers of the by-standers. " Don't you think the 
Apaches may get him?" I ventured to inquire. "That's jest 
what I'm keeping him fur ; lait nnnerstan' ? ? N Apache '11 
come down 'n my alfalfy field 'n git thet mewel, 'n fust thing you 
know thar '11 be a joke on somebody. " 


Felmer was a first-class shot, and we naturally supposed that 
the joke would be on the deluded savage who might sneak down 
to ride away with such a crow-bait, and would become the mark 
for an unerring rifle. But it was not so to be. The wretched 
quadruped had his shoes pulled off, and was then turned loose in 
alfalfa and young barley, to his evident enjoyment and benefit. 
Some time had passed, and we had almost forgotten to twit 
Felmer about his bargain. It's a very thin joke that cannot 
be made to last five or six weeks in such a secluded spot as 
Old Camp Grant, and, for that reason, at least a month must 
have elapsed when, one bright Sunday afternoon, Felmer was 
rudely aroused from his siesta by the noise of guns and the voices 
of his Mexican herders crying : " Apaches ! Apaches ! " And 
there they were, sure enough, and on top of that sick, broken- 
down cast-off of the quartermaster's department three of them, 
each as big as the side of a house, and poor Joe so dazed that for 
several minutes he couldn't fire a shot. 

The two bucks in front were kicking their heels into the mule's 
ribs, and the man in rear had passed a hair lariat under the 
mule's tail, and was sawing away for dear life, And the mule ? 
Well, the mule wasn't idle by any means, but putting in his best 
licks in getting over the ground, jumping "arroyos" and rocks, 
charging into and over nopals and chollas and mesquite, and 
fast leaving behind him the valley of the San Pedro, and getting 
into the foot-hills of the Pinaleno Range. 




WE had all sorts of visitors from the adjacent country. The 
first I remember was a squaw whose nose had been cut 
off by a brutal and jealous husband. The woman was not at all 
bad looking, and there was not a man at the post who did not 
feel sorry for the unfortunate who, for some dereliction, real or 
imagined, had been so savagely disfigured. 

This shocking mode of punishment, in which, by the way, the 
Apache resembled some of the nations of antiquity, prevailed in 
full vigor until after General Crook had subjected this fierce tribe 
to law and discipline, and the first, or, at least, among the very 
first, regulations he laid down for their guidance was that the 
women of the tribe must be treated just as kindly as the men, 
and each and every infraction of the rule was threatened with 
the severest punishment the whole military force could inflict. 
Since then the practice has wholly died out among both the 
Apaches and the Hualpais. 

Then there came an old withered crone, leading a woman some- 
what younger, but still shrivelled with the life of care and drudg- 
ery which falls to the lot of the Apache matron, and a third 
member of this interesting party, a boy ten or twelve years old, 
who was suffering from the bite of a rattlesnake, which had 
caused his right leg to shrink and decay. The medicine-men of 
their band had sung vigorously and applied such medicine as 
they thought best suited to the case, but it proved to be beyond 
their skill, and they had advised this journey to Camp Grant, 
to see what the white man's medicine could do for the sufferer. 


Still another interesting picture framed in my memory is that 
of the bent old dotard who wished to surrender on account of 
frankly confessed impotency to remain longer on the war-path. 
Battles were for young men only ; as people grew older they got 
more sense, and all should live as brothers. This world was 
large enough for everybody, and there should be enough to eat 
for the Indians and the white men, too. There were men whose 
hearts were hard and who would not listen to reason ; they 
wished to fight, but as for himself, his legs could not climb 
the mountains any longer, and the thorns were bad when they 
scratched his skin." His heart was good, and so long as this stone 
which he placed on the ground should last he wanted to let the 
Great Father know that he meant to be his friend. Had his 
brother, the post commander, any tobacco ? 

Masy an hour did I sit by the side of our friend and brother, 
watching him chip out arrow-heads from fragments of beer bot- 
tles, or admiring the dexterity with which he rubbed two sticks 
together to produce flame. Matches were his greatest treasure, 
and he was never tired begging for them, and as soon as obtained, 
he would wrap them up carefully in a piece of buckskin to screen 
from the weather. But we never gave him reason to suspect that 
our generosity was running away with our judgment. We were 
careful not to give him any after we found out that he could 
make fire so speedily and in a manner so strange, and which we 
were never tired of seeing. 

These members of the tribe were all kept as prisoners, more to 
prevent communication with the enemy than from any suspected 
intention of attempting an escape. They were perfectly contented, 
were well fed, had no more to do than was absolutely good for 
them in the way of exercise, and except that they had to sleep 
under the eyes of the sentinels at night, were as free as any one 
else in the garrison. Once or twice Indian couriers came over 
from Carnp Apache or Thomas, as it was then called in the 
Sierra Blanca. Those whom I first saw were almost naked, 
their only clothing being a muslin loin-cloth, a pair of pointed- 
toed moccasins, and a hat of hawk feathers. They had no arms 
but lances and bows and arrows. One of them bore a small round 
shield of raw-hide decked with eagle plumage , another had a 
pretty fiddle made of a joint of the bamboo-like stalk of the 
century plant, and a third had a pack of monte cards, cut out 


of dried pony skin and painted to represent rudely the figures 
in the four suits. 

Their lank, long black hair, held back from the eyes by bands 
of red flannel ; their superb chests, expanded by constant exer- 
cise in the lofty mountains, and their strongly muscled legs con- 
firmed all that I had already learned of their powers of endur- 
ance from the half-breed Mexicans and the tame Apaches at the 
post people like Manuel Duran, Nicolas, and Francisco, who 
were what were then known as tame Apaches, and who had never 
lived with the others in the hills, but belonged to a section 
which had made peace with the whites many years previously and 
had never broken it ; or escaped captives like Jos6 Maria, Jose 
de Leon, Victor Kuiz, or Antonio Besias, who had been torn away 
from their homes in Sonora at an early age, and had lived so 
long with the savages that they had become thoroughly conver- 
sant with all their ideas and customs as well as their language. 
Nearly all that class of interpreters and guides are now dead. 
Each had a wonderful history, well worthy of recital, but I can- 
not allow myself to be tempted into a more extended reference to 
any of them at this moment. 

The fact that the post trader had just received a stock of new 
goods meant two things ifc meant that he had made a mistake 
in his order and received a consignment different from the old 
goods which he had hitherto taken so much pride in keeping 
upon his shelves, and it meant that the paymaster was about to 
pay us a visit, and leave a share of Uncle Sam's money in the 

There were two assistants in the store, Paul and Speedy. 

Paul was getting along in years, but Speedy was young and 
bright. Paul had at one period in his life possessed some intelli- 
gence and a fair education, but whiskey, cards, and tobacco had 
long ago blunted what faculties he could claim, and left him a 
poor hulk, working for his board and drinks at such odd jobs as 
there were to do about the premises. He had been taught the 
trade of cabinet-making in Strassburg, and when in good humor, 
and not too drunk, would join and polish, carve and inlay boxes, 
made of the wood of the mesquite, madroflo, manzanita, ash, and 
walnut, which would delight the eyes of the most critical. 

Speedy was the most active man about the post. He was one 


of our best runners, and by all odds 'the best swimmer in the cool, 
deep pools which the San Pedro formed where it came up out of 
the sands a short distance below the officers' quarters, and where 
we often bathed in the early evening hours, with some one of the 
party on guard, because the lurking Apaches were always a stand- 
ing menace in that part of Arizona. 

I do not know what has become of Speedy. He was an excep- 
tionally good man in many ways, and if not well educated, made 
up in native intelligence what others more fortunate get from 
books. From a Yankee father he inherited the Maine shrewd- 
ness in money matters and a keenness in seeing the best points 
in a bargain. A Spanish mother endowed him with a fund of 
gentle politeness and good manners. 

When he came to bid me good-by and tell me that he had 
opened a " Monte Pio," or pawnbroker's shop, in Tucson, I ven- 
tured to give him a little good advice. 

" You must be careful of your money, Speedy. Pawnbroking 
is a risky business. You'll be likely to have a great deal of unsal- 
able stuff left on your hands, and it don't look to me as if five 
per cent, was enough interest to charge. The laws of New York, 
I believe, allow one to charge twenty per cent, per annum." 

" Cap., what's per annum ? " 

" Why, every year, of course." 

" Oh, but you see mine is five per cent, a week." 

Speedy was the only man I ever knew who had really seen a 
ghost. As he described it to us, it had much the appearance of 
a ' ' human," and was mounted on a pretty good specimen of a 
Sonora plug, and was arrayed in a suit of white canvas, with 
white helmet, green veil, blue goggles, and red side whiskers. It 
didn't say a word to my frienfl, but gave him a decidedly cold 
stare, which was all that Speedy cared to wait for before he 
broke for the brush. A hundred yards or so in rear there was 
a train of pack mules, laden with cot frames, b^th-tubs, hat 
boxes, and other trumpery, which may or may not have had 
something to do with the ghost in advance. Speedy and his 
mule were too agitated to stop to ask questions, and continued 
on into Hermosillo. 

Information received about this time from Sonora reported 
that an English "lud" was ** roughing it" in and about the 
Yaqui country, and it is just possible that he could have given 


much information about the apparition had it been demanded ; 
but Speedy persisted in his belief that he had had a " call " from 
the other world, and was sorely depressed for several weeks. 

Speedy rendered valuable help in our self-imposed task of 
digging in the "ruins" alongside of our quarters vestiges of an 
occupancy by a pre-historic race, allied to the Pueblos of the Eio 
Grande or to the Pimas and Papagoes. 

Broken pottery, painted and unpainted, a flint knife or two, 
some arrow-heads, three or four stone hatchets, and more of the 
same sort, were our sole reward for much hard work. The great 
question which wrought us up to fever heat was, Who were these 
inhabitants ? Felmer promptly decided that they were Phoeni- 
cians upon what grounds I do not know, and it is very doubt- 
ful if Felmer knew either but Oscar Hutton " 'lowed they mout 
V bin some o' them Egyptian niggers as built the pyramids in 
th* Bible/' 

The paymaster had come and gone ; the soldiers had spent 
their last dollar ; the last "pay-day drunk" had been rounded 
up and was now on his way to the" guard-house, muttering a 
maudlin defiance to Erin's foes ; the sun was shining with scorch- 
ing heat down upon the bed of pebbles which formed the 
parade-ground ; the flag hung limp and listless from the pudgy 
staff ; the horses were out on herd ; the scarlet-shouldered black- 
birds, the cardinals, the sinsontes, and the jays had sought the 
deepest shadows ; there was no sound to drown the insistent 
buzz of the aggravating flies or the voice of the Eecorder of the 
Garrison Court just assembled, which was trying Privates A. and 
B. and 0. and D. and others, names and rank now forgotten, for 
having "then and there/' "on or about/' and "at or near" the 
post of Camp Grant, Arizona, committed sundry and divers 
crimes against the law and regulations when, straight across 
the parade, with the swiftness of a frightened deer, there ran a 
half or three-quarters naked Mexican, straight to the door of the 
" comandante's " quarters. 

He was almost barefooted, the shoes he had on being in 
splinters. His trousers had been scratched so by the thorns 
and briars that only rags were now pendent from his waist. 
His hat had been dropped in his terrified flight from some 
unexplained danger, which the wan face, almost concealed by 
matted locks, and the shirt covered with blood still flowing 


freely from a wound m the chest, conclusively showed to have 
been an Apache ambuscade. 

With faltering voice and in broken accents the sufferer ex- 
plained that he was one of a party of more than thirty Mexi- 
cans coming up from Tucson to work on the ranch of Kennedy 
and Israel, who lived about a mile from our post down the San 
Pedro. There were a number of women and several children 
with the train, and not a soul had the slightest suspicion of 
danger, when suddenly, on the head of the slope leading up 
to the long "mesa" just this side of the Cafion del Oro, they 
had found themselves surrounded on three sides by a party of 
Apaches, whose strength was variously put at from thirty to fifty 


The Americans and Mexicans made the best fight possible, 
and succeeded in keeping back the savages until the women and 
children had reached a place of comparative safety ; but both 
Kennedy and Israel were killed, and a number of others killed 
or wounded, our informant being one of the latter, with a severe 
cut in the left breast, where a bullet had ploughed round his 
ribs without doing very serious damage. The Apaches fell to 
plundering the wagons, which were loaded with the general 
supplies that ranchmen were in those days compelled to keep in 
gtock, for feeding the numbers of employees whom they had to 
retain to cultivate their fields, as well as to guard them, and the 
Mexicans, seeing this, made off as fast as their legs could carry 
them, under the guidance of such of their party as were familiar 
with the trails leading across the Santa Catalina range to the 
San Pedro and Camp Grant. One of these trails ran by way of 
Apache Springs at the northern extremity of the range, and was 
easy of travel, so that most of the people were safe, but we were 
strongly urged to lose no time in getting round by the longer 
road, along which the Apaches were believed to have pursued a 
few men. 

The Mexican, Domingo., had seen Sergeants Warfield and 
Mott, two old veterans, on his way through the post, and they, 
without waiting for orders, had the herd run in and saddles got 
out in anticipation of what their experience taught them, was 
sure to come. Every man wbo could be put on horseback was 
mounted at once, without regard to his company or regiment, 
and in less than twenty minutes the first detachment was crossing 


the San Pedro and entering the long defile known as the Santa 
Catalina Cafion not yery well equipped for a prolonged cam- 
paign, perhaps, as some of the men had no water in canteens and 
others had only a handful of crackers for rations, but that made 
no difference. Our business was to rescue women and children 
surrounded by savages, and to do it with the least delay possible. 
At least, that was the way Colonel Dubois reasoned on the 
subject, and we had only our duty to do obey orders. 

A second detachment would follow after us, with a wagon 
containing water in kegs, rations for ten days, medical supplies, 
blankets, and every other essential for making such a scout as 
might become necessary. 

Forward ! was the word, and every heel struck flank and every 
horse pressed upon the bit, Do our best, we couldn^t make very 
rapid progress through the cafion, which for its total length of 
twelve miles was heavy with shifting saad. 

Wherever there was a stretch of hard pan, no matter how 
short, we got the best time out .of it that was possible. The dis- 
tance seemed interminable, but we pressed on, passing the Four- 
mile "Walnut, on past the Cottomvood, slipping along without a 
word under the lofty walls which screened us from the rays of the 
sun, although the afternoon was still young. But in much less 
time than we had a right to expect we had reached the end of the 
bad road, and halted for a minute to have all loose cinches re- 
tightened and everything made ready for rapid travelling on to 
the Caflon del Oro. 

In front of us stretched a broken, hilly country, bounded on 
the east and west by the Tortolita and the Sierra Santa Catalina 
respectively. The summer was upon us, but the glories of the 
springtime had not yet faded from the face of the desert, which 
still displayed ihe splendors of millions of golden crocuses, with 
countless odorless verbenas of varied tints, and acres upon acres 
of nutritious grasses, at which our horses nibbled every time we 
halted for a moment. The cafion of the Santa Catalina for more 
than four miles of its length is no wider than an ordinary street 
in a city, and is enclosed by walls rising one thousand feet above 
the trail. "Wherever a foothold could be f ound, there the thorny- 
branched giant cactus stood sentinel, or the prickly plates of the 
nopal matted the face of the escarpment. High up on the wall 
of the cafion, one of the most prominent of the pitahayas or 


giant cacti Had been transfixed by the true aim of an Apache 
arrow, buried up to the feathers. 

For the beauties or eccentricities of nature we had no eyes. All 
that we cared to know was how long it would take to put us 
where the train had been ambushed and destroyed. So, on we 
pushed, taking a very brisk gait, and covering the ground with 

The sun was going down in a blaze of scarlet and gold behind 
the Tortolita Kange, the Cation del Oro was yet several miles 
away, and still no signs of the party of which we were in such 
anxious search. " They must have been nearer the Cation del 
Oro than the Mexican thought/' was the general idea, for we had 
by this time gamed the long mesa upon which we had been led 
to believe we should see the ruins of the wagons. 

We were now moving at a fast walk, in line, with carbines at an 
"advance,'' and everything ready for a fight to begin on either 
flank or in front, as the case might be ; but there was no enemy 
in sight. We deployed as skirmishers, so as to cover as much 
ground as possible, and pick up any dead body that might be 
lying behind the mesquite or the palo verde which lined the road. 
A sense of gloom spread over the little'command, which had been 
hoping against hope to find the survivors alive and the savages 
still at bay. But, though the coyote yelped to the moon, and 
flocks of quail whirred through the air when raised from their 
seclusion in the bushes, and funereal crows, perched upon the 
tops of the pitahayas, croaked dismal salutations, there was no 
sound of the human voices we longed to hear. 

But don't be too sure. Is that a coyote's cry or the wail of a 
fellow-creature in distress ? A coyote, of course. Yes, it is, and 
no, it isn't. Every one had his own belief, and would tolerate no 
dissent. " Hel-lup ! Hel-lup ! My God, hel-lup ! " " This way, 
Mofct ! Keep the rest of the men back there on the road." In less 
than ten seconds we had reached a small arroyo, not very deep, run- 
ning parallel to the road and not twenty yards from it, and there, 
weak and faint and covered with his own blood, was our poor, 
unfortunate friend, Kennedy. He was in the full possession of 
his faculties and able to recognize every one whom he knew and 
to tell a coherent story. As to the first part of the attack, he 
concurred with Domingo, but he furnished the additional infor- 
mation that as soon as the Apaches saw that the greater number 


of the party had withdrawn with the women and children, of 
whom there were more than thirty all told, they made a bold 
charge to sweep down the little rear-guard which had taken its 
stand behind the wagons. Kennedy was sure that the Apaches 
had suffered severely, and told me where to look for the body of 
the warrior who had killed his partner, Israel. Israel had re- 
ceived a death- wound in the head which brought him to his 
knees, but before he gave up the ghost his rifle, already in posi- 
tion at his shoulder, was discharged and killed the tall, muscular 
young savage who appeared to be leading the attack. 

Kennedy kept up the unequal fight as long as he could, in spite 
of the loss of the thumb of his left hand, shot off at the first 
volley ; but when the Mexicans at each side of him fell, he drew 
his knife, cut the harness of the "wheeler" mule nearest him, 
sprang into the saddle, and charged right through the Apaches 
advancing a second time. His boldness disconcerted their aim, 
but they managed to plant an arrow in his breast and another 
in the ribs of his mule, which needed no further urging to break 
into a mad gallop over every rock and thorn in its front. Ken- 
nedy could not hold the bridle with his left hand, and the pain 
in his lung was excruciating "Jes ? like ? s if I'd swallowed a 
coal o* fire, boys," he managed to gasp, half inarticulately. But 
he had run the mule several hundreds of yards, and was beginning 
to have a faint hope of escaping, when a bullet from his pursuers 
struck its hind-quarters and pained and frightened it so much 
that it bucked him over its head and plunged off to one side 
among the cactus and mesquite, to be seen no more. Kennedy, 
by great effort, reached the little arroyo in which we found him, 
and where he had lain, dreading each sound and expecting each 
moment to hear the Apaches coming to torture him to death. 
His fears were unfounded. As it turned out, fortunately for all 
concerned, the Apaches could not resist the temptation to plun- 
der, and at once began the work of breaking open and pilfering 
every box and bundle the wagons contained, forgetting all about 
the Mexicans who had made their escape to the foot-hills, and 
Kennedy, who lay so very, very near them. 

Half a dozen good men were left under command of a sergeant 
to take care of Kennedy, while the rest hurried forward to see 
what was to be seen farther to the front. 

It was a ghastly sight, one which in its details I should like to 



spare my readers. There were the hot embers of the new wagons, 
tlie scattered fragments of broken boxes, barrels, and packages of 
all sorts ; copper shells, arrows, bows, one or two broken rifles, 
torn and burned clothing. There lay all that was mortal of 
poor Israel, stripped of clothing, a small piece cut from the crown 
of the head, but thrown back upon the corpse the Apaches do 
not care much for scalping his heart cut out, but also thrown back 
near the corpse, which had been dragged to the fire of the burn- 
ing wagons and had been partly consumed ; a lance wound in the 
back, one or two arrow wounds they may have been lance wounds, 
too, but were more likely arrow wounds, the arrows which made 
them haying been burned out ; there were plenty of arrows lying 
around a severe contusion under the left eye, where he had been 
hit perhaps with the stock of a rifle or carbine, and the death 
wound from ear to ear, through which the brain had oozed. 

The face was as calm and resolute in death as Israel had been 
in life. He belonged to a class of frontiersmen of which few 
representatives now remain the same class to which belonged 
men like Pete Kitchen, the Duncans, of the San Pedro ; Barrel 
Duppa and Jack Townsend, of the Agua Fria ; men whose lives 
were a romance of adventure and danger, unwritten because they 
never frequented the towns, where the tenderfoot correspondent 
would be more likely to fall in with some border Munchausen, 
whose tales of privation and peril would be in the direct ratio of 
the correspondent's receptivity and credulity. 

It was now too dark to do anything more, so we brought up 
Kennedy, who seemed in such good spirits that we were certain he 
would pull through; as we could not realize that he had been hit 
by an arrow at all, but tried to console him with the notion that 
the small round hole in his chest, from which little if any blood 
had flown, had been made by a buck-shot or something like it. 
But Kennedy knew better. "No, boys," he said sadly, shaking 
his head, ( it's all up with me. Fm a goner. I know it was an 
arrow, 'cause I broke the feather end off. I'm goin' to die." 

Sentinels were posted behind the bushes, and the whole com- 
mand sat down to keep silent watch for the coming of the 
morrow. The Apaches might double back there was no know- 
ing what they might do and it was best to be on our guard. 
The old rule of the frontier, as I learned it from men like Joe 
Felmer, Oscar Hutton, and Manuel Duran, amounted to this : 


" When you see Apache 'sign/ be Jceerful ; V when you don' see 
nary sign, be more keerful." 

The stars shone out in their grandest effulgence, and the 
feeble rays of the moon were no added help to vision. There is 
only one region in the whole world, Arizona, where the full 
majesty can be comprehended of that text of Holy Writ which 
teaches : " The Heavens declare the glory of God, and the firma- 
ment showeth His handiwork. " Midnight had almost come, when 
the rumble of wheels, the rattle of harness, and the cracking of 
whips heralded the approach of wagons and ambulance and the 
second detachment of cavalry. They brought orders from Colo- 
nel Dubois to return to the post as soon as the animals had 
had enough rest, and then as fast as possible, to enable all to 
start in pursuit of the Apaches, whose trail had been "cut "a 
mile or two above Felmer's, showing that they had crossed the 
Santa Oatalina Eange, and were making for the precipitous coun- 
try close to the head of the Aravaypa. 

The coming day found our party astir and hard at work. 
First, we hunted up the body of the Apache who had shot 
Israel. Lieutenant George Bacon, First Cavalry, found it on a 
shelf of rock, in a ravine not a hundred yards from where the 
white enemy lay, shot, as Israel was, through the head. We did 
not disturb it, but as much cannot be averred of the hungry 
and expectant coyotes and the raw-necked buzzards, which had 
already begun to draw near. 

The trail of the savages led straight toward the Santa Cata- 
lina, and a hurried examination disclosed a very curious fact, 
which later on was of great importance to the troops in pursuit. 
There had been a case of patent medicine in the wagons, and 
the Apaches had drunk the contents of the bottles, under the 
impression that they contained whiskey. The result was that, as 
the signs showed, there were several of the Indians seriously 
incapacitated from alcoholic stimulant of some kind, which had 
served as the menstruum for the drugs of the nostrum. They 
had staggered from cactus to cactus, falling into mesquite, in 
contempt of the thorns on the branches, and had lain sprawled 
at full length in the sand, oblivious of the danger incurred. It 
would have been a curious experience for the raiders could we 
have arrived twenty-four hours sooner. 

Fully an hour was consumed in getting the horses and mules 


down to the water in the Oaflon del Oro, and in making a cup of 
coffee, for which there was the water brought along in the kegs 
in the wagons. Everything and everybody was all right, except- 
ing Kennedy, who was beginning to act and talk strangely ; first 
exhilarated and then excited, petulant and despondent. His suf- 
ferings were beginning to tell upon him, and he manifested a 
strange aversion to being put in the same vehicle with a dead man. 
We made the best arrangement possible for the comfort of our 
wounded friend, for whom it seemed that the ambulance would 
be the proper place. But the jolting and the upright position he 
was compelled to take proved too much for him, and he begged 
to be allowed to recline at full length in one of the wagons. 

His request was granted at once ; only, as it happened, he was 
lifted into the wagon in which the stiff, stark corpse of Israel 
was glaring stonily at the sky. A canvas 'paulin was stretched 
over the corpse, half a dozen blankets spread out to make as soft 
a couch as could be expected, and then Kennedy was lifted in, 
and the homeward march resumed with rapid gait. Animals 
and men were equally anxious to leave far in the rear a scene 
of such horror, and without whip or spur we rolled rapidly over 
the gravelly "mesa/' until we got to the head of the Santa 
Catalina Cation,, and even there we progressed satisfactorily, as, 
notwithstanding the deep sand, it was all down grade into the 

In crossing the San Pedro, the wagon in which Kennedy was 
riding gave a lurch, throwing him to one side ; to keep himself 
from being bumped against the side, he grasped the first thing 
within reach, and this happened to be the cold, clammy ankle 
of the corpse. One low moan, or, rather, a groan, was all that 
showed Kennedy's consciousness of the undesirable companion- 
ship of his ride. The incident didn't really make very much dif- 
ference, however, as his last hours were fast drawing near, and 
Death had already summoned him. He breathed his last in the 
post hospital before midnight. An autopsy revealed the presence 
of a piece of headless arrow, four or five inches long, lodged in 
the left lung. 

The funeral ceremonies did not take much time. There was 
no lumber in that section of country for making coffins. Pack- 
ing boxes, cracker boxes, anything that could be utilized, were 
made to serve the purpose, and generally none were used. The 


whole garrison turned out. A few words from the Book of 
Common Prayer kC Man that is born of woman/' etc.; a few 
clods of earth rattling down ; then a layer of heavy rocks and 
spiny cactus, to keep the coyotes from digging up the bones ; 
more earth ; and all was over, excepting the getting ready for 
the pursuit. 

This was to be prosecuted by Lieutenant Howard B. Gushing, 
an officer of wonderful experience in Indian warfare, who with 
his troop, ( ' F " of the Third Cavalry,, had killed more savages of 
the Apache tribe than any other officer or troop of the United 
States Army has done before or since. During the latter days 
of the preceding fall, 1869, he had struck a crushing blow at 
the courage of the Apaches infesting the country close to the 
Guadalupe Eange in southwestern Texas, and had killed and 
wounded many of the adults, and captured a number of children 
and a herd of ponies. 

But Lieutenant Franklin Yeaton, a brave and exceedingly 
able officer, just out of West Point, was fatally wounded on our 
side, and the more Gushing brooded over the matter, the hotter 
flamed his anger, until he could stand it no longer, but resolved 
to slip back across country and try his luck over again. He had 
hauled Yeaton and the rest of the wounded for four marches on 
rudely improvised "travois" across the snow, which lay unusu- 
ally deep that winter, until he found a sheltered camping-place 
near the Penasco, a branch of the Pecos, where he left his impedi- 
menta under a strong guard, and with the freshest horses and men 
turned back, rightly surmising that the hostiles would have given 
up following him, and would be gathered in their ruined camp, 
bewailing the loss of kindred. 

He had guessed rightly, and at the earliest sign of morning in 
the east was once again leading his men to the attack upon the 
Apaches, who, not 'knowing what to make of such an utterly unex- 
pected onslaught, fled in abject terror, leaving many dead on the 
ground behind them. 

All this did not exactly compensate for the loss of Yeaton, but 
it served to let out some of Cushing's superfluous wrath, and keep 
him from exploding. 

Gushing belonged to a family which won deserved renown dur- 
ing the Wax of the Eebellion. One brother blew up the ram Afbo- 
marlej another died most heroically at his post of duty on the 



battle-field of Gettysburg ; there was still another in the navy 
who died in seryice, I do not remember where ; and the one of 
whom I am speaking, who was soon to die at the hands of the 
Apaches, and deserves more than a passing word. 

He was about five feet seven in height, spare, sinewy, active 
as a cat ; slightly stoop-shouldered, sandy complexion ed, keen 
gray or bluish-gray eyes, which looked you through when he 
spoke and gave a slight hint of the determination, coolness, and 
energy which had made his name famous all over the southwestern 
border. There is an alley named after him in Tucson, and there 
is, or was, when last I saw it, a tumble-down, worm-eaten board 
to mark his grave, and that was all to show where the great 
American nation had deposited the remains of one of its bravest. 

But I am anticipating altogether too much, and should beget- 
ting ready to follow the trail of the marauders. Gushing didn't 
seem to be in any particular hurry about starting, and I soon 
learned that he intended taking his ease about it, as he wanted 
to let the Indians be thrown off their guard completely and imag- 
ine that the whites were not following their trail. Let them 
once suspect that a party was in pursuit, and they would surely 
break up their trail and scatter like quail, and no one then could 
hope to do anything with them. 

Every hoof was carefully looked at, and every shoe tacked on 
tight ; a few extra shoes for the fore-feet were taken along in the 
pack train, with fifteen days 5 rations of coffee, hard tack, and 
bacon, and one hundred rounds of ammunition. 

All that could be extracted from the Mexicans in the way of 
information was pondered over, and submitted to the considera- 
tion of Felmer and Manuel Duran, the guides who were to con- 
duct the column. Some of the Mexican men were composed and 
fully recovered from the effects of their terrible experience, and 
those who were wounded were doing well ; but the women still 
trembled at the mere name of an Apache, and several of them 
did nothing but tell their beads in gratitude to Heaven for the 
miracle of their escape. 

In Arizona, New Mexico, and southwestern Texas it has been 
remarked that one has to ascend the bed of a stream in order to 
get water. This rule is especially true of the Aravaypa. There is 
not a drop, as a usual thing, at its mouth, but if you ascend the 
cafion five or six miles, the current trickles above the sand, and 


a mile or two more will bring yon to a stream of very respectable 
dimensions, flowing over rocky boulders of good size, between 
towering walls which screen from the sun, and amid scenery which 
is picturesque, romantic, and awe-inspiring. The raiders left the 
cafion of the Aravaypa at its most precipitous part, not far from 
the gypsum out-crop, and made a straight shoot for the mouth of 
the San Carlos. This, however, was only a blind, and inside of 
three miles there was no trail left, certainly not going in the direc- 
tion of Mount Turnbull. 

Manuel Duran was not at all worried ; he was an Apache him- 
self, and none of the tricks of the trade had the slightest effect 
upon his equanimity. He looked over the ground carefully. Ah 1 
here is a stone which has been overturned in its place, and here 
some one has cut that branch of mesquite ; and here look ! we 
have it, the shod-hoof track of one of Israel's mules ! There is 
nothing the matter at all. The Apaches have merely scattered 
and turned, and instead of going toward the junction of the Gila 
and the San Carlos, have bent to the west and started straight for 
the mouth of the San Pedro, going down by the head of l)eer 
Creek, and over to the Eock Creek, which rises in the "Dos 
Narices " Mountain, not twelve miles from Grant itself. Patient 
search, watching every blade of grass, every stone or bush, and 
marching constantly, took the command to the mouth of the San 
Pedro, across the Gila, up to the head of the Disappointment 
Creek, in the Mescal Mountains, and over into the foot-hills of 
the Pinal and not into the foot-hills merely, but right across 
the range at its highest point. 

The Apaches were evidently a trifle nervous, and wanted to 
make as big a circuit as possible to bewilder pursuers ; but all 
their dodges were vain. From the top of the Pinal a smoke was 
detected rising in the valley to the north and east, and shortly 
afterward the evidence that a party of squaws and children, 
laden with steamed mescal, had joined the raiders, and no doubt 
were to remain with them until they got home, if they were not 
already home. 

Gushing would hardly wait till the sun had hidden behind the 
Superstition Mountains or the Matitzal before he gave the order 
to move on. Manuel was more prudent, and not inclined to 
risk anything by undue haste. 

He would wait all night before he would risk disappointment in 


an attack upon an enemy whom he had followed so far. Man- 
uel wouldn't allow any of the Americans to come near while he 
made his preparations for peeping over the crest of the " divide." 
Tying a large wisp of palmilla or bear's grass about his head, he 
crawled or wriggled on hands and knees to the position giving 
the best view down the valley, and made all the observations de- 

The night was long and cold and dark, and the men had been 
at least an hour in position overlooking the smouldering fires of 
the enemy, and ready to begin the attaek the moment that it 
should be light enough to see one's hand in front of him, when 
an accidental occurrence precipitated an engagement. 

One of fche old men one of the party of mescal gatherers who 
had joined the returning war-partyfelt cold and arose from his 
couch to stir the embers into a blaze. The light played fitfully 
upon his sharp features and gaunt form, disclosing every muscle. 

To get some additional fuel, he advanced toward the spot 
where Gushing crouched down awaiting the favorable moment for 
giving the signal to fire. The savage suspects something, peers 
ahead a little, and is satisfied that there is danger close by. He 
turns to escape, crying out that the Americans have come, and 
awakening all in the camp. 

The soldiers raised a terrific yell and poured in a volley which 
laid low a number of the Apaches ; the latter scarcely tried to 
fight in the place where they stood, as the light of the fire made 
their presence perfectly plain to the attacking party. So their 
first idea was to seek a shelter in the rocks from which to 
pick ofi the advancing skirmishers. In this they were unsuc- 
cessful, and death and ruin rained down upon them. They 
made the best fight they could, but they could do nothing. 
Manuel saw something curious rushing past him in the gloom. 
He brought rifie to shoulder and fired, and, as it turned out, 
killed two at one shot a great strong warrior, and the little 
boy of five or six years old whom he had seized, and was trying 
to "hurry to a place of safety, perched upon his shoulders. 

It was a ghastly spectacle, a field of blood won with but slight 
loss to ourselves. But I do not care to dilate upon the scene, as 
it is my intention to give only a meagre outline description of 
what Arizona was like prior to the assignment of General Crook 
to the command. The captured women and boys stated they 


were a band of Finals who had just returned from a raid down 
into Sonora before making the attack upon the wagons of Ken- 
nedy and Israel. Some of their bravest warriors were along, and 
they would have made a determined fight had they not all been 
more or less under the influence of the stuff they had swallowed 
out of the bottles captured with the train. Many had been very 
drunk, and all had been sickened, and were not in condition to 
look out for surprise as they ordinarily did. They had thought 
that by doubling across the country from point to point, any 
Americans who might try to follow would surely be put off the 
scent; they did not know that there were Apaches with the 




OP the return march very little need be said. The story 
would become too long, and there would be needless repe- 
tition if an attempt were to be made to describe each scout in 
detail. There are others to come of much more importance, and 
covering the same region, so that the reader will lose nothing by 
the omission. 

There was the usual amount of rough mountain climbing, 
wearing out shoes and patience and nerve strength all at one and 
the same time ; there was the usual deprivation of water to be 
expected in the arid wastes of southern Arizona, where springs 
are few and far between ; there were the usual tricks for getting 
along without much to drink, such as putting a pebble or twig in 
the mouth to induce a more copious flow of saliva ; and when 
camp was made and the water was found to be not all that it 
might be, there were other tricks for cleaning it, or, at least, caus- 
ing a deposition of the earthy matter held in suspension, by cut- 
ting up a few plates of the nopal and letting them remain in the 
kettle for a short time, until their mucilaginous juice had precip- 
itated everything. But a still better plan was to improve the 
good springs, which was a labor of love with officers and men, 
and many a fine water hole in Arizona has been the scene of 
much hard work in digging out, building up with cracker boxes 
or something to hold the water and keep it from soaking into 
the earth. 


Camp Grant was reached at last/ and the prisoners turned over 
to the care of the guard, and Lieutenant Gushing, his first duty 
in the Territory accomplished with so much credit to himself and 
his men, made ready to start out on another and a longer trip 
just as soon as the signal should be giyen by the post commander. 

Our troop was peculiarly situated. It had a second mount of 
ponies, captured from the Apaches against whom Onshing had 
done such good service in southwestern Texas. Orders came 
down in due time from San Francisco to turn them in and have 
them sold by the quartermaster ; but until these orders came 
and owing to the slowness of mail communications in those days, 
they did not come for several months we had the advantage of 
being able to do nearly twice as much work as troops less fort- 
unately placed. 

The humdrum life of any post in Arizona in those days was 
enough to drive one crazy. The heat in most of them became 
simply unendurable, although here the great dryness of the at- 
mosphere proved a benefit. Had the air been humid, very few 
of our garrison would now be alive to tell of temperatures of one 
hundred and twenty and over, and of days during the whole 
twenty-four hours of which the thermometer did not register 
below the one hundred notch. 

There was a story current that the heat had one time become 
so excessive that two thermometers had to be strapped together 
to let the mercury have room to climb. That was before my 
arrival, and is something for which I do not care to vouch. I 
give the story as it was given to me by my friend, Jack Long, 
of whom I am soon to speak. 

In every description of Arizona that I have ever seen, and I 
claim to be familiar with most if not all that has appeared in 
print, there occurs the story of the soldier who came back to Fort 
Yuma after his blankets, finding the next world too cold to suit 
him. I make reference to the story because many worthy people 
would find it hard to believe that a man had been in Arizona who 
did not tell this story in his first chapter, but it has grown to be 
such a mouldy military chestnut that I may be pardoned for omit- 
ting it. 

There were all kinds of methods of killing the hours. One 
that interested everybody for a while was the battles which we 
stirred up between the nests of red and black ants, which could 


be found in plenty and of great size close to the post. I hare 
Been the nests in question three or four feet high, and not less 
than six feet long, crowded with industrious population. The 
way to start the battle was to make a hole in each nest and 
insert cans which had lately been emptied of peaches or other 


These would soon fill with the battalions of the two colors, 
and could then be poured into a basin, where the combat a 
outrance never failed to begin at once. The red ants were 
much the braver, and one of that color would tackle two, and 
even three, of the black. If the rumpus lasted for any length of 
time, queens would appear, as if to superintend what was going 
on. At least, that was our impression when we saw the large- 
bodied, yellow-plush insects sallying from the depths of the 


We had not been back in the post a week before we had some- 
thing to talk about. A. Mexican who was doing some work for 
the Government came up to confer with the commanding officer 
as to details. He left the adjutant's office before mid-day, and 
had not gone one thousand yards less, indeed, than rifle-shot 
from the door, when an Apache, lurking in ambush behind a 
clump of palmilla, pierced him through and through with a 
lance, and left him dead, weltering in his own blood. To attempt 
pursuit was worse than useless, and all we could do was to bury 
the victim. 

It was this peculiarity of the Apaches that made them such a 
terror to all who came in contact with them, and had compelled 
the King of Spain to maintain a force of four thousand dragoons 
to keep in check a tribe of naked savages, who scorned to wear 
any protection against the bullets of the Oastilians, who would 
not fight when pursued, "but scattered like their own crested 
mountain quail, and then hovered on the flanks of the whites, 
and were far more formidable when dispersed than when they 
were moving in compact bodies. This was simply the best mil* 
itary policy for the Apaches to adopt wear out the enemy by 
vexatious tactics, and by having the pursuit degenerate into a 
will-o'-th'-wisp chase. The Apaches could find food on every hill- 
side, and the water-holes, springs, and flowing streams far up in 
the mountains were perfectly well known to them. 

The Caucasian troops, of whatever nationality, would wander 


about, half -crazed with thirst, and maddened by the heat of the 
day or chilled by the cold winds of night in the mountains,, and 
unable to tell which plants were of value as food and which 
were not. 

The Apache was in no sense a coward. He knew his business, 
and played his cards to suit himself. He never lost a shot, and 
never lost a warrior in a fight where a brisk run across the 
nearest ridge would save his life and exhaust the heavily clad 
soldier who endeavored to catch him. Apaches in groups of two 
and three, and even individual Apaches, were wont to steal in 
close to the military posts and ranches, and hide behind some 
sheltering rock, or upon the summit of some conveniently sit- 
uated hill, and there remain for days, scanning the movements 
of the Americans below, and waiting for a chance to stampede 
a herd, or kill a herder or two, or " jump" a wagon-train. 

They knew how to disguise themselves so thoroughly that one 
might almost step upon a warrior thus occupied before he could 
detect his presence. Stripped naked, with head and shoulders 
wrapped up in a bundle of yucca shoots or " sacaton " grass, and 
with body rubbed over with the clay or sand along which it 
wriggled as sinuously and as venomously as the rattler itself, the 
Apache could and did approach to within ear-shot of the whites, 
and even entered the enclosures of the military camps, as at Grant 
and Crittenden, where we on several occasions discovered his 
foot-prints alongside the "ollas," or water- jars. 

On such occasions he preferred to employ his lance or bow, 
because these made no sound, and half or even a whole day might 
elapse before the stiffened and bloody corpse of the herder or 
wagoner would be found, and the presence of Indians in the 
vicinity become known. At least twenty such examples could be 
given from my own knowledge, occurring at Prescott, Tucson, 
Camp Grant, Camp Crittenden, Tres Alamos, Florence, William- 
son's Valley, and elsewhere. They were regarded as the natural 
features of the country, and every settler rather expected them as 
a matter of course. Well did Torquemada, the Spanish writer 
(A.JD. 1709), deplore the inability of the Spaniards to make head- 
way against this tribe of naked savages. 

Californians old enough to remember the days when San 
Francisco had a Mining Stock Exchange, may recall the names of 


Lent and Harpending, who were two of the most prominent of the 
members. An expedition, equipped at the expense of these gen- 
tlemen, made its way into Arizona to examine the mining "pros- 
pects " discovered in the vicinity of Fort Bowie. They had to 
come overland, of course, as there were no railroads, and wagons 
had to be taken from Los Angeles, the terminal point of steamer 
navigation, unless people preferred to keep on down to San 
Diego, and then cross the desert, via Fort Yuma, and on up the 
dusty valley of the Gila River to Tucson or Florence. The 
party of which I am now speaking was under the command of 
two gentlemen, one named Gatchell and the other Curtis, from 
the Comstock Mines in Nevada, and had reached and passed the 
picturesque little adobe town of Florence, on the Gila, and was 
progressing finely on the road toward Tucson, when " Cocheis," 
the bold leader of the Chiricahuas, on his march up from Sonora 
to trade stolen horses and have a talk with the Finals, swooped 
down upon them. It was the old, old Arizona story. No one 
suspected danger, because there had been no signs of Indians on 
the trip since leaving the villages of the peaceful Pimas, on the 
Gila, near Maricopa Wells. 

It was a perfect duplication of the Kennedy-Israel affair, 
almost to the slightest details. Mr. Curtis received a bad wound 
in the lungs. Mr. Gatchell was also wounded, but how severely 
I cannot remember, for the very good reason that there was so 
much of that kind of thing going on during the period of my 
stay at Camp Grant that it is really impossible to avoid mixing 
up some of the minor details of the different incidents so closely 
resembling one another. 

When this party reached the post of Camp Grant they could 
easily have demanded the first prize at a tramp show ; they were 
not clothed in rags they were not clothed in anything. When 
they escaped from the wagon-train they were wearing nothing 
but underclothing, on account of the excessive heat of the day ; 
when they got into Camp Grant most of the underwear had 
disappeared, torn off by the cactus, palo verde, mesquite, mescal, 
and other thorny vegetation run against in their flight. Their 
feet evidenced the rough, stony nature of the ground over which 
they had tramped and bumped, and thorns stuck in their legs, 
feet, and arms. There was not much done for these poor 
wretches, all of whom seemed to be gentlemen of education and 


refinement. We shared the misery of the post with them, which 
was about all we could pretend to do. Vacant rooms were found 
for them in the Israel ranch, and there they stayed for a few days, 
just long enough for every one to catch the feyer. 

Before we start out in pursuit of the attacking Apaches, let rne 
relate the story told all over southern Arizona about the spot 
where this G-atchell- Curtis train had been surprised. It was 
known as the scene of the ambuscade of the Miller-Tappan detail, 
and frontier tale-tellers used to while away the sultry hours imme- 
diately after the setting of the sun in relating how the soldiers 
under Carroll had been ambushed and scattered by the onslaught 
of the Apaches, their commander, Lieutenant Carroll, killed at 
the first fire. One of the survivors became separated from his 
comrades in their headlong flight into Camp Grant. What be- 
came of him was never fully known, but he had been seen to 
fall wounded in the head or face, and the soldiers and Mexicans 
seemed to be of but one opinion as to the direction in which he 
had strayed ; so there was no difficulty in getting a band of expert 
trailers* to go out with the troops from the camp, and after bury- 
ing the dead, make search for the missing man. His foot-prints 
were plainly discernible for quite a distance in the hard sand 
and gravel, until they led to a spring or "water-hole," where 
one could plainly read the "sign" that the wounded man had 
stopped, knelt down, drunk, washed his wound, torn off a small 
piece of his blouse, perhaps as a bandage, and written his name 
on a rock in his own blood. 

So far, so good ; the Mexicans who had been in the searching 
party did not object to telling that much, but anything beyond 
was told by a shrug of the shoulders and a " Quien sabe ? " 

One day it happened that Jos6 Maria was in a communicative 
mood, and I induced him to relate what he knew. His story 
amounted to just this: After leaving the "water-hole," the 
wounded man had wandered aimlessly in different directions, 
and soon began to stagger from bush to bush ; his strength was 
nearly gone, and with frequency he had taken a seat on the hard 
gravel under such shade as the mesquites afforded. 

After a while other tracks came in on the trail alongside of 
those of tho man they were the tracks of an enormous mountain 
lion ! The beast had run up and down along the trail for a short 
distance, and then bounded on in the direction taken by the 


wanderer The last few bounds measured twenty-two feet, and 
then there were signs of a struggle, and of SOMETHING having 
been dragged of through the chapparal and over the rocks, and 
that was all. 

Our men were ready for the scout, and so were those of the de- 
tachment of " K Troop, First Cavalry, who were to form part 
of our expedition a gallant troop and a fine regiment. 

The quarters were all in bustle and confusion, and even at their 
best would have looked primitive and uncouth. They were made 
of unhewn logs set upright into the ground and chinked with 
mud, and roofed in the same early English style, with the addi- 
tion of a ceiling of old pieces of canvas to keep the centipedes 
from dropping down. . 

On the walls were a couple of banjos, and there were intima- 
tions that the service of the troop had been of a decidedly active 
nature, in the spoils of Apache villages clustered against the cot- 
tonwood saplings. There were lances with tips of obsidian, and 
others armed with the blades of old cavalry sabres ; quivers of 
coyote and mountain lion skin filled with arrows, said by the 
Mexican guides to be poisonous ; and other relics of aboriginal 
ownership in raw-hide playing-cards, shields, and one or two of 
the century-plant fiddles. 

The gloom of the long sleeping room was relieved by the bright 
colors of a few Navajo blankets, and there hung from the rafters 
large earthenware jars, called "ollas/' the manufacture of the 
peaceful Papagoes, in which gallons of water cooled by rapid 

There were no tin wash-basins, but a good substitute was found 
in the pretty Apache baskets, woven so tightly of grasses and roots 
that water could no more leak through them than it could through 
the better sort of the Navajo blankets. A half a dozen, maybe 
more, of the newspaper illustrations and cartoons of the day were 
pasted in spots where they would be most effective, and over in 
the coolest corner was the wicker cage of a pet mocking-bird. 
There were other pets by this time in the Apache children cap- 
tured in the skirmishes already had with the natives. The two 
oldest of the lot" Sunday and "Dandy Jim" were never 
given any dinner until they had each first shot an arrow into the 
neck of an olive-bottle inserted into one of the adobe walls of the 


quartermaster's corral. The ease with which these youngsters not 
over nine or ten years old did this used to surprise me, but it 
seemed to make them regard the Americans as a very peculiar 
people for demanding such a slight task. 

Out on the trail again, down the San Pedro and over the Gila, 
but keeping well to the west until we neared the Mineral Creek 
country ; then up across the lofty Final Kange, on whose summits 
the cool breezes were fragrant with the balsamic odors of the 
tall, straight pines, over into the beautiful little nook known as 
Mason's Valley, in which there was refreshing grass lor the ani- 
mals and a trickling stream of pure water to slake their thirst. 
Then back to the eastward until we struck the waters of the 
Final Creek, and had followed it down to the " Wheat Fields/' 
and still no signs of Indians. The rainy season had set in, and 
every track was obliterated almost as soon as made. 

One night we bivouacked at a spot not far from where the 
mining town of Globe now stands, and at a ledge of rocks which 
run across the valley of Final Creek, but part for a few feet to 
permit the feeble current to flow through. The sky was com- 
paratively clear, a few clouds only flitting across the zenith. 
Back of us, hanging like a shroud over the tops of the Final, 
were heavy, black masses, from whose pendulous edges flashed 
the lightning, and from whose cavernous depths roared and 
growled the thunder. 

"That looks very much like a cloud-burst coming/' * said 
Cushing ; " better be on the safe side, anyhow." So he gave or- 
ders to move all the bedding and all the supplies of the pack- 
train higher up the side of the hill. The latter part of the order 
was obeyed first, and almost if not quite all the ammunition, 
bacon, coffee, and sugar had been carried out of reach of possible 
danger, and most of the blankets and carbines had been shifted 
everything, in fact, but the hard tack when we noticed that the 
volume of water in the creek had unaccountably increased, and 
the next moment came the warning cry : " Look out ! Here she 
comes ! " A solid wall of water I do not care to say how many 
feet high was rushing down the cafion, sweeping all before it, 
and crushing a path for itself over the line along which our 
blankets had been spread so short a time previously. 

The water didn't make very much noise. There was no sound 


but a SISH ! That meant more than my pen can say. All that 
we had carried to the higher slopes of the canon side was saved. 
All that we had not been able to move was swept away, but there 
was nothing of value to any one excepting a mule belonging to 
one of the guides, which was drowned, and a lot of harness or 
rigging from the pack-train, which, with the hard tack, found a 

watery grave. 

Gushing, too, would have been swept off in the current had he 
not been seized in the strong grasp of Sergeant Warneld and 
" Big Dan Miller/' two of the most powerful men in the troop. 
The rain soaked through us all night, and we had to make the 
best of it until dawn, when we discovered to our great surprise 
and satisfaction that the stream, which had been gorged between 
the rocks at our camp, widened below, and this had allowed the 
current to expand and to slacken, dropping here and there in the 
valley most of the plunder which was of consequence to us, espe- 
cially the hard bread. 

All this meant an exasperating delay of twenty-four hours to 
dry our blankets upon the rocks, and to spread out our sodden 
food, and save as much of it as we could from mildew. 

From there we made a detour over to Pinto Creek, where I 
may inform those of my readers who take an interest in such 
things, there are one or two exceptionally well-preserved cliff- 
dwellings, which we examined with much cnriosity. 

Not far from there we came upon the corn-fields of a band of 
Apaches, and destroyed them, eating as many of the roasting ears 
as we could, and feeding the rest to our stock. 

Such were the military instructions of twenty and twenty-five 
years ago. As soldiers we had to obey, even if we could feel that 
these orders must have been issued under a misconception of the 
Indian character. The more the savage is attached to the soil by 
the ties of a remunerative hushandry, the more is he weaned 
from the evil impulses which idleness engenders. This proposi- 
tion seems just as clear as that two and two make four, but some 
people learn quickly, and others learn slowly, and preachers, 
school-teachers, and military people most slowly of all. 

Our presence was discovered by the Apache look-outs before 
we were able to effect a surprise, or, to be candid, we stumbled in 
upon the nook, or series of nooks., in which this planting was 
going on ? and beyond exchanging a few shots and wounding, as 


we learned afterward, a couple of the young men, did not do 
much at that moment ; but we did catch two squaws, from whom 
some information was extracted. 

They agreed to lead us to where there was another " ranche- 
ria " a few miles off, in another caflon over toward Tonto Creek. 
We found the enemy, sure enough, but in such an inaccessible 
position, up among lofty hills covered with a dense jungle of 
scrub oak, that we could do nothing beyond firing shots in reply 
to those directed against us, and were so unfortunate as to lose 
our prisoners, who darted like jack-rabbits into the brush, and 
were out of sight in a flash. Why did we not catch them again ? 
Oh, well, that is something that no. one could do but the gentle 
reader. The gentle reader generally is able to do more than the 
actors on the ground, and he may as well be allowed a monopoly 
in the present case. 

We growled and grumbled a good deal at our hard luck, and 
made our way to the Mesquite Springs, where the ranch of Ar- 
chie Mac Infcosh has since been erected, and there went into camp 
for the night. Early the next morning we crossed the Salt Eiver 
and ascended the Tonto Creek for a short distance, passing 
through a fertile valley, once well settled by a tribe whose stone 
houses now in ruins dotted the course of the stream, and whose 
pottery, stone axes, and other vestiges, in a condition more or less 
perfect, could be picked up in any quantity. We turned back, 
recrossed the Salt or Salado, and made a long march into the 
higher parts of the Sierra Apache, striking a fresh trail^ and fol- 
lowing it energetically until we had run it into the camp of a 
scouting party of the First Cavalry, from Camp MacDowell, under 
Colonel George B. Sanford, who had had a fight with these same 
Indians the previous day, and killed or captured most of them. 

Sanford and his command treated us most kindly, and made us 
feel at home with them. They did not have much to offer be- 
yond bacon and beans ; but a generous, hospitable gentleman can 
offer these in a way that will make them taste like canvas-back 
and terrapin. When we left Sanford, we kept on in the direc- 
tion of the Sombrero Butte and the mouth of Cherry Creek, to 
the east, and then headed for the extreme sources of the San 
Carlos River, a trifle to the south. 

Here we had the good luck to come upon a village of Apaches, 
who abandoned all they possessed and fled to the rocks as soon 


as our rapid advance was announced in the shrill cries of their 
vedettes perched upon the higher peaks. 

In this place the "medicine-men " had been engaged in some 
of their rites, and had drawn upon the ground hall-completed fig- 
ures of circles, crosses, and other lines which we had no time to 
examine. We looked through the village, whose "jacales" were 
of unusually large size, and while interested in this work the 
enemy began to gather in the higher hills, ready to pick off all 
who might become exposed to their aim. They had soon crawled 
down within very close proximity, and showed great daring in 
coming up to us. I may be pardoned for describing in something 
of detail what happened to the little party which stood with me 
looking down, or trying to look down, into a low valley or collec- 
tion of swales beneath us. Absolutely nothing could be seen but 
the red clay soil, tufted here and there with the Spanish bayonet 
or the tremulous yucca. So well satisfied were we all that no 
Apaches were in the valley that I had already given the order fco 
dismount and descend the steep flanks of the hill to the lower 
ground, but had hardly done so before there was a puff, a noise, 
and a tzit ! all at once, from the nearest clump of sacaton or 
yucca, not more than a hundred yards in front. The bullet 
whizzed ominously between our heads and struck my horse in the 
neck, ploughing a deep but not dangerous wound. 

Our horses, being fresh "broncos," became disturbed, and it 
was all we could do to keep them from breaking away. When 
we had quieted them a little, we saw two of the Apaches stark 
naked, their heads bound up with yucca, and their bodies red 
with the clay along which they had crawled in order ib fire the 
shot scampering for their lives down the valley. 

We got down the hill, leading our horses, and then took after 
the fugitives, all the time yelling to those of our comrades whom 
we could see in advance to head the Indians off. One of the sav- 
ages, who seemed to be the younger of the two, doubled up a side 
ravine, but the other, either because he was run down or because 
he thought he could inflict some damage upon us and then escape, 
remained hidden behind a large mesquite. Our men made the 
grievous mistake of supposing that the Indian's gun was not 
loaded. Only one gun had been seen in the possession of the two 
whom we had pursued, and this having been discharged, we were 
certain that the savage had not had time to reload it. 


It is quite likely that each of the pair had had a rifle, and that 
the young boy, previous to running up the cafion to the left, had 
given his weapon to his elder, who had probably left his own on 
the ground after once firing it. 

Be this as it may, we were greeted with another shot, which 
killed the blacksmith of " K" Troop, First Cavalry, and right 
behind the shot came the big Indian himself, using his rifle as a 
shillelah, beating Corporal Costello over the head with it and 
knocking him senseless, and then turning upon Sergeant Har- 
rington and a soldier of the First Cavalry named Wolf, dealing 
each a blow on the skull, which would have ended them had not 
his strength begun to ebb away with his life-blood, now flowing 
freely from the death-wound through the body which we had 
succeeded in inflicting. 

One horse laid up, three men knocked out, and another man 
killed was a pretty steep price to pay for the killing of this 
one Indian, but we consoled ourselves with the thought that the 
Apaches had met with a great loss in the death of so valiant a 
warrior. We had had other losses on that day, and the hostiles 
had left other dead ; our pack-train was beginning to show signs 
of wear and tear from the fatigue of climbing up and down these 
stony, brush-covered, arid mountain-sides. One of the mules had 
broken its neck or broken its back by slipping off a steep trail, 
and all needed some rest and recuperation. 

From every peak now curled the ominous signal smoke of the 
enemy, and no further surprises would be possible. Not all of the 
smokes were to be taken as signals; many of them might be signs 
of death, as the Apaches at that time adhered to the old custom 
of abandoning a village and setting it on fire the moment one 
of their number died, and as soon as this smoke was seen the 
adjacent villages would send up answers of sympathy. 

Gushing thought that, under all the circumstances, it would 
be good policy to move over to some eligible position where we 
could hold our own against any concentration the enemy might be 
tempted to make against us, and there stay until the excitement 
occasioned by our presence in the country had abated. 

The spring near the eastern base of the Final Mountains, where 
the "killing" of the early spring had taken place, suggested 
itself, and thither we marched as fast as our animals could make 
the trip. But we had counted without our host; the waters 


were so polluted with dead bodies, there were so many skulls In 
the spring itself, that no animal, much less man, would imbibe of 
the fluid. The ground was strewn with bones ribs and arms 
and vertebnB-dragged about by the coyotes, and the smell was 
so vile that, tired as all were, no one felt any emotion but one 
of delight when Gushing gave the order to move on. 

The Apaches had been there to bury their kinsfolk and bewail 
their loss, and in token of grief and rage had set fire to all the 
grass for several miles, and consequently it was to the direct ben- 
efit of all our command, two-footed or four-footed, to keep mov- 
ing until we might find a better site for a bivouac. 

We did not halt until we had struck the San Carlos, some 
thirty-five miles to the east, and about twelve or fourteen miles 
above its junction with the Gila. Here we made camp, intending 
to remain several days. A rope was stretched from one to the 
other of two stout sycamores, and to this each horse and mule 
was attached by its halter. Pickets were thrown out upon the 
neighboring eminences, and a detail from the old guard was 
promptly working at bringing in water and wood for the camp- 
fires. The grooming began, and ended almost as soon as the 
welcome cry of "Supper I" resounded. The coffee was boiling 
hot; the same could be said of the bacon ; the hard tack had 
mildewed a little during the wet weather- to which it had been 
exposed, but there was enough roasted mescal from the Indian 
villages to eke ont our supplies. 

The hoofs and back of every animal had been examined and 
cared for, and then blankets were spread out and all hands made 
ready to turn in. There were no tents, as no shelter was needed, 
but each veteran was wise enough to scratch a little semicircle 
in the ground around his head, to turn the rain should any fall 
during the night, and to erect a wind-brake to screen him from 
the chill breezes which sometimes blew about midnight. 

Although there was not much danger of a night-attack from 
the Apaches, who almost invariably made their onset with the 
first twinkle of the coming dawn in the east, yet a careful watch 
was always kept, to frustrate their favorite game of crawling on 
hands and feet up to the horses, and sending an arrow into the 
herd or the sentinel, as might happen to be most convenient. 

Not far from this camp I saw, for the first time, a fight be- 
tween a tarantula and a "tarantula hawk " Manuel Duran had 


always insisted that the gray tarantula conld whip the black one, 
and that there was something that flew about in the evening that 
could and would make the quarrelsome gray tarantula seek safety 
in abject flight. It was what we used to call in my school-boy 
days "the devils darning-needle " which made its appearance, 
and seemed to worry the great spider very much. The tarantula 
stood up on its hind legs, and did its best to ward off impending 
fate, but it was no use. The "hawk" hit the tarantula in the 
back and apparently paralyzed him, and then seemed to be pull- 
ing at one of the hind legs. I have since been informed that 
there is some kind of a fluid injected into the back of the taran- 
tula which acts as a stupefier, and at the same time the "hawk " 
deposits its eggs there, which, hatching, feed upon the spider. 
For all this I cannot vouch, as I did not care to venture too 
near those venomous reptiles and insects of that region, at least 
not until after I had acquired more confidence from greater fami- 
liarity with them. 

We saw no more Indian "sign" on that trip, which had not 
been, however, devoid of all incident. 

And no sooner had we arrived at Camp Grant than we were out 
again, this time guided by an Apache squaw, who had come into 
the post during our absence, and given to the commanding offi- 
cer a very consistent story of ill-treatment at the hands of her 
people. She said that her husband was dead, killed in a fight 
with the troops, and that she and her baby had not been treated 
with the kindness which they had a right to expect. I do not 
remember in what this ill-treatment consisted, but most likely 
none of the brothers of the deceased had offered to marry the 
widow and care for her and her little one, as is the general cus- 
tom, in which the Apaches resemble the Hebrews of ancient 
times. If the troops would follow her, she would guide them 
into a very bad country, where there was a "rancheria" which 
could be attacked and destroyed very readily. 

So back we went, this time on foot, carrying our rations on * 
our backs, crossing the PifLaleno to the south of the Aravaypa, 
and ascending until we reached the pine forest upon its summit ; 
then down into the valley at the extreme head of the Aravaypa, 
and over into the broken country on the other side of the Gabilan,. 
or Hawk Gallon. 


Everything had happened exactly as the squaw had predicted 
it would, and she showed that she was familiar with the slightest 
details of the topography, and thus increased our confidence in 
what we had to expect to such an extent that she was put in the 
lead, and we followed on closely, obeying all her directions and 
instructions. Our men refrained from whistling, from talking 
almost, I might say, from breathing because she insisted 
upon such perfect silence while on the march. There were 
few instructions given, and these were passed from mouth to 
mouth in whispers. No one dared strike a match, lest the flash 
should alarm some of the enemy's pickets. We had no pack- 
train, and that great source of noise the shouting of packers 
to straying mules was done away with. All our rations were 
on our own backs, and with the exception of one led mule, 
loaded with a couple of thousand rounds of extra ammunition, 
we had absolutely nothing to impede the most rapid march. 
We walked slowly over the high mountains, and down into deep 
ravines, passing through a country which seemed well adapted 
for the home of Indians. There were groves of acorn-bearing 
oaks, a considerable amount of mescal, Spanish bayonet, some 
mesquite, and a plenty of grasses whose seeds could be gathered 
by the squaws in their long, conical baskets, and then ground 
between two oblong, half-round stones into a meal which would 
make a pretty good mush. 

It was very dark and quite chilly as dawn drew nigh, and 
every one was shivering with cold and hunger and general ner- 
vous excitement. The squaw whispered that we were close upon 
the site of the " rancheria," which was in a little grassy amphi- 
theatre a short distance in front. Slowly we drew nearer and 
nearer to the doomed village, and traversed the smooth, open 
place whereon the young bucks had been playing their great 
game of "mushka/' in which they roll a hoop and then throw 
lance staves to fall to the ground as the hoop ceases to roll. Very 
near this was a slippery-faced rock either slate or basalt, the 
darkness did not permit a close examination down which the 
children had been sliding to the grass, and, just within biscuit- 
throw, the " jacales" of saplings and branches. 

Two of our party crawled up to the village, which preserved an 
ominous silence. There were no barking dogs, no signs of fire, 
no wail of babes to testify to the presence of human or animal 








life in one word, the Apaches had taken the alarm and aban- 
doned their habitation. But they did not leaye us shivering long 
in doubt as to where they had gone, but at once opened from the 
peaks with rifles, and at the first fire wounded two of our men. 
It was entirely too dark for them to do much harm,, and utterly 
beyond our power to do anything against them. Their position 
was an impregnable one on the crest of the surrounding ridges, 
and protected by a heavy natural cJieval defrise of the scrub oak 
and other thorny vegetation of the region. 

Gushing ordered the command to fall back on the trail and 
take up position on the hill in the pass overlooking the site of 
the " rancheria." This we did without difficulty and without 
loss. The Apaches continued their firing, and would have made 
us pay dear for our rashness in coming into their home had not 
our withdrawal been covered by a heavy fog, which screened the 
flanks of the mountains until quite a late hour in the morning, 
something very unusual in Arizona, which is remarkably free 
from mists at all seasons. 

Indignation converged upon the wretched squaw who had in- 
duced us to come into what had all the appearance of a set am- 
buscade. The men had bound her securely, and a rope was now 
brought out a lariat and cries were heard on all sides to Cf hang 
her, hang her ! " It is easy to see now that she may have been 
perfectly innocent in her intentions, and that it was not through 
collusion with the people in the village, but rather on account of 
her running away from them, that the Apaches had been on the 
look-out for an advance from the nearest military post ; but on 
that cold, frosty morning, when all were cross and tired and 
vexed with disappointment, it looked rather ominous for the 
woman for a few minutes. 

She was given the benefit of the doubt, and to do the men 
justice, they were more desirous of scaring than of killing her 
for her supposed treachery. She stuck to her story ; she was 
dissatisfied with her people on account of bad treatment, and 
wanted to lead us to a surprise of their home. She did not pre- 
tend to say how it came about that they were ready for us, but 
said that some of their young men out hunting, or squaws out 
cutting and burning mescal, might have seen us coming up the 
mountain, or " cut " our trail the night previous, and given the 
alarm. She would stay with us as long as we chose to remain in 



those hills, but her opinion was that nothing could now be done 
with the people of that " rancheria/' because the whole country 
would be alarmed with signal smokes, and every mountain would 
have a picket on the look-out for us. Better return to the camp 
and wait until everything had quieted down, and then slip out 

There was still a good deal of growling going on, and not all 
of the men were satisfied with her talk. They shot angry glances 
at her, and freely expressed their desire to do her bodily harm, 
which threats she could perfectly understand without needing 
the slightest knowledge of our language. To keep her from 
slipping off as the two other squaws had done a fortnight pre- 
viously, she was wrapped from head to feet with rope, so that it 
was all she could do to breathe, much less think of escaping. 
Another rope fastened her to a palo verde close to the little fire 
at which our coffee was made, and alongside whose flickering 
embers the sentinel paced as night began to draw its curtains 
near, She lay like a log, making not the slightest noise or move- 
ment, but to all appearances perfectly reconciled to the situa- 
tion, and, after a while, fell off into a profound sleep. 

We had what was known as "a running guard/* which means 
that every man in the camp takes his turn at the duty of senti- 
nel during the night. This made the men on post have about 
half to three-quarters of an hour's duty each. Each of those 
posted near the prisoner gave a careful look at her as he began to 
pace up and down near her, and each found that she was sleeping 
calmly and soundly, until about eleven o'clock, or maybe a few 
minutes nearer midnight, a recruit, who had just taken his turn 
on post, felt his elbows pinioned fast behind him and his carbine 
almost wrenched from his grasp. He was very muscular, and 
made a good fight to retain his weapon aud use it, but it fell to 
the ground, and the naked woman plunged down the side of the 
hill straight through the chapparal into the darkness profound. 

Bang ! bang ! sounded his carbine just as soon as he could 
pick it up from the ground where it lay, and bang ! bang ! 
sounded others, as men half-asleep awakened to the belief that 
there was a night attack. This firing promptly ceased upon 
Cushing's orders. There was not the slightest possible use in 
wasting ammunition, and in besides running the risk of hitting 
some of our own people. The squaw had escaped, and that was 


enough. There lay her clothing, and the cocoon-like bundle of 
rope which had bound her. She had wriggled out of her fasten- 
ings,, and sprung upon the sentinel, who was no doubt the least 
vigilant of all whom she had observed, and had tried to snatch 
his weapon from him and thus prevent an alarm being given 
until she had reached the bottom of the hill. All the clothing 
she had on at the moment when she made her rush upon the sen- 
tinel was an old and threadbare cavalry cape which hardly cov- 
ered her shoulders. 

Cold and damp and weary, we started on our homeward trip, 
feeling as spiritless as a brood of half-drowned chickens. Even 
the Irish had become glum, and could see nothing ridiculous in 
our mishap a very bad sign. 

" Blessed are they that expect nothing. " We didn't expect 
and we didn't receive any mercy from our comrades upon getting 
back to the mess, and the sharp tongue of raillery lost none of 
its power when the squaw came iu close upon our heels, saying 
that she could not leave her baby, that her breast cried for it. 
She had told the truth. If we did not believe her story, we 
could kill her, but let her see her baby again. Her desire was 
gratified, and no harm came to her. The ordinary stagnation of 
the post had been interrupted during our absence by the advent 
of an addition to the little circle of captives, and there was 
much curiosity to get a good look at the little black-eyed mite 
which lay cuddled up in the arms of its dusky mother. 

I have purposely withheld mention of the only lady who 
shared the life of Camp Grant with us Mrs. Dodds, the wife of 
Doctor Dodds, our post surgeon, or one of them, because we had 
two medical officers. She was of a very sweet, gentle disposition,, 
and never once murmured or complained, but exerted herself to 
make the life of her husband as comfortable as possible. 

Their quarters had a very cosey look, and one would find it hard 
to believe that those comfortable chairs were nothing but bar- 
rels sawed out to shape and cushioned and covered with chintz. 
That lounge was merely a few packing boxes concealed under 
blankets and mattresses. Everything else in the apartment was 
on the same scale and made of corresponding materials. There 
was a manifest determination to do much with little, and much 
had been done. 

Mrs. Dodds wore her honors as the belle of the garrison with 


becoming graciousness and humility. She received in the kind- 
est spirit the efforts made by all of the rougher sex to render her 
stay among them pleasant and, if possible, interesting. Not a 
day passed that did not find her the recipient of some token of 
regard. It might not always be the most appropriate sort of a 
thing, but that really made very little difference. She accepted 
everything and tried to look as if each gift had been the one for 
which she had been longing during her whole life. She had a rat- 
tlesnake belt, made from one of the biggest and most vicious rep- 
tiles ever seen in the vicinity. She had Apache baskets, war- clubs, 
playing-cards, flutes, fiddles, and enough truck of the same kind 
to load an army-wagon. The largest Gila monsters would have 
been laid at her feet had she not distinctly and emphatically 
drawn the line at Gila monsters. Tarantulas and centipedes, if 
properly bottled, were not objectionable, but the Gila monster 
was more than she could stand, and she so informed intending 
donors. She has been dead a number of years, but it is hardly 
likely that she ever forgot until she drew her last breath the 
days and weeks and months of her existence at Camp Grant. 

Our own stay at the delightful summer resort had come to an 
end. Orders received from department headquarters transferred 
our troop to Tucson, as being a more central location and nearer 
supplies. Lieutenant Gushing was ordered to take the field and 
keep it until further orders, which meant that he was to be free 
to roam as he pleased over any and all sections of the territory 
infested by the Apaches, and to do the best he could against them. 

To a soldier of Cushing's temperament this meant a great deal, 
and it is needless to say that no better selection for such a duty 
could have been made. 

"We were packed up and out of the post in such quick time that 
I do not remember whether it was twelve hours or twenty-four. 
To be sure, we did not have an immense amount of plunder to 
pack. None the less did we work briskly to carry out orders and 
get away in the shortest time possible. 

"We had to leave one of our men in the hospital ; he had acci- 
dentally shot himself in the leg, and was now convalescing from 
the amputation. But the rest were in the saddle and out on the 
road through the Santa Oatalina Canon before you could say 
Jack Robinson. 

And not altogether without regret. There was a bright side 


to the old rookery, which shone all the more lustrously now that 
we were saying farewell. 

We had never felt lonesome by any means. There was always 
something going on, always something to do, always something 
to see. 

The sunrises were gorgeous to look upon at the hour for morn- 
ing stables, when a golden and rosy flush bathed the purple peaks 
of the Pinalefio, and at eventide there were great banks of crim- 
son and purple and golden clouds in the western horizon which 
no painter would have dared depict upon canvas. 

There were opportunities for learning something about miner- 
alogy in the " wash " of the canons, botany on the hill-sides, and 
insect life and reptile life everywhere. Spanish could be picked 
up from Mexican guides and packers, and much that was quaint 
and interesting in savage life learned from an observation of the 
manners of the captives representatives of that race which the 
Americans have so frequently fought, so generally mismanaged, 
and so completely failed to understand. 

There was much rough work under the hardest of conditions, 
and the best school for learning how to care for men and ani- 
mals in presence of a sleepless enemy, which no amount of fc book 
Tarnin' " could supply. 

The distance from Old Camp Grant to Tucson, Arizona, over 
the wagon-road, was fifty-five measured miles. The first half of 
the journey, the first day's march as far as the Cafion del Oro 
has already been described. Erom the gloomy walls of the 
shady canon, in which tradition says gold was found in abun- 
dance in the earliest days of occupation by the Caucasians, the 
wagons rolled rapidly over the Eight-mile Mesa, over some 
slightly hilly and sandy country, until after passing the Eiito, 
when Tucson came in sight and the road became firmer. All 
the way, on both sides of the road, and as far as eye could reach, 
we had in sight the stately mescal, loaded with lovely velvety 
flowers ; the white-plumed Spanish bayonet, the sickly green 
palo verde, without a leaf ; the cholla, the nopal, the mesquite, 
whose " beans " were rapidly ripening in the sultry sun, and the 
majestic "pitahaya," or candelabrum cactus, whose ruby fruit 
had long since been raided upon and carried off by flocks of 
bright-winged humming-birds, than which no fairer or more 
alert can be seen this side of Brazil. The "pitahaya" attains a 


great height in the vicinity of Grant, Tucson, and MacDowell, 
anrl one which we measured by its shadow was not far from fifty- 
five to sixty feet ahoye the ground. 

On this march the curious rider could see much to he remem- 
bered all the days of his life. Piles of loose stones heaped up by 
loving hands proclaimed where the Apaches had murdered their 
white enemies. The projection of a rude cross of mescal or 
Spanish bayonet stalks was evidence that the victim was a Mexi- 
can, and a son of Holy Mother Church. Its absence was no 
index of religious belief, but simply of the nationality being 

Of the weird, blood-chilling tales that were narrated as each 
of these was passed I shall insert only one. It was the story, 
briefly told, of two young men whose train had been attacked, 
whose comrades had been put to flight, and who stood their 
ground resolutely until the arrows and bullets of the foe had 
ended the struggle. When found, one of the bodies was pierced 
with sixteen wounds, the other with fourteen. 

On the left flank, or eastern side, the view was hemmed in 
for the whole distance by the lofty, pine-clad Sierra Santa Cata- 
lina; but to the north one could catch glimpses of the summit 
of the black Final ; to the west there was a view over the low- 
lying Tortolita clear to the dim, azure outlines which, in the 
neighborhood of the Gila Bend, preserved in commemorative 
mesa-top the grim features of Montezuma, as Mexican myth 
fondly averred. 

A little this side was the site of the " Casa Grande," the old 
pile of adobe, which has been quite as carious a ruin in the con- 
templation of the irrepressible Yankee of modern days as it was 
to Coronado and his followers when they approached it under 
the name of " Ohichilticale " more than three centuries and a 
half ago. 

Still nearer was the ee Picacho/' marking the line of the Great 
Southern Mail road ; at its base the ranch of Charlie Shi bell, 
where the stages changed teams and travellers stopped to take 
supper, the scene of as many encounters with the Apaches as any 
other spot in the whole Southwest. Follow along a little more to 
the left, and there comes the Santa Teresa Eange, just back of 
Tucson, and credited by rumors as reliable as any ever brought 
by contraband during the war with being the repository of fabu- 


lous wealth in the precious metals ; but no one has yet had the 
Aladdin's lamp to rub and summon the obedient genii who 
would disclose the secret of its location. 

Far off to the south rises the glistening cone of the Babo- 
quivari, the sacred mountain in the centre of the country of the 
gentle Papagoes, and on the east, as we get down nearer to the 
Riito, the more massive outlines of the Santa Rita peak overshad- 
owing the town of Tucson, and the white, glaring roof of the 
beautiful mission ruin of San Xavier del Bac. 

Within this space marched the columns of the Coronado expe- 
dition, armed to the teeth in all the panoply of grim war, and 
bent on destruction and conquest ; and here, too, plodded meek 
friar and learned priest, the sons of Francis or of Loyola, armed 
with the irresistible weapons of the Cross, the Rosary, and the 
Sacred Text, and likewise bent upon destruction and conquest 
the destruction of idols and the conquest of souls. 

These were no ordinary mortals, whom the imagination may 
depict as droning over breviary or mumbling over beads. They 
were men who had, in several cases at least, been eminent in civil 
pursuits before the whispers of conscience bade them listen to the 
Divine command, "Give up all and follow Me." Eusebio Kino 
was professor of mathematics in the University of Ingoldstadt, 
and had already made a reputation among the scholars of Europe, 
when he relinquished his titles and position to become a member 
of the order of Jesuits and seek a place in their missionary ranks 
on the wildest of frontiers, where he, with his companions, 
preached the word of G-od to tribes whose names even were un- 
known in the Court of Madrid. 

Of these men and their labors, if space allow, we may have 
something to learn a chapter or two farther on. Just now I find 
that all my powers of persuasion must be exerted to convince 
the readers who are still with me that the sand "wash" in 
which we are floundering is in truth a river, or rather a little 
river the " Riito" the largest confluent of the Santa Cruz. 
Could you only arrange to be with me, you unbelieving Thomases, 
when the deluging rains of the summer solstice rush madly 
down the rugged face of the Santa Catalina and swell this dry 
sand-bed to the dimensions of a young Missouri, all tales would 
be more easy for you to swallow. 

But here we are. That fringe of emerald green in the " bot- 


torn " is the barley land surrounding Tucson ; those gently way- 
ing cottonwoods outline the shrivelled course of the Santa Cruz ; 
those trees with the dark, waxy-green foliage are the pome- 
granates behind Juan Fernandez's corral. There is the massive 
wall of the church of San Antonio now; we see streets and 
houses, singly or in clusters, buried in shade or unsheltered from 
the vertical glare of the most merciless of suns. Here are pigs 
staked out to wallow in congenial mirethat is one of the 
charming customs of the Spanish Southwest ; and these ah, yes, 
these are dogs, unchained and running amuck after the heels of 
the horses, another most charming custom of the country. 

Here are " burros " browsing upon tin cans still another in- 
stitution of the country and here are the hens and chickens, and 
the houses of mud, of one story, flat, cheerless, and monotonous 
were it not for the crimson "rastras" of chile which, like medi- 
aeval banners, are flung to the outer wall. And women, young 
and old, wrapped up in "rebosos " and " tapalos," which conceal 
all the countenance but the left eye ; and men enfolded in cheap 
poll-parroUy blankets of cotton, busy in leaning against the 
door-posts and holding up the weight of "sombreros," as large in 
diameter as cart-wheels and surrounded by snakes of silver bul- 
lion weighing almost as much as the wearers. 

The horses are moving rapidly down the narrow street with- 
out prick of spur. The wagons are creaking merrily, pulled by 
energetic mules, whose efforts need not the urging of rifle-crack- 
ing whip in the hands of skilful drivers. It is only because the 
drivers are glad to get to Tucson that they explode the long, 
deadly black snakes, with which they can cut a welt out of the 
flank or brush a fly from the belly of any animal in their team. 
All the men are whistling or have broken out in glad carol. 
Each heart is gay, for we have at last reached Tucson, the 
commercial entrepot of Arizona and the remoter Southwest 
Tucson, the Mecca of the dragoon, the Naples of the desert, 
which one was to see and die ; Tucson, whose alkali pits yielded 
water sweeter than Well of Zemzen, whose maidens were more 
charming, whose society was more hospitable, merchants more 
progressive, magazines better stocked, climate more dreamy, 
than any town from Santa F6 to Los Angeles ; from Hermosillo, 
in Sonora, to the gloomy chasm of the Grand Caflon with one 
exception only : its great rival, the thoroughly American town 


of Prescott, in the bosom of the pine forests, amid the granite 
crags of the foot-hills of the Mogollon. 

Camp Lowell, as the military post was styled, was located oh 
the eastern edge of the town itself. In more recent years it has 
been moved seven or eight miles out to where the Kiito is a flow- 
ing stream. We took up position close to the quartermaster's 
corral, erected such tents as could be obtained, and did much 
solid work in the construction of "ramadas" and other conven- 
iences of branches. As a matter of comfort, all the unmarried 
officers boarded in the town, of which I shall endeavor to give a 
succinct but perfectly fair description as it impressed itself upon 
me during the months of our sojourn in the intervals between 
scouts against the enemy, who kept our hands full. 

My eyes and ears were open to the strange scenes and sounds 
which met them on every side. Tucson was as foreign a town as 
if it were in Hayti instead of within our own boundaries. The 
language, dress, funeral processions, religious ceremonies, feasts, 
dances, games, joys, perils, griefs, and tribulations of its popu- 
lation were something not to be looked for in the region east of 
the Missouri Eiver. I noted them all as well as I knew how, 
kept my own counsel, and give now the resume of my notes of 
the time. 

The "Shoo Fly" restaurant, which offered the comforts of a 
home to the weary wayfarer in Tucson, Arizona, circa 1869, was 
named on the principle of "lucus ft, non lucendo" the flies 
wouldn't shoo worth a cent. Like the poor, they remained always 
with us. But though they might bedim the legend, "Ml meals 
payable in advance/* they could not destroy the spirit of the 
legend, which was the principle upon which our most charming 
of landladies, Mrs. Wallen, did business. 

Mrs. Wallen deserves more than the hasty reference she is 
receiving in these pages. She was a most attentive and well- 
meaning soul, understood the mysteries, or some of the mysteries, 
of the culinary art, was anxious to please, had never seen better 
days, and did not so much as pretend. to have seen any, not even 
through a telescope. 

She was not a widow, as the proprieties demanded under the 
circumstances all landladies that Fve ever read or heard of have 
been widows but the circumstance that there was a male attached 
to the name of Wallen did not cut much of a figure in the case, 


as it was a well-understood fact that Mrs. Wallen was a woman 
of nerve and bound to have her own way in all things. Conse- 
quently, the bifurcated shadow which flitted about in the corral 
feeding the chickens, or made its appearance from time to time 
in the kitchen among the tomato peelings, did not make a very 
lasting impression upon either the regulars or the "mealers," 
the two classes of patrons upon whose dollars our good hostess 
depended for the support of her establishment. 

One line only will be needed to lay before the reader the inte- 
rior view of the "Shoo Fly." It was a long, narrow, low-ceiled 
room of adobe, whose walls were washed in a neutral yellowish 
tint, whose floor was of rammed earth and ceiling of white mus- 
lin. Place here and there, in convenient positions, eight or ten 
tables of different sizes ; cover them with cheap cloths, cheap 
china and glass I use the term " cheap " in regard to quality 
only, and not in regard to the price, which had been dear enough, 
as everything was in those days of freighting with mule and 
"bull" teams from Leavenworth and Kit Carson. Place in the 
centre of each table a lead castor with the obsolete yellow glass 
bottles ; put one large, cheap mirror on the wall facing the main 
entrance, and not far from it a wooden clock, which probably 
served some mysterious purpose other than time-keeping, because 
it was never wound up. Have pine benches, and home-made 
chairs, with raw-hide bottoms fastened with strings of the same 
material to the framework. Make the place look decidedly neat 
and clean, notwithstanding the flies and the hot alkali dust which 
penetrated upon the slightest excuse. Bring in two bright, pleas- 
ant-mannered Mexican boys, whose dark complexions were well 
set off by neat white cotton jackets and loose white cotton trou- 
sers, with sometimes a colored sash about the waist. Give each 
of these young men a fly-flapper as a badge of office, and the 
"Shoo Fly" is open for the reception of guests. 

Napkins designated the seats of the regular boarders. " Meal- 
ers " were not entitled to such distinction and never seemed to 
expect it. There was no bill of fare. None was needed. 
Boarders always knew what they were going to get same old 
thing. There never was any change during all the time of my 
acquaintance with the establishment, which, after all is said and 
done, certainly contrived to secure for its patrons all that the 
limited market facilities of the day afforded. Beef was not 


always easy to procure, but there was no lack of bacoa, chicken, 
mutton, and kid meat. Potatoes ranked as luxuries of the 
first class., and never sold for less than tea cents a pound, and 
often could not be had for love or money. The soil of Ari- 
zona south of the Gila did not seem to suit their growth, but 
now that the Apaches have for nearly twenty years been docile 
in northern Arizona, and left its people free from terror and 
anxiety, they have succeeded in raising the finest ""Murphies" in 
the world in the damp lava soil of the swales upon the summit 
of the great Mogollon Plateau. 

There was plenty of ''jerked" beef, savory and palatable 
enough in stews and hashes ; eggs, and the sweet, toothsome black 
"frijoles" of Mexico; tomatoes equal to those of any part of 
our country, and lettuce always crisp, dainty, and delicious. 
For fresh fruit, our main reliance was upon the "burro" trains 
coming up from the charming oasis of Hermosillo, the capital 
of Sonora a veritable garden of the Hesperides, in which 
Nature was most lavish with her gifts of honey-juiced oranges, 
sweet limes, lemons, edible quinces, and luscious apricots ; but 
the apple, the plum, and the cherry were unknown to us, and 
the strawberry only occasionally seen. 

Yery frequently the presence of Apaches along the road would 
cause a panic in trains coming up from the south, and then 
there would be a fruit famine, during which our sole reliance 
would be upon the mainstay of boarding-house prosperity 
stewed peaches and prunes. There were two other articles of 
food which could be relied upon with reasonable certainty the 
red beet, which in the " alkali " lands attains a great size, and 
the black fig of Mexico, which, packed in ceroons of cow's hide, 
often was carried about for sale. 

Chile Colorado entered into the composition of every dish, and 
great, velvety-skinned, delicately flavored onions as large as din- 
ner plates ended the list that is to say, the regular list. On 
some special occasion there would be honey brought in from the 
Tia Juana Ranch in Lower California, three or four hundred 
miles westward, and dried shrimps from the harbor of Guaymas. 
In the harbor of G-uaymas there are oysters, too, and they are not 
bad, although small and a trifle coppery to the taste of those who 
try them for the first time. Why we never had any of them was, 
I suppose, on account of the difficulty of getting them through 


in good condition without ice, so we had to be content with the 
canned article, which was never any too good. From the Eio 
Grande in the neighborhood of El Paso there came the "pasas," 
or half-dried grape, in whose praise too much could not be said. 

The tables were of pine, of the simplest possible construction. 
All were bad enough, but some were a trifle more rickety than 
others. The one which wobbled the least was placed close to the 
north side of the banqueting-hall, where the windows gave the 
best "view." 

Around this Belshazzarian board assembled people of such con- 
sideration as Governor Safford, Lieutenant- Governor Bashford, 
Chief-Justice John Titus, Attorney-General MacCaffrey, the gen- 
ial Joe Wasson, Tom Ewing, and several others. I was on a 
number of occasions honored with a seat among them, and en- 
joyed at one and the same moment their conversation and the 
" view " of which I have spoken. 

There was a foreground of old tin tomato cans, and a middle 
distance of chicken feathers and chile peppers, with a couple of 
*' burros " in the dim perspective, and the requisite flitting of 
lights and shadows in the foliage of one stunted mesquite-bush, 
which sheltered from the vertical rays of the sun the crouching 
form of old Juanita, who was energetically pounding between 
smooth stones the week's washing of the household, and supply- 
ing in the gaudy stripes of her bright " serape " the amount of 
color which old-school critics used to maintain was indispensable 
to every landscape. 

Juanita was old and discreet, but her thoughts were not alto- 
gether on the world to come. Her face was ordinarily plastered 
with flour-paste, the cosmetic of the Southwest. Why this at- 
tention to her toilet, the wisest failed to tell. Often did I assure 
her that nothing could improve her complexion a statement not 
to be controverted and never did she fail to rebuke me with her 
most bewitching smile, and the words, " Ah ! Don Juan, you're 
such a flatterer/" 

The gentlemen whose names I have just given are nearly till 
dead or so well advanced in years and dignity that what I have 
to say now will not sound like flattery. They had each and all 
travelled over a great deal of the earth's surface, and several of 
them were scholars of ripe learning. I was much younger then 
fchan I am now, and of course the attainments of men so much 


older than myself made a deep impression upon me, but even to 
this day I would place the names of Titus and Bashford in the 
list of scholars of erudition whom I have known, and very high 
up in the list, too. 

The remainder of the patrons seemed to be about evenly di- 
vided between the cynical grumblers who, having paid their score 
with regularity, arrogated to themselves the right to asperse the 
viands ; and the eulogists who, owing to temporary financial em- 
barrassments, were unable to produce receipts, and sought to 
appease their not by any means too hard-hearted landlady by the 
most fulsome adulation of the table and its belongings. 

Like the brokers of Wall Street who are bulls to-day and bears 
to-morrow, it not infrequently happened among the " Shoo 
Fly's " patrons that the most obdurate growler of last week 
changed front and assumed position as the Advocatus Diaboli of 

But, take them for all in all, they were a good-hearted, whole- 
souled lot of men, who had roughed it and smoothed it in all 
parts of the world, who had basked in the smiles of Fortune 
and had not winced at her frown ; a trifle too quick on the trig- 
ger, perhaps, some of them, to be perfectly well qualified to act as 
Sunday-school superintendents, yet generous to the comrade in 
distress and polite to all who came near them. The Western man 
the Pacific Sloper especially is much more urbane and courte- 
ous under such circumstances than his neighbor who has grown 
up on the banks of the Delaware or Hudson. There was bitter 
rivalry between Mrs, Wallen and Mr. Neugass, the proprietor of 
the " Palace " a rivalry which diffused itself among their respec- 
tive adherents. 

I make the statement simply to preserve the record of the 
times, that the patrons of the " Shoo Fly" never let go an oppor- 
tunity to insinuate that the people to be met at the " Palace " 
were, to a large extent, composed of the "nouveaux riches." 
There was not the slightest foundation for this, as I can testify, 
because I afterward sat at Neugass's tables, when Mrs. Wallen 
had retired from business and gone into California, and can re- 
call no difference at all in the character of the guests. 

Tucson enjoyed the singular felicity of not possessing any- 
thing in the shape of a hotel. Travellers coming to town, and 
not provided with letters which would secure them the hospital- 


ity of private houses, craved the privilege of "making down " 
their blankets in the most convenient corral, and slept till early 
morn, undisturbed save by the barking of dogs, which never 
ceased all through the night, or the crowing of loud-Yoiced 
chanticleers, which began ere yet the dawn had signalled with 
its first rosy flush from the peak of the Santa Eita. It was the 
customary thing for wagon trains to halt and go into camp in 
the middle of the plaza in front of the cathedral church of San 
Antonio, and after the oxen or mules had been tied to the wheels, 
the drivers would calmly proceed to stretch out tired limbs in the 
beautiful moonlight. 

I never could see the advantage of such a state of affairs, and 
felt that it belittled the importance of the town, which really did 
a very large business with the surrounding country for hundreds 
of miles. There are always two and even three different ways of 
looking at the same proposition, and to Bob Crandall and Vet 
Howry this manner of camping "a la belle etoile" was the one 
thing "to which they pointed with pride/' It was proof of the 
glorious climate enjoyed by Tucson. Where else in the whole 
world, sir, could a man camp out night after night all the year 
round ? Was it in Senegambia ? No, sir. In Nova Zembla ? 
No, sir. In Hong Kong ? No, sir. In Ireland ? but by this 
time one could cut off the button, if necessary, and break away. 

So there were only three places in which people could get 
acquainted with one another in the "Shoo Fly" or "Palace" 
restaurants ; in the gambling resorts, which never closed, night or 
day, Sunday or Monday ; and at the post-office, in the long line 
of Mexicans and Americans slowly approaching the little square 
window to ask for letters. 

For the convenience of my readers and myself, I will take the 
liberty of presenting some of my dead and gone friends in the 
4 * Shoo Fly," where we can have seats upon which to rest, and 
tables upon which to place our elbows, if we so desire. 

But first a word or two more about Tucson itself. 

It was in those days the capital of the Territory of Arizona, 
and the place of residence of most of the Federal officials. Its 
geographical situation was on the right bank of the pretty little 
stream called the Santa Cruz, a mile or more above where it ran 
into the sands. In round figures, it was on the 32d degree of 
north latitude, and not far from the 112th degree west from 


Greenwich. The valley of the Santa Cruz, although not much 
over a mile and a half wide, is wonderfully fertile, and will yield 
bountifully of all cereals, as well as of the fruits of the south 
temperate or north tropical climes, and could easily have sup- 
ported a much larger population, but on account of the bitter 
and unrelenting hostilities waged by the Apaches, not more than 
3,200 souls could be claimed, although enthusiasts often deluded 
themselves into a belief in much higher figures, owing to the 
almost constant presence of trains of wagons hauled by patient 
oxen or quick-moving mules, or "carretas" drawn by the philo- 
sophical donkey or " burro " from Sonora. The great prairie- 
schooners all the way from the Missouri River made a very 
imposing appearance, as, linked two, and even three, together, 
they rolled along with their heavy burdens, to unload at the 
warehouses of the great merchants, Lord & Williams, Tully, 
Ochoa & De Long, the Zeckendorfs, Fish & Collingwood, Leo- 
poldo Carrillo, or other of the men of those days whose trans- 
actions ran each year into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. 

Streets and pavements there were none ; lamps were unheard 
of ; drainage was not deemed necessary, and water, when not 
bought from the old Mexican who hauled it in barrels in a di- 
lapidated cart from the cool spring on the bishop's farm, was 
obtained from wells, which were good and sweet in the first months 
of their career, but generally became so impregnated with " alkali" 
that they had to be abandoned ; and as lumber was worth twenty- 
five cents a foot, and therefore too costly to be used in covering 
them, they were left to dry up of their own accord, and remain a 
menace to the lives and limbs of belated pedestrians. There was 
no hint in history or tradition of a sweeping of the streets, which 
were every bit as filthy as those of New York. 

The age of the garbage piles was distinctly defined by geological 
strata. In the lowest portion of all one could often find arrow- 
heads and stone axes, indicative of a pre-Columbian origin ; super- 
imposed conformably over these, as the geologists used to say, were 
skins of chile Colorado, great pieces of rusty spurs, and other re- 
liquiae of the " Conquistadores," while high above all, stray cards, 
tomato cans, beer bottles, and similar evidences of a higher and 
nobler civilization told just how long the Anglo-Saxon had called 
the territory his own. 

This filthy condition of the streets gaye rise to a weird system 


of topographical designation. " You want to find the Governor's ? 
Wa'al, podner, jest keep right down this yere street past the Pal- 
ace sloon, till yer gets ter the second manure-pile on yer right ; 
then keep to yer left past the post-office, V yer'll see a dead burro 
in th 3 middle of th' road, 'n' a mesquite tree 'n yer lef , near a 
Mexican ' tendajon ' (small store), 'n' jes' beyond that 's the 
G-ov.'s outfit. Can't miss it. Look out fur th' dawg down ter 
Mufioz's corral; he '& a salviated son OY a gun." 

It took some time for the ears of the "tenderfoot" just out 
from the States to become habituated to the chronology of that 
portion of our vast domain. One rarely heard months, days, or 
weeks mentioned. The narrator of a story had a far more con- 
venient method of referring back to dates in which his auditory 
might be interested. " J~es' about th' time Pete Kitchen's ranch 
was jumped " which wasn't very satisfactory, as Pete Kitchen's 
ranch was always getting " jumped. " " Th' night afore th' Mar- 
icopa stage war tuck in. " " A week or two arter Winters made 
his last ' killin' ' in th 9 Dragoons." "Th' last fight down to th' 
Picach." ' ' Th' year th' Injuns run off Tully, Ochoa V DeLong 
bull teams." 

Or, under other aspects of the daily life of the place, there 
would be such references as, " Th' night after Duffield drawed his 
gun on Jedge Titus " a rather uncertain reference, since Duffield 
was always " drawin' his gun" on somebody. " Th' time of th' 
feast (i.e., of Saint Augustine, the patron saint of the town), 
when Bob Crandall broke th' ' Chusas ' game fur six hundred 
dollars," and other expressions of similar tenor, which replaced 
the recollections of " mowing time," and i harvest," and " sheep- 
shearing " of older communities. 

Another strain upon the unduly excitable brain lay in the im- 
possibility of learning exactly how many miles it was to a given 
point, ft wasn't " fifty miles," or " sixty miles," or " just a trifle 
beyond the Oienaga, and that 's twenty-five miles," but rather, 
fi Jes* on th' rise of the mesa as you git to th' place whar Saman- 
iego's train stood off th' Apaches ; " or, " A little yan way from 
whar they took in Colonel Stone's stage ; " or, " Jes' whar th' big 
'killin" tuk place on th' long mesa/' and much more of the 
same sort. 

There were watches and clocks in the town, and some Ameri- 
cans went through the motions of consulting them at intervals. 


So far as influence upon the community went, they might just as 
well have been in the bottom of the Eed Sea. The divisions of the 
day were regulated and determined by the bells which periodi- 
cally clanged in. front of the cathedral church. When they rang 
out their wild peal for early Mass, the little world by the Santa 
Cruz rubbed its eyes, threw off the slight covering of the night, 
and made ready for the labors of the day. The alarm clock of the 
Gringo might have been sounding for two hours earlier, but not 
one man, woman, or child would haye paid the slightest attention 
to the cursed invention of Satan. When the Angelus tolled at 
meridian, all made ready for the noon-day meal and the post- 
prandial siesta ; and when the hour of vespers sounded, adobes 
dropped from the palsied hands of listless workmen, and docile 
Papagoes, wrapping themselves in their pieces of "manta" or 
old "rebosos," turned their faces southward, mindful of the 
curfew signal learned from the early missionaries. 

They were a singular people, the Papagoes ; honest, laborious, 
docile, sober, and pure not an improper character among them. 
Only one white man had ever been allowed to marry into the tribe 
Buckskin Aleck Stevens, of Cambridge, Mass., and that had 
to be a marriage with -bell, book, and candle and every formality 
to protect the bride. 

I do not know anything about the Papagoes of to-day, and am 
prepared to hear that they have sadly degenerated. The Ameri- 
cans have had twenty years in which to corrupt them, and the inti- 
macy can hardly have been to the advantage of the red man. 





EE yar, muchacho, move roun' lively now, V git me a 
Jinny Lin J steak." It was a strong, hearty voice which 
sounded in my ears from the table just behind me in the " Shoo 
Fly/' and made me mechanically turn about, almost as much 
perplexed as was the waiter-boy, Miguel, by the strange request. 

" Would you have any objection, sir, to letting me know what 
you mean by a Jenny Lind steak ? n 

" A Jinny Lin* steak, mee son, 's a steak cut from off a hoss's 
upper lip. I makes it a rule allers to git what I orders ; V ez 
far 'B I kin see, 111 get a Jinny Lin' steak anyhow in this yere 
outfit, so Fm kinder takin' time by the fetlock, V orderin' jes* 
what I want. My name's Jack Long ; what mout your'n be ? " 

It was apparent, at half a glance, that Jack Long was not 
"in sassiety," unless it might be a "sassiety " decidedly addicted 
to tobacco, given to the use of flannel instead of " Viled " shirts, 
never without six-shooter on hip, and indulging in profanity by 
the wholesale. 

A better acquaintance with old Jack showed that, like the 
chestnut, his roughest part was on the outside. Courage, ten- 
derness, truth, and other manly attributes peered out from under 
roughness of garb and speech. He was one of Gray's "gems of 
purest ray serene," born in " the dark, unfatliomed caves " of 
frontier isolation. 
Jack Long had not always been " Jack " Long. Once, way 


back in the early fifties, he and his "podners" had struck it rich 
on some "placer" diggings which they had preempted on the 
Yuba, and in less than no time my friend was heralded to the 
mountain communities as ' ' Jedge " Long. This title had never 
been sought, and, in justice to the recipient, it should be made 
known that he discarded it at once, and would none of it. The 
title " Jedge " on the frontier does not always imply respect, and 
Jack would tolerate nothing ambiguous. 

He was bound to be a gentleman or nothing. Before the week 
was half over he was arrayed, not exactly like Solomon, but much 
more conspicuously, in the whitest of " bailed " shirts, in the 
bosom of which glistened the most brilliant diamond cluster pin 
that money could procure from Sacramento. On the warty red 
fingers of his right hand sparkled its mate, and pendent from 
his waist a liberal handful of the old-fashioned seals and keys of 
the time attracted attention to the ponderous gold chain encir- 
cling his neck, and securing the biggest specimen of a watch 
known to fact or fiction since the days of Captain Cuttle. 

Carelessly strolling up to the bar of the " Quartz Bock," the 
" Hanging Wall/' or the " Golden West/' he would say, in the 
cheeriest way : 

" Gents, whatll yer all hey ? It's mine this time, barkeep." 
And, spurning the change obsequiously tendered by the officiat- 
ing genius of the gilded slaughter-house of morality, Jack would 
push back the twenty-dollar gold piece with which he usually 
began his evenings with " the boys/' and ask, in a tone of injured 
pride : ( Is there any use in insultin* a man when he wants to 
treat his friends ? " And barkeeper and all in the den would 
voice the sentiment that a " gent " who was as liberal with his 
double eagles as Colonel Long was a gent indeed, and a man 
anybody could afford to tie to. 

It was the local paper which gave Jack his military title, and 
alluded to the growing demand that the colonel should accept 
the nomination for Congress. And to Congress he would have 
gone, too, had not fickle Fortune turned her back upon her 
whilom favorite. 

Jack had the bad luck to fall in love and to be married not 
for the first time, as he had had previous experience in the same 
direction, his first wife being the youngest daughter of the great 
Indian chief " Cut-Mouth John/' of the Rogue Eiver tribe, who 


ran away from Jack and took to the mountains when her people 
went on the war-path. The then wife was a white woman 
from Missouri, and, from all I can learn, a very good mate for 
Jack, excepting that prosperity turned her head and made her 
very extravagant. So long as Jack's mine was panning out 
freely Jack didn't mind much what she spent, but when it 
petered, and economy became necessary, dissensions soon arose 
between them, and it was agreed that they were not compatible. 

"If you don't like me/' said Mrs. Long one day, "give me 
a divorce and one-half of what you have, and I'll leave you." 

" '^"ufi sed," was Jack's reply, " V here goes/' 

The sum total in the Long exchequer was not quite $200. Of 
this, Jack laid to one side a doable eagle, for a purpose soon to 
be explained. The remainder was divided into two even piles, 
one of which was handed over to his spouse. The doors of the 
wardrobe stood open, disclosing all of Jack's regal raiment. He 
seized a pair of trousers, tore them leg from leg, and then served 
in much the same way every coat, waistcoat, or undergarment he 
owned. One pile of remnants was assigned to the stupefied 
woman, who ten minutes previously had been demanding a sep- 

Before another ten had passed her own choicest treasures had 
shared the same fate, and her ex-liege lord was devoting his 
attention to breaking the cooking stove, with its superstructure of 
pots and pans and kettles, into two little hillocks of battered 
fragments ; and no sooner through with that than at work saw- 
ing the tables and chairs in half and knocking the solitary mirror 
into smithereens. 

< < Thar yer are," said Jack. " Ye V got half th' money, V yer 
kin now tek yer pick o' what's left/' 

The stage had come along on its way down to Sacramento, and 
Jack hailed the driver. "Mrs. Long's goin' down th' road a bit 
ter see some o' her kin, V ter get a breath o' fresh air. Tek her 
ez fur ez this 11 pay fur, V then she'll tell whar else she wants 
ter go." 

And that was Jack Long's divorce and the reason why he left 
the mining regions of California and wandered far and near, 
beginning the battle of life anew as packer and prospector, and 
drifting down into the drainage of the Grila and into the "Shoo 
Ply " restaurant, where we have just met him. 


There shall be many other opportunities of meeting and con- 
versing with old Jack before the campaigning against the 
Apaches is half through, so we need not urge him to remain now 
that he has finished his meal and is ready to sally forth. We 
return heartily the very cheery greeting tendered by the gentle- 
man who enters the dining-room in his place. It is ex-Marshal 
Duffield, a very peculiar sort of a man, who stands credited in 
public opinion with having killed thirteen persons. How much 
of this is truth and how much is pure gossip, as meaningless as 
the chatter of the ^pechotas" which gather along the walls of 
the corral every evening the moment the grain of the horses is 
dealt out to them, I cannot say ; but if the reader desire to learn 
of a unique character in our frontier history he will kindly per- 
mit me to tell something of the only man in the Territory of 
Arizona, and I may say of New Mexico and western Texas as 
well, who dared wear a plug hat. There was nothing so obnox- 
ious in the sight of people living along the border as the black 
silk tile. The ordinary man assuming such an addition to his 
attire would have done so at the risk of his life, but Duffield 
was no ordinary individual. He wore clothes to suit himself, 
and woe to the man who might fancy otherwise. 

Who Duffield was before coming out to Arizona I never could 
learn to my own satisfaction. Indeed, I do not remember ever 
having any but the most languid interest in that part of his 
career, because he kept us so fully occupied in keeping track of 
his escapades in Arizona that there was very little time left for 
investigations into his earlier movements. Yet I do recall the 
whispered story that he had been one of President Lincoln's 
discoveries, and that the reason for his appointment lay in the 
courage Duffield had displayed in the New York riots during the 
war. It seems and I tell the tale with many misgivings, as my 
memory does not retain all the circumstances that Duffield was 
passing along one of the streets in which the rioters were having 
things their own way, and there he saw a poor devil of a colored 
man fleeing from some drunken pursuers, who were bent on 
hanging him to the nearest lamp-post. Duffield allowed the 
black man to pass him, and then, as the mob approached on a hot 
scent, he levelled his pistol his constant companion and blew 
out the brains of the one in advance, and, as the story goes, hit 
two others, as fast as he could draw bead on them, for I must 



take care to let my readers know that ray friend was one of the 
crack shots of America, and was wont while he lived in Tucson 
to drive a fcen-penny nail into an adobe wall every day before he 
would go into the house to eat his evening meal. At the present 
moment he was living at the u Shoo Ply," and was one of the 
most highly respected members of the mess that gathered there. 
He stood not less than six feet three in his stockings, was ex- 
tremely broad-shouldered, powerful, muscular, and finely knit ; 
dark complexion, black hair, eyes keen as briars and black as jet, 
fists as big as any two fists to he seen in the course of a day ; dis- 
putatious, somewhat quarrelsome, but not without very amiable 
qualities. His bravery, at least, was never called in question. He 
was no longer United States marshal, but was holding the position 
of Mail Inspector, and the manner in which he discharged his 
delicate and dangerous duties was always commendable and very 
often amusing. 

"You see, it 's jest like this/' he once remarked to the post- 
master of one of the smallest stations in his jurisdiction, and in 
speaking the inspector's voice did not show the slightest sign of 
anger or excitement " you see, the postmaster-general is growl- 
ing at me because there is so much thieving going on along this 
line, so that I'm gittin' kind o' tired V must git th* whole bizz off 
mee mind ; V ez I 've looked into the whole thing and feel satis- 
fied that you're the thief, I think you'd better be pilin' out o' 
here without any more nonsense/' 

The postmaster was gone inside of twelve hours, and there was 
no more stealing on that line while Duffield held his position. 
Either the rest of the twelve dollars per annum postmasters were 
an extremely honest set, or else they were scared by the mere pres- 
ence of Duffield. He used to be very fond of showing his power- 
ful muscle, and would often seize one of the heavy oak chairs in 
the " Congress Hall " bar-room in one hand, and lift it out at 
arm's length ; or take some of the people who stood near him and 
lift them up, catching hold of the feet only. 

How well I remember the excitement vhich arose in Tucson 
the day that " Waco Bill " arrived in town with a wagon train on 
its way to Los Angeles. Mr. " Waco Bill " was a " tough " in the 
truest sense of the term, and being from half to three-quarters 
full of the worst liquor to be found in Tucson and I hope I am 
violating no confidence when I say that some of the vilest coffin 

''WACO BILL" 71 

varnish on the mundane sphere was to be found there by those 
who tried diligently was anxious to meet and subdue this Duf- 
field, of whom such exaggerated praise was sounding in his ears. 

"Wharfs Duffer ?" he cried, or hiccoughed, as he approached 
the little group of which Duffield was the central figure. u I want 
Duffer (hie)} he 's my meat. Whoop !" 

The words had hardly left his mouth before something shot out 
from Duffield's right shoulder. It was that awful fist, which could, 
upon emergency, have felled an ox, and down went our Texan 
sprawling upon the ground. No sooner had he touched Mother 
Earth than, true to his Texan instincts, his hand sought his re- 
volver, and partly drew it out of holster. Duffield retained his 
preternatural calmness, and did not raise his voice above a whis- 
per the whole time that his drunken opponent was hurling all 
kinds of anathemas at him ; but now he saw that something must 
be done. In Arizona it was not customary to pull a pistol upon a 
man ; that was regarded as an act both unchristian-like and waste- 
ful of time Arizonanas nearly always shot out of the pocket 
without drawing their weapons at all, and into Mr. " "Waco BillV 
groin went the sure bullet of the man who, local wits used to say, 
wore crape upon his hat in memory of his departed virtues. 

The bullet struck, and Duffield bent over with a most Chester- 
fieldian bow and wave of the hand : "My name "s Duffield, sir/' 
he said, "and them ^ere^s mee visitin' card." 

If there was one man in the world who despised another it was 
Chief-Justice John Titus in his scorn for the ex-marshal, which 
found open expression on every occasion. Titus was a gentleman 
of the old school, educated in the City of Brotherly Love, and 
anxious to put down the least semblance of lawlessness and dis- 
order ; yet here was an officer of the Government whose quarrels 
were notorious and of e very-day occurrence. 

Persuasion, kindly remonstrance, earnest warning were alike 
ineffectual, and in time the relations between the two men became 
of the most formal, not to say rancorous, character. Judge Titus 
at last made up his mind that the very first excuse for so doing he 
would have Duffield hauled up for carrying deadly weapons, and 
an occasion arose much sooner than he imagined. 

There was a "baile" given that same week, and Duffield was 
present with many others. People usually went on a peace footing 
to these assemblies that is to say, all the heavy armament was left 


at home, and nothing taken along but a few Derringers, which 
would come handy in case of accident. 

There were some five or six of us all friends of Duffield sit- 
ting in a little back room away from the long saloon in which 
the dance was going on, and we had Duffield in such good humor 
that he consented to produce some if not all of the weapons with 
which he was loaded. He drew them from the arm-holes of his 
waistcoat, from his boot-legs, from his hip-pockets, from the back 
of his neck, and there they all were eleven lethal weapons, 
mostly small Derringers, with one knife. Comment was use- 
less ; for my own part, I did not feel called upon to criticise 
my friend's eccentricities or amiable weaknesses, whatever they 
might be, so I kept my mouth shut, and the others followed my 
example. I suppose tnat on a war-footing nothing less than a 
couple of Gatling guns would have served to round out the arma- 
ment to be brought into play. 

Whether it was a true alarm or a false one I couldn't tell, but 
the next day Judge Titus imagined that a movement of Duf~ 
field's hand was intended to bring to bear upon himself a portion 
of the Duffield ordnance, and he had the old man arrested and 
brought before him on the charge of carrying concealed deadly 

The court-room was packed with a very orderly crowd, listening 
attentively to a long exordium from the lips of the judge upon 
the enormity and the uselessness of carrying concealed deadly 
weapons. The judge forgot that men would carry arms so long as 
danger real or imaginary encompassed them, and that the opinions 
prevailing upon that subject in older communities could not be 
expected to obtain in the wilder regions. 

In Arizona, the reader. should know, all the officers of the law 
were Americans. In New Mexico, on the contrary, they were 
almost without exception Mexicans, and the legal practice was 
entirely different from our own, as were the usages and customs 
of various kinds. For example, one could go before one of those 
Rio Grande alcaldes in Socorro, San Antonio, or Sabinal, and 
wear just what clothes he pleased, or not wear any if he didnt 
please ; it would be all right. He might wear a hat, or go in his 
shirt sleeves, or go barefoot, or roll himself a cigarrito, and it 
would be all right. But let him dare enter with spurs, and the 
ushers would throw him out, and it was a matter of great good 


luck if he did Dot find himself in the calaboose to boot, for con- 
tempt of court. 

" Call the first witness ; call Charles 0. Brown." 

Mr. Charles 0. Brown, under oath, stated his name, residence, 
and occupation, and was then directed to show to the judge and 
jury how the prisoner Duffield had drawn his revolver the day 

" Well, jedge, the way he drawed her was jest this/* And suit- 
ing the action to the word, Mr. Charles 0. Brown, the main wit- 
ness for the prosecution, drew a six-shooter, fully cocked, from the 
holster on his hip. There was a ripple of laughter in the court- 
room, as every one saw at once the absurdity of trying to hold 
one man responsible for the misdemeanor of which a whole com- 
munity was guilty, and in a few minutes the matter was nolle 

I will end up the career of the marshal in this chapter, as we 
shall have no further cause to introduce him in these pages. His 
courage was soon put to the severest sort of a test when a party 
of desperadoes from Sonora, who had been plundering in their own 
country until driven across the line, began their operations in 
Arizona. At the dead of night they entered Duffield's house, and 
made a most desperate assault upon him while asleep in his bed. 
By some sort of luck the blow aimed with a hatchet failed to hit 
him on head or neck probably his assailants were too drunk to 
see what they were doing and chopped out a frightful gash in the 
shoulder, which would have killed the general run of men. Duf- 
field, as has been shown, was a giant in strength, and awakened 
by the pain, and at once realizing what had happened, he sprang 
from his couch and grappled with the nearest of the gang of 
burglars, choked him, and proceeded to use him as a weapon 
with which to sweep out of the premises the rest of the party, 
who, seeing that the household had been alarmed, made good their 

Duffield was too much exhausted from loss of blood to retain 
his hold upon the rascal whom he had first seized, so that Justice 
did not succeed in laying her hands upon any of the band. 
When Duffield recovered sufficiently to be able to reappear on 
the streets, he did not seem to be the same man. He no longer 
took pleasure in rows, but acted like one who had had enough 
of battles, and was willing to live at peace with his fellow-men. 


Unfortunately, if one acquire the reputation of being " a bad 
man " on the frontier, it will stick to him for a generation after 
he has sown his wild oats, and is trying to bring about a rotation 
of crops. 

Duffield was killed at Tombstone ten years since, not far from 
the Contention Mine, by a young man named Holmes, who had 
taken up a claim in which Duffield asserted an interest. The 
moment he saw Duffield approaching he levelled a shot-gun upon 
him, and warned him not to move a foot, and upon Duffield's 
still advancing a few paces he filled him full of buckshot, and 
the coroner's jury, without leaving their seats, returned a verdict 
of justifiable homicide, because the old, old Duffield, who was 
" on the shoot/' was still remembered, and the new man, who had 
turned over a new leaf and was trying to lead a new life, was still 
a stranger in the land. 

Peace to his ashes 1 

There were military as well as non- military men in Tucson, 
and although the following incident did not occur under my per- 
sonal observation, a,nd was one of those stories that "leak out," 
I tell it as filling in a gap in the description of life as it was in 
Arizona twenty and twenty-five years ago. All the persons con- 
cerned were boarders at the " Shoo Fly/' and all are now dead, 
or out of service years and years ago. 

The first was the old field officer whom, for want of a better 

name, every one called " Old Uncle Billy U ." He had met 

with a grievous misfortune, and lost one of his eyes, but bore his 
trouble with stoicism and without complaint. During a brief 
visit to Boston, he had arranged with an oculist and optician to 
have made for him three glass eyes. " But I don't clearly un- 
derstand what you want with so many," said the Boston man. 

"Well, HI tell you," replied the son of Mars. "You see, I 
want one for use when Fm sober, one when Fm drunk, and one 
when I'm p d drunk. " 

The glass eyes were soon ready to meet the varying conditions 
of the colonel's life, and gave the old man the liveliest satisfac- 
tion. Not long after his return to the bracing climate of Tuc- 
son he made the round of the gaming-tables at the Feast of 
Saint Augustine, which was then in full blast, and happened to 
"copper" the ace, when he should have bet "straight," and bet 
on the queen when that fickle lady was refusing the smile of her 


countenance to all her admirers. It was a gloomy day for the 
colonel when he awaked to find himself almost without a dollar, 
and no paymaster to be expected from San Erancisco for a couple 
of months. A brilliant thought struck him ; he would economize 
by sending back to Boston two of his stock of glass eyes, which 
he did not really need, as the ee sober " and "tolerably drunk" 
ones had never been used, and ought to fetch something of a 
price at second-hand. 

The Boston dealer, however, curtly refused to negotiate a sale, 
saying that he did not do business in that way, and, as if to add 
insult to injury, enclosed the two eyes in a loose sheet of paper, 
which was inscribed with a pathetic story about " The Drunkard 
Saved." It took at least a dozen rounds of drinks before the colonel 
could drown his wrath, and satisfy the inquiries of condoling 
friends who had learned of the brutal treatment to which he had 
been subjected. 

A great friend of the colonel's was Al. G-arrett, who in stat- 
ure was his elder's antithesis, being as short and wiry as the 
colonel was large and heavy. Garrett was an extremely good- 
hearted youngster, and one of the best horsemen in the whole 
army. His admirers used to claim that he could ride anything 
with four legs to it, from a tarantula to a megatherium. Semig, 
the third of the trio, was a Viennese, a very cultivated man, a 
graduate in medicine, an excellent musician, a graceful dancer, well 
versed in modern languages, and well educated in every respect. 
He was the post surgeon at Camp Orittenden, sixty miles to 
the south of Tucson, but was temporarily at the latter place. 

He and Garrett and Uncle Billy were making the best of their 
way home from supper at the " Shoo Fly " late one evening, and 
had started to cut across lots after passing the " Plaza." 

There were no fences, no covers nothing at all to prevent 
pedestrians from falling into some one of the innumerable aban- 
doned wells which were to be met with in every block, and it need 
surprise no one to be told that in the heat of argument about 
some trivial matter the worthy medical officer, who was walking 
in the middle, fell down plump some fifteen or twenty feet, land- 
ing in a more or less bruised condition upon a pile of adobes and 
pieces of rock at the bottom. 

Garrett and his elderly companion lurched against each other 
and continued the discussion, oblivious of the withdrawal of 


their companion, who from his station at the bottom of the pit, 
like another Joseph, was bawling for his heartless brothers to 
return and take him out. After his voice failed he bethought 
him of his revolver, which he drew from hip, and with which 
he blazed away, attracting the attention of a party of Mexicans 
returning from a dance, who too hastily concluded that Semig 
was a " Gringo " spoiling for a fight, whereupon they gave him 
their best services in rolling down upon him great pieces of adobe, 
which imparted renewed vigor to Semig's vocalization and finally 
awakened the Mexicans to a suspicion of the true state of the 

The poor doctor never heard the last of his mishap, and very 
likely was glad to receive the order which transferred him to the 
Modoc War, wherein he received the wounds of which he after- 
ward died. He showed wonderful coolness in the Lava Beds, 
and even after the Indians had wonnded him in the shoulder 
and he had been ordered off the field, he refused to leave the 
wounded under fire until a second shot broke his leg and knocked 
him senseless. 

Associated with Semig in my recollection is the name of young 
Sherwood, a First Lieutenant in the Twenty-first Infantry, who 
met his death in the same campaign. He was a man of the best 
impulses, bright, brave, and generous, and a general favorite. 

This rather undersized gentleman coming down the street is a 
man with a history perhaps it might be perfectly correct to say 
with two or three histories. He is Don Estevan Ochoa, one of 
the most enterprising merchants, as he is admitted to be one of 
the coolest and bravest men, in all the southwestern country. He 
has a handsome face, a keen black eye, a quick, business-like air, 
with very polished and courteous manners. 

During the war the Southern leaders thought they would estab- 
lish a chain of posts across the continent from Texas to Cali- 
fornia, and one of their first movements was to send a brigade of 
Texans to occupy Tucson. The commanding general Turner 
byname sent for Don Estevan and told him that he had been 
informed that he was an outspoken sympathizer with the cause 
of the Union, but he hoped that Ochoa would see that the 
"Union was a thing of the past, and reconcile himself to the new 
state of affairs, and take the oath to the Confederacy, and thus 
relieve the new commander from the disagreeable responsibility 


of confiscating his property and setting him adrift outside his 

Don Estevan never hesitated a moment. He was not that 
kind of a man. His reply was perfectly courteous, as I am told 
all the talk on the part of the Confederate officer had been. 
Ochoa owed all he had in the world to the Government of the 
United States, and it would be impossible for him to take an 
oath of fidelity to any hostile power or party. When would Gen- 
eral Turner wish him to leave ? 

He was allowed to select one of his many horses, and to take 
a pair of saddle-bags filled with such clothing and food as he 
could get together on short notice, and then, with a rifle and 
twenty rounds of ammunition, was led outside the lines and 
started for the Rio Grande. How he ever made his way across 
those two hundred and fifty miles of desert and mountains which 
intervened between the town of Tucson and the Union outposts 
nearer to the Eio Grande, I do not know nobody knows. The 
country was infested by the Apaches, and no one of those upon 
whom he turned his back expected to hear of his getting through 
alive. But he did succeed, and here he is, a proof of devotion 
to the cause of the nation for which it would be hard to find a 
parallel. When the Union troops reoccupied Tucson Don Este- 
van resumed business and was soon wealthy again, in spite of the 
tribute levied by the raiding Apaches, who once ran on* every 
head of draught oxen the firm of Tully, Ochoa & De Long pos- 
sessed., and never stopped until they had crossed the Rio Salado, 
or Salt River, where they killed and " jerked" the meat on the 
slope of that high mesa which to this day bears the name of 
" Jerked Beef Butte." 

Another important factor in the formative period of Arizona's 
growth is this figure walking briskly by, clad in the cassock of 
an ecclesiastic. It is Bishop Salpointe, a man of learning, great 
administrative capacity, and devoted to the interests of his people. 
He preaches little, but practises much. In many ways unknown 
to his flock he is busy with plans for their spiritual and worldly 
advancement, and the work he accomplishes in establishing 
schools, both in Tucson and in the Papago village of San Xavier, 
is something which should not soon be forgotten by the people 
benefited. He is very poor. All that one can see in his house is 
a crucifix and a volume of precious manuscript notes upon the 


Apaches and Papagoes. He seems to be always cheerful. His 
poverty he freely shares with his flock, and I have often thought 
that if he ever had any wealth he would share that too. 

This one whom we meet upon the street as we leave to visit 
one of the gambling saloons is Pete Kitchen. We shall be in luck 
if he invite us to visit him at his " ranch/' which has all the airs 
of a feudal castle in the days of chivalry. Peter Kitchen has 
probably had more contests with Indians than any other settler 
in America. He comes from the same stock which sent out from 
the lovely vales and swales in the Tennessee Mountains the con- 
tingent of riflemen who were to cut such a conspicuous figure 
at the battle of New Orleans, and Peter finds just as steady 
employment for his trusty rifle as ever was essential in the 

Approaching Pete Kitchen's ranch, one finds himself in a fer- 
tile valley, with a small hillock near one extremity. Upon the 
summit of this has been built the house from which no effort of 
the Apaches has ever succeeded in driving our friend. There 
is a sentinel posted on the roof, there is another out in the 
" cienaga " with the stock, and the men ploughing in the bot- 
tom are obliged to carry rifles, cocked and loaded, swung to the 
plough handle. Every man and boy is armed with one or two 
revolvers on hip. There are revolvers and rifles and shotguns 
along the walls and in every corner. Everything speaks of a 
land of warfare and bloodshed. The title of ''Dark and Bloody 
Ground " never fairly belonged to Kentucky. Kentucky never 
was anything except a Sunday-school convention in comparison 
with Arizona, every mile of whose surface could tell its tale of 
horror were the stones and gravel, the sage-brush and mescal, 
the mesquite and the yucca, only endowed with speech for one 
brief hour. 

Within the hospitable walls of the Kitchen home the traveller 
was made to feel perfectly at ease. If food were not already on 
the fire, some of the women set about the preparation of the 
savory and spicy stews for which the Mexicans are deservedly 
famous, and others kneaded the dough and patted into shape the 
paper-like tortillas with which to eat the juicy frijoles or dip up 
the tempting chile Colorado. There were women carding, spin- 
ning, sewing doing the thousand and one duties of domestic 
life in a great ranch, which had its own blacksmith, saddler, and 


wagonmaker, and all other officials needed to keep the machinery 
running smoothly. 

Between Pete Kitchen and the Apaches a ceaseless war was 
waged, with the advantages not all on the side of Kitchen. His 
employees were killed and wounded, his stock driven away, his 
pigs filled with arrows, making the suffering quadrupeds look like 
perambulating pin-cushions everything that could be thought 
of to drive him away ; but there he stayed, unconquered and un- 

Men like Estevan Ochoa and Pete Kitchen merit a volume by 
themselves. Arizona and New Mexico were full of such people, not 
all as determined and resolute as Pete ; not all, nor nearly all, so 
patriotic and self-denying as Don Estevan, but all with histories 
full of romance and excitement. Few of them yet remain, and 
their deeds of heroism will soon be forgotten, or, worse luck yet, 
some of the people who never dreamed of going down there until 
they could do so in a Pullman car will be setting themselves up 
as heroes, and having their puny biographies written for the 
benefit of the coining generations. 

Strangest recollection of all that I have of those persons is the 
quietness of their manner and the low tone in which they usually 
spoke to their neighbors. They were quiet in dress, in speech, 
and in conduct a marked difference from the more thoroughly 
dramatized border characters of later days. 



IT has been shown that Tucson had no hotels. She did not 
need any at the time of which I am writing, as her floating 
population found all the ease and comfort it desired in the flare 
and glare of the gambling hells, which were bright with the 
lustre of smoking oil lamps and gay with the varicolored raiment 
of moving crowds, and the music of harp and Pan's pipes. In 
them could be found nearly every man in the town at some 
hour of the day or night, and many used them as the Eomans 
did their "Thermae" as a place of residence. 

All nationalities, all races were represented, and nearly all 
conditions of life. There were cadaverous-faced Americans, and 
Americans whose faces were plump ; men in shirt sleeves, and 
men who wore their coats as they would have done in other places ; 
there were Mexicans wrapped in the red, yellow, and black striped 
cheap "serapes," smoking the inevitable cigarrito, made on the 
spot by rolling a pinch of tobacco in a piece of corn shuck ; and 
there were other Mexicans more thoroughly Americanized, who 
were clad in the garb of the people of the North. Of Chinese and 
negroes there were only a few they had not yet made acquaint- 
ance to any extent with thafc section of our country ; but their 
place was occupied by civilized Indians, Opatas, Yaquis, and 
others, who had come up with "bull" teams and pack trains 
from Sonora. The best of order prevailed, there being no noise 
save the hum of conversation or the click of the chips on the 
different tables. Tobacco smoke ascended from cigarritos, pipes, 
and the vilest of cigars, filling all the rooms with the foulest of 
odors. The bright light from the lamps did not equal the steely 
glint in the eyes of the "bankers," who ceaselessly and imper- 


turbably dealt out the cards from faro boxes, or set in motion the 
balls in roulette. 

There used to be in great favor among the Mexicans, and the 
Americans, too, for that matter, a modification of roulette called 
" chusas," which never failed to draw a cluster of earnest players, 
who would remain by the tables until the first suggestion of day- 
light. High above the squeak of Pan's pipes or the plinkety-plink- 
plunk of the harps sounded the voice of the " banker : " " Make 
yer little bets, gents ; make yer little bets ; all's set, the game 's 
made, V th' ball's a-rollinV* Blue chips, red chips, white chips 
would be stacked high upon cards or numbers, as the case might 
be, but all eventually seemed to gravitate into the maw of the 
bank, and when, for any reason, the " game " flagged in energy, 
there would be a tap upon the bell by the dealer's side, and 
" drinks all round " be ordered at the expense of the house. 

It was a curious exhibit of one of the saddest passions of 
human nature, and a curious jumble of types which would never 
press against each other elsewhere. Over by the faro bank, in 
the corner, stood Bob Crandall, a faithful wooer of the fickle 
goddess Chance. He was one of the handsomest men in the 
Southwest, and really endowed with many fine qualities ; he had 
drifted away from the restraints of home life years ago, and was 
then in Tucson making such a livelihood as he could pick up 
as a gambler, wasting brain and attainments which, if better 
applied, would have been a credit to himself and his country. 

The beautiful diamond glistening upon Bob CrandalFs breast 
had a romantic history. I give it as I remember it : 

During the months that Maximilian remained in Mexico there 
was a French brigade stationed at the two towns of Hermosillo 
and Magdalena, in Sonora. Desertions were not rare, and, natu- 
rally enough, the fugitives made their way when they could across 
the boundary into the "United States, which maintained a by no 
means dubious attitude in regard to the foreign occupation. 

One of these deserters approached Crandall on the street, and 
asked him for assistance to enable him to get to San Francisco. 
He had a stone which he believed was of great value, which was 
part of the plunder coming to him when he and some comrades 
had looted the hacienda of an affluent Mexican planter. He would 
sell this for four hundred francs eighty dollars. 

Orandall was no judge of gems, but there was something so 


brilliant about the bauble offered to him that he closed the bargain 
and paid over the sum demanded by the stranger, who took his 
departure and was seen no more. Four or five years afterward 
OrandaU was making some purchases in a jewellery store in San 
Francisco, when the owner, happening to see the diamond he was 
wearing, inquired whether he would be willing to sell it, and 
offered fifteen hundred dollars cash for the gem which had been 
so lightly regarded. Nothing further was ever learned of its 
early ownership, and ifc is likely enough that; its seizure was only 
one incident among scores that might be related of the French 
occupation not seizures by the foreigners altogether, but those 
made also by the bandits with whom the western side of the 
republic swarmed for a time. 

There was one poor wretch who could always be seen about the 
tables ; he never played, never talked to any one, and seemed to 
take no particular interest in anything or anybody. What his 
name was no one knew or cared ; all treated him kindly, and 
anything he wished for was supplied by the charity or the gen- 
erosity of the frequenters of the gaming-tables. He was a trifle 
" off," but perfectly harmless ; he had lost all the brain he ever 
had through fright in an Apache ambuscade, and had never 
recovered his right mind. The party to which he belonged had 
been attacked not far from Davidson's Springs, but he was one 
of those who had escaped, or at least he thought he had until he 
heard the " swish " and felt the pull of the noose of a lariat 
which a young Apache hiding behind a sage-brush had dexterously 
thrown across his shoulders. The Mexican drew his ever-ready 
knife, slashed the raw-hide rope in two, and away he flew on the 
road to Tucson, never ceasing to spur his mule until both of them 
arrived, trembling, covered with dust and lather, and scared out 
of their wits, and half-dead, within sight of the green cotton- 
woods on the banks of the Santa Cruz. 

Then one was always sure to meet men like old Jack Dunn, who 
had wandered about in all parts of the world, and has since done 
such excellent work as a scout against the Ohiricahua Apaches. 
I think that Jack is living yet, but am not certain. If he is, it 
will pay some enterprising journalist to hunt him up and get a 
few of his stories out of him ; they '11 make the best kind of read- 
ing for people who care to hear of the wildest days on the wildest 
of frontiers. And there were others men who have passed away, 


men like James Toole, one of the first mayors of Tucson, who 
dropped in, much as I myself did, to see what was to be seen. Op- 
posed as I am to gambling, no matter what protean guise it may 
assume, I should do the gamblers of Tucson the justice to say 
that they were as progressive an element as the town had. They 
always had plank floors, where every other place was content with 
the bare earth rammed hard, or with the curious mixture of river 
sand, bullock's blood, and cactus juice which hardened like cement 
and was used by some of the more opulent. But with the excep- 
tion of the large wholesale firms, and there were not over half a 
dozen of them all told, the house of the governor, and a few 
a very few private residences of people like the Carillos, Sam 
Hughes, Hiram Stevens, and Aldrich, who desired comfort, there 
were no wooden floors to be seen in that country. 

The gaming establishments were also well supplied with the 
latest newspapers from San Francisco, Sacramento, and New York, 
and to these all who entered, whether they played or not, were 
heartily welcome. Sometimes, but not very often, there would 
be served up about midnight a very acceptable lunch of "fri- 
joles," coffee, or chocolate, "chile con carne," "enchiladas, "and 
other dishes, all hot and savory, and all thoroughly Mexican. 
The flare of the lamps was undimmed, the plinkety-plunk of 
the harps was unchecked, and the voice of the dealer was abroad 
in the land from the setting of the sun until the rising of the 
same, and until that tired luminary had again sunk to rest behind 
the purple caps of the Santa Teresa, and had again risen reju- 
venated to gladden a reawakened earth with his brightest beams. 
Sunday or Monday, night or day, it made no difference the 
game went on ; one dealer taking the place of another with the 
regularity, the precision, and the stolidity of a sentinel. 

" Isn't it ra-a-a-ther late for you to be open ? " asked the tender- 
foot arrival from the East, as h.e descended from the El Paso stage 
about four o'clock one morning, and dragged himself to the bar 
to get something to wash the dust out of his throat. 

" Wa-a-al, it is kinder late fur th* night afore last," genially 
replied the bartender ; (e but *s jest 'n th/ shank o" th' evenin' fur 

It was often a matter of astonishment to me that there were so 
few troubles and rows in the gambling establishments of Tucson. 
They did occur from time to time, just as they might happen any- 


where else, but not with sufficient frequency to make a feature of 
the life of the place. 

Once what threatened to open up as a most serious affair had 
a very ridiculous termination. A wild-eyed youth, thoroughly 
saturated with " sheep-herder's delight" and other choice vin- 
tages of the country, made his appearance in the bar of " Congress 
Hall/' and announcing himself as " Slap-Jack Billy, the Pride of 
the Pan-handle/' went on to inform a doubting world that he 
oould whip his weight in " b'ar-meat " 

" Fur ber-lud's mee color, 
I terries mee corfin on mee back, 
'N' th' hummin' o j pistol-balls, bee jingo, 
Is me-e-e-u-u-sic in mee ears." (Blank, blank, blank.) 

Thump ! sounded the brawny fist of " Shorfcy " Henderson, 
and down went Ajax struck by the offended lightning. When 
he came to, the "Pride of the Pan-handle " had something of a 
job in rubbing down the lump about as big as a goose-egg which 
had suddenly and spontaneously grown under his left jaw ; but 
he bore no malice and so expressed himself. 

" Podners (blank, blank, blank), this Cere's the most sociablest 
crowd I ever struck ; let's all he? a drink." 

If the reader do not care for such scenes, he can find others 
perhaps more to his liking in the various amusements which, 
under one pretext or another, extracted all the loose change of 
the town. The first, in popular estimation, were the " maromas/' 
or tight-rope walkers and general acrobats, who performed many 
feats well deserving of the praise lavished upon them by the audi- 
ence. Ever since the days of Corte*s the Mexicans have been 
noted for gymnastic dexterity ; it is a matter of history that 
Cortes, upon returning to Europe, took with him several of the 
artists in this line, whose agility and cunning surprised those 
who saw them perform in Spain and Italy. 

There were trained dogs and men who knew how to make a 
barrel roll up or down an inclined plane. All these received a 
due share of the homage of their fellow-citizens, but nothing to 
compare to the enthusiasm which greeted the advent of the gen- 
uine " teatro." That was the time when all Tucson turned out 
to do honor to the wearers of the buskin. If there was a man, 
woman, or child in the old pueblo who wasn't seated on one of 


the cottouwood saplings which, braced upon other saplings, did 
duty as benches in the corral near the quartermaster's, it was 
because that man, woman, or child was sick, or in jail. It is 
astonishing how much enjoyment can be gotten out of life when 
people sefc about the task in dead earnest. 

There were gross violations of all the possibilities, of all the 
congruities, of all the unities in the play, " Elena y Jorge," 
presented to an appreciative public the first evening I saw the 
Mexican strolling heavy-tragedy company in its glory. But what 
cared we ? The scene was lighted by bon-fires, by great torches 
of wood, and by the row of smoking foot-lights running along 
the front of the little stage. 

The admission was regulated according to a peculiar plan : 
for Mexicans it was fifty cents, but for Americans, one -dollar, 
because the Americans had more money. Another unique feat- 
ure was the concentration of all the small boys in the first row, 
closest to the actors, and the clowns who were constantly running 
about, falling head over heels over the youngsters, and in other 
ways managing to keep the audience in the best of humor during 
the rather long intervals between the acts. 

The old ladies who safc bunched up on the seats a little farther 
in rear seemed to be more deeply moved by the trials of the hero- 
ine than the men or boys, who continued placidly to puff cigar- 
ettes or munch sweet quinces, as their ages and tastes dictated. 
It was a most harrowing, sanguinary play. The plot needs very 
few words. Elena, young, beautiful, rich, patriotic ; old uncle, 
miser, traitor, mercenary, anxious to sell lovely heiress to French 
officer for gold ; French officer, coward, liar, poltroon, steeped 
in every crime known to man, anxious to wed loyely heiress for 
her money alone ; Jorge, young, beautiful, brave, conscientious, 
an expert in the art of war, in love with heiress for her own 
sweet sake, but kept from her side by the wicked uncle and 
his own desire to drive the last cursed despot from the fair land 
of his fathers. 

(Dirge, by the orchestra ; cries of " Muere ! " (i.e., May he die ! 
or, Let him die !) from the semi-circle of boys, who ceased work 
upon their quinces "for this occasion only.") 

I despised that French officer, and couldn't for the life of 
me understand how any nation, no matter how depraved, could 
afford to keep such a creature* upon its military rolls. I don't 


think I ever heard any one utter in the same space of time more 
thoroughly villainous sentiments than did that man, and I was 
compelled, as a matter of principle, to join with the "mucha- 
chos " in their chorus of " Muere !" 

As for Dofia Elena, the way she let that miserable old uncle 
see that his schemes were understood, and that never, never, 
would she consent to become the bride of a traitor and an invader, 
was enough to make Sarah Bernhardt turn green with envy. 

And Jorge well, Jorge was not idle. There he was all the 
time, concealed behind a barrel or some other very inadequate 
cover, listening to every word uttered by the wicked old uncle, 
the mercenary French officer, and the dauntless Helen. He 
was continually on the go, jumping out from his concealment, 
taking the hand of his adored one, telling her his love, but 
always interrupted by the sudden return of the avuncular villain 
or the foe of his bleeding country. It is all over at last ; the 
curtain rings down, and the baffled Gaul has been put to flight ; 
the guards are dragging the wretched uncle off to the calaboose, 
and Jorge and his best girl entwine themselves in each other's 
arms amid thunders of applause. 

Then the payazo, or clown, comes to the front, waving the red, 
white, and green colors of the Mexican republic, and chanting a 
song in which the doings of the invaders are held up to obloquy 
and derision. 

Everybody would be very hungry by this time, and the old 
crones who made a living by selling hot suppers to theatre-goers 
reaped their harvest. The wrinkled dames whose faces had been 
all tears only a moment ago over the woes of Elena were calm, 
happy, and voracious. Plate after plate of steaming hot "en- 
chiladas " would disappear down their throats, washed down by 
cups of boiling coffee or chocolate ; or perhaps appetite demanded 
" tamales" and " tortillas/' with plates of "frijoles " and " chile 
con carne." 

"Enchiladas" and "tamales" are dishes of Aztec origin, 
much in vogue on the south side of the Rio Grande and Gila. 
The former may be described as corn batter cakes, dipped in a 
stew of red chile, with tomato, cheese, and onions chopped fine. 

" Tamales " are chopped meat beef, pork, or chicken, or a 
mixture of all three combined with corn-meal and rolled up in 
husks and boiled or baked. Practically, they are croquettes. 


These dishes are delicious, and merit an introduction to Amer- 
ican tables. No one can deny that when a Mexican agrees to 
furnish a hot supper, the hot supper will be forthcoming. What 
caloric cannot be supplied by fuel is derived from chile, red 
pepper, with white pepper, green, and a trifle of black, merely to 
show that the cook has no prejudices on account of color. 

The banquet may not have been any too grand, out in the open 
air, but the gratitude of the bright-eyed, sweet-voiced young sefio- 
ritas who shared it made it taste delicious. Tucson etiquette in 
some things was ridiculously strict, and the occasions when young 
ladies could go, even in parties, with representatives of the oppo- 
site sex were few and far between and all the more appreciated 
when they did come. 

If ever there was created a disagreeable feature upon the fair 
face of nature, it was the Spanish duefia. All that were to be met 
in those days in southern Arizona seemed to be possessed of an 
unaccountable aversion to the mounted service. No flattery would 
put them in good humor, no cajolery would blind them, intimi- 
dation was thrown away. There they would sit, keeping strict, 
dragon-like watch over the dear little creatures who responded 
to the names of Anita, Victoria, Coneepcion, Guadalupe, or Mer- 
cedes, and preventing conversation upon any subject excepting 
the weather, in which we became so expert that it is a wonder 
the science of meteorology hasn't made greater advances than it 
has during the past two decades. 

The bull fight did not get farther west than El Paso. Tucson 
never had one that I have heard of, and very little in the way of 
out-door " sport " beyond chicken fights, which were often savage 
and bloody. The rapture with which the feminine heart wel- 
comed the news that a ' ' baile " was to be given in Tucson equalled 
the pleasure of the ladies of Murray Hill or Beacon Street upon 
the corresponding occasions in their localities. To be sure, the 
ceremony of the Tucson affairs was of the meagrest. The rooms 
were wanting in splendor, perhaps in comfort but the music was 
on hand, and so were the ladies, young and old, and their cava- 
liers, and all hands would manage to have the best sort of a time. 
The ball-room was one long apartment, with earthen floor, hav- 
ing around its sides low benches, and upon its walls a few cheap 
mirrors and half a dozen candles stuck to the adobe by melted 
tallow, a bit of moist clay, or else held in tin sconces, from which 


they emitted the sickliest light upon the heads and forms of the 
highly colored saints whose pictures were to be seen in the most 
eligible places. If the weather happened to be chilly enough in 
the winter season, a petty fire would be allowed to blaze in one of 
the corners, but, as a general thing, this was not essential. 

The summer climate of Tucson is sultry, and the heat will often 
run up as high as 120 Fahr.; the fall months are dangerous 
from malaria, and the springs disagreeable from sand storms, but 
the winters are incomparable. Neither Italy nor Spain can com- 
pare with southern Arizona in balminess of winter climate, and 
I know of no place in the whole world superior to Tucson as a 
sanitarium for nervous and pulmonary diseases, from November 
to March, when the patient can avoid the malaria-breeding fall 
months and the disagreeable sand storms of the early spring. 

The nights in Tucson during the greater part of the year are 
so cool that blankets are agreeable covering for sleepers. There 
are times in Tucson, as during the summer of 1870, when for 
more than a week the thermometer never indicates lower than 
98 by day or night. And there are localities, like forts or camps 
as they were then styled Grant, MacDowell, Mojave, Yuma, 
Beale's Springs, Verde, and Date Creek, where this rule of ex- 
cessive and prolonged heat never seemed to break. The winter 
nights of Tucson are cold and bracing, but it is a dry cold, with- 
out the slightest suggestion of humidity, and rarely does the tem- 
perature fall much below the freezing-point. 

The moment you passed the threshold of the ball-room in 
Tucson you had broken over your head an egg-shell filled either 
with cologne of the most dubious reputation or else with finely 
cut gold and silver paper. This custom, preserved in this out-of- 
the-way place, dates back to the " Carnestolends " or Shrove- 
Tuesday pranks of Spain and Portugal, when the egg was really 
broken over the head of the unfortunate wight and the pasty 
mass covered over with flour. 

Once within the ball-room there was no need of being pre- 
sented to anyone. The etiquette of the Spaniards is very elastic, 
and is based upon common sense. Every man who is good enough 
to be invited to enter the house of a Mexican gentleman is good 
enough to enter into conversation with all the company he may 
meet there. 

Our American etiquette is based upon the etiquette of the 


English. Ever siilce King James, the mild-mannered lunatic, 
sold his orders of nobility to any cad who possessed the neces- 
sary six thousand pounds to pay for an entrance into good 
society, the aristocracy of England has heen going down-hill, and 
what passes with it for manners is the code of the promoted plu- 
tocrat, whose ideas would find no place with the Spaniards, who 
believe in " sangre azul" or nothing. There was very little 
conversation between the ladies and the gentlemen, because the 
ladies preferred to cluster together and discuss the neighbors who 
hadn't been able to come, or explain the details of dresses just 
made or to be made. 

Gentlemen invited whom they pleased to dance, and in the 
intervals between the figures there might be some very weak 
attempt at conversation, but that was all, except the marching of 
the gentle female up to the counter and buying her a handker- 
chief full of raisins or candies, which she carefully wrapped up 
and carried home with her, in accordance with a custom .which 
obtained among the Aztecs and also among their Spanish con- 
querors, and really had a strong foothold in good old England it- 
self, from which latter island it did not disappear until A.D. 1765. 

"While the language of conversation was entirely Spanish, the 
figures were called off In English, or what passed for English in 
those days in Arizona : " Ally man let V all shassay ; " " Bal'nce 
f yer podners 'n' all han's roun'; " " Dozydozy-chaat 5 n ? swing/' 

What lovely times we used to have ! What enchanting music 
from the Pan's pipes, the flute, the harp, the bass-drum, and the 
bull-fiddle all going at once ! How lovely the young ladies were ! 
How bright the rooms were with their greasy lamps or their can- 
dles flickering from the walls ! It can hardly be possible that 
twenty years and more have passed away, yet there are the figures 
in the almanac which cannot lie. 

After the "baile" was over, the rule was for the younger par- 
ticipants to take the music and march along the streets to the 
houses of the young ladies who had been prevented from attend- 
ing, and there, under the window, or, rather, in front of the win- 
do w because all the houses were of one story, and a man could 
not get under the windows unless he crawled on hands and knees 
pour forth their souls in a serenade. 

The Spanish serenader, to judge him by his songs, is a curious 
blending of woe and despair, paying court to a damsel whose 


heart is colder than the crystalline ice that forms in the mount- 
ains. The worst of it all is, the young woman, whose charms of 
person are equalled by the charms of her mind, does not seem to 
care a rush what becomes of the despairing songster, who threat- 
ens to go away forever, to sail on unknown seas, to face the 
nameless perils of the desert, if his suit be not at once recognized 
by at least one frosty smile. But at the first indication of relent- 
ing on the part of the adored one, the suitor suddenly recollects 
that he cannot possibly stand the fervor of her glance, which 
rivals the splendor of the sun, and, accordingly, he begs her not 
to look upon him with those beautiful orbs, as he has concluded 
to depart forever and sing his woes in distant lands. Having 
discharged this sad duty at the windows of Dona Anita Fulana, 
the serenaders solemnly progress to the lattice of Dofla Mercedes 
de Zutana, and there repeat the same heart-rending tale of disap- 
pointed affection. 

It was always the same round of music, taken in the same 
series si La Paloma," " Golondrina," and the rest. I made a 
collection of some twenty of these ditties or madrigals, and was 
impressed with the poetic fervor and the absolute lack of com- 
mon sense shown in them all, which is the best evidence that as 
love songs they will bear comparison with any that have ever been 
written. The music in many cases was excellent, although the 
execution was with very primitive instruments. I do not 
remember a single instance where the fair one made the least 
sign of approval or pleasure on account of such serenades, and 
I suppose that the Mexican idea is that she should not, because 
if there is a polite creature in the world it is the Mexican woman, 
no matter of what degree. 

The most tender strains evoked no response, and the young 
man, or men, as the ease might be, could have held on until 
morning and sung himself or themselves into pneumonia for all 
the young lady seemed to care. 

" No me mires con esos tns ojos, 

(Fluke-fl.uky-fl.uke ; plink, planky-plink.) 
" Mas hermosos que el sol en el cielo, 

(Plinky-plink piinky-plink.) 
" Que me mires de dicha y consuelo, 

(Muky-fluky-tuke ; plink-plink.) 
" Que me mata t que me mata 1 tu mirar." 

(Plinky-plink, fluky-fluke ; plinky-plink ; fluke-fluke.) 


But it is morning now, and the bells are clanging for first mass, 
and we had better home and to bed. Did we so desire we could 
enter the church, but as there is much to be said in regard to 
the different feasts, which occurred at different seasons and 
most acceptably divided the year, we can leave that duty 
unfulfilled for the present and give a few brief sentences to the 
christenings and funerals, which were celebrated under our obser- 

The Mexicans used to attach a great deal of importance to the 
naming of their children, and when the day for the christening 
had arrived, invitations scattered far and near brought together 
all the relatives and friends of the family, who most lavishly 
eulogized the youngster, and then partook of a hearty collation, 
which was the main feature of the entertainment. 

Funerals, especially of children, were generally without cof- 
fins, owing to the great scarcity of lumber, and nearly always 
with music at the head of the procession, which slowly wended 
its way to the church to the measure of plaintive melody. 

Birthdays were not observed, but in their stead were kept the 
days of the saints of the same name. For example, all the young 
girls named Anita would observe Saint Ann's day, without regard 
to the date of their own birth, and so with the Guadalupes and 
Francescas and others. 

I should not omit to state that there were whole blocks of 
houses in Tucson which did not have a single nail in them, but 
had been constructed entirely of adobes, with all parts of the 
wooden framework held together by strips of raw-hide. 

Yet in these comfortless abodes, which did not possess ten dol- 
lars' worth of furniture, one met with charming courtesy from 
old and young. "Ah ! happy the eyes that gaze upon thee," was 
the form of salutation to friends who had been absent for a space 
" Dichosos los ojos que ven a V." " G-o thou with God," was 
the gentle mode of saying farewell, to which the American guest 
would respond, as he shifted the revolvers on his hip and adjusted 
the quid of tobacco in his mouth : "Wa-al, I reckon HI git." 
But the Mexican would arrange the folds of his serape, bow most 
politely, and say : "Ladies, I throw myself at your feet" "A 
los pies de W., sefioritas." 

Thus far there has been no mention of that great lever of pub- 
lic opinion the newspaper. There was one of which I will now 


say a word, and a few months later, in the spring of 1870, the 
town saw a second established, of which a word shall be said in 
its turn. The Weekly Arizonian was a great public journal, an 
organ of public opinion, managed by Mr. P. W. Dooner, a very 
able editor. 

It was the custom in those days to order the acts and resolu- 
tions of Congress to be published in the press of the remoter 
Territories, thus enabling the settlers on the frontier to keep 
abreast of legislation, especially such as more immediately af- 
fected their interests. Ordinarily the management of the paper 
went no farther than the supervision of the publication of such 
acts, bills, etc.; and the amount of outside information finding 
an outlet in the scattered settlements of Arizona and New Mexico 
was extremely small, and by no means recent. With a few excep- 
tions, all the journals of those days were printed either in Span- 
ish alone, or half in Spanish and half in English, the exceptions 
being sheets like the Miner, of Prescott, Arizona, which from 
the outset maintained the principle that our southwestern terri- 
tories should be thoroughly Americanized, and that by no surer 
method could this be effected than by a thoroughly American 
press. Mr. John H. Marion was the enunciator of this seemingly 
simple and common-sense proposition, and although the Miner 
has long since passed into other hands, he has, in the columns of 
the Courier, owned and edited by him, advocated and cham- 
pioned it to the present day. 

There may have been other matter in the Weekly Arizonian 
besides the copies of legislative and executive documents referred 
to, but if so I never was fortunate enough to see it, excepting 
possibly once, on the occasion of my first visit to the town, when 
I saw announced in bold black and white that ee Colonel " Bourke 
was paying a brief visit to his friend, Senor So-and-so. If there 
is one weak spot in the armor of a recently-graduated lieutenant, 
it is the desire to be called colonel before he dies, and here was 
the ambition of my youth gratified almost before the first lustre 
had faded from my shoulder-straps. It would serve no good pur- 
pose to tell how many hundred copies of that week's issue found 
their way into the earliest outgoing mail, addressed to friends 
back in the States. I may be pardoned for alluding to the 
reckless profanity of the stage-driver upon observing the great 
bulk of the load his poor horses were to carry. The stage- 


drivers were an exceptionally profane set, and this one, Prank 
Francis, was an adept in the business. He has long since gone 
to his reward in the skies, killed, if I hare not made a great 
mistake, by the Apaches in Sonora, in 1881. He was a good, 
"square" man, as I can aver from an acquaintance and friend- 
ship cemented in later days, when I had to take many and many 
a lonesome and dangerous ride with him in various sections and 
on yarious routes in that then savage-infested region. It was 
Frank's boast that no/ f Injuns " should ever get either him or 
the mail under his care. "All you've got to do with 'n Injun 's 
to be smarter nor he is. IsTow, f r instance, 'n Injun 11 allers lie 
in wait Alongside the road, tryin' to ketch th' mail. Wa'al, I never 
don' go long no derned road, savey ? I jest cut right 'cross lots, 
'n' dern my skin ef all th' Injuns this side o' Bitter Creek kin tell 
whar to lay fur me." This and similar bits of wisdom often 
served to soothe the frightened fancy of the weary " tenderfoot " 
making his first trip into that wild region, especially if the trip 
was to be by night, as it generally was. 

Whipping up his team, Frank would take a shoot off to one side 
or the other of the road, and never return to it until the faint 
tinge of light in the east, or the gladsome crow of chanticleer 
announced that the dawn was at hand and Tucson in sight. 
How long they had both been in coming ! How the chilling 
air of night had depressed the spirits and lengthened the hours 
into eternities ! How grand the sky was with its masses of worlds 
peeping out from depths of blue, unsounded by the telescopes of 
less favored climes ! How often, as the stars rose behind some 
distant hill-top, did they appear to the fancy as the signal lights 
of distant Apache raiding parties, and freeze the blood, already 
coagulated, by suddenly coming upon the gaunt, blackened frame 
of some dead giant cactus stretching out its warning arms behind 
a sharp turn in the line of travel ! 

To this feeling of disquietude the yelping of the coyote added 
no new horrors ; the nervous system was already strained to its 
utmost tension, and any and all sounds not immediately along 
the trail were a pleasant relief. They gave something of which to 
think and a little of which to talk besides the ever-present topic 
of " Injuns, Injuns/ 5 But far different was the sensation as the 
morning drew near, and fluttering coveys of quail rose with a 
whirr from their concealment under the mesquite, or pink-eared 


jack-rabbits scurried from under the horses' feet. Then it was 
that driver and passenger alike, scared from a fretful doze, would 
nervously grasp the ever-ready rifle or revolver, and look in vain 
for the flight of arrows or await the lance-thrust of skulking foes. 

Through it all, however, Frank remained the same kind, enter- 
taining host; he always seemed to consider it part of his duties 
to entertain each one who travelled with him, and there was no 
lack of conversation, such as it was. " Never knowed Six-toed 
Petey Donaldson ? Wa'al, I sw'ar ! Look like enough to be 
Petey's own brother. Thought mebbe you mout V bin comin' out 
ter administer on th' estate. Not thet Petey bed enny t' leave, but 
then it's kind o' consolin' t' a feller to know thet his relatives hev 
come out ter see about him. How did Petey die ? Injuns. Th ? 
Apaches got him jest this side o' the Senneky (Cienaga) ; we'll 
see it jest 's soon 's we rise th' hill yander." By the time that 
the buckboard drew up in front of the post-office, what with cold 
and hunger and thirst and terror, and bumping over rocks and 
against giant cactus, and every other kind of cactus, and having 
had one or two runaways when the animals had struck against 
the adhering thorns of the pestiferous "cholla," the traveller was 
always in a suitable frame of mind to invite Frank to " take 
suthiny and Frank was too much of a gentleman to think of 

" Now, lemme give yer good advice, podner," Frank would 
say in his most gracious way, " V doan't drink none o' this yere 
'Merican whiskey ; it 's no good. Jes' stick to mescal; that J s the 
stuff. Yer see, the alkali water V sand hereabouts 11 combine 
with mescal, but they p'isens a man when he tries to mix 'em 
with whiskey, 'specially this yere Kansas whiskey " (the " tender- 
foot " had most likely just come over from Kansas); " V ef he 
doan^ get killed deader nor a door-nail, why, his system's all 
chock full o' p'isen, 'n' there you are." 

The establishment of the rival paper, the Citizen, was the 
signal for a war of words, waxing in bitterness from week to 
week, and ceasing only with the death of the Arizonian, which 
took place not long after. One of the editors of the Citizen was 
Joe Wasson, a very capable journalist, with whom I was after- 
ward associated intimately in the Black Hills and Yellowstone 
country during the troubles with the Sioux and Cheyennes. He 
was a well-informed man, who had travelled much and seen life 


in many phases. He was conscientious in his ideas of duty, and 
fnll of the energy and "snap" supposed to be typically Ameri- 
can. He. approached every duty with the alertness and earnest- 
ness of a Scotch terrier. The telegraph was still unknown to 
Arizona, and for that reason the Citizen contained an unusually 
large amount of editorial matter upon affairs purely local. Al- 
most the very first columns of the paper demanded the sweeping 
away of garbage-piles, the lighting of the streets by night, the 
establishment of schools, and the imposition of a tax upon the 
gin-mills and gambling-saloons. 

Devout Mexicans crossed themselves as they passed this fanatic, 
whom nothing would seem to satisfy but the subversion of every 
ancient institution. Even the more progressive among the 
Americans realized that Joe was going a trifle too far, and felt 
that it was time to put the brakes upon a visionary theorist whose 
war-cry was ' ' Eef orm ! " But no remonstrance availed, and edito- 
rial succeeded editorial, each more pungent and aggressive than 
its predecessors. What was that dead burro doing on the main 
street ? Why did not the town authorities remove it ? 

" Valgame ! What is the matter with the man ? and why does 
he make such a fuss over Pablo Martinez's dead burro, which has 
been there for more than two months and nobody bothering about 
it ? Why, it was only last week that Ramon Eomualdo and I 
were talking about it, and we both agreed that it ought to be 
removed some time yery soon. Bah ! I will light another cigar- 
ette. These Americans make me sick always in a hurry, as if 
the devil were after them/' 

In the face of such antagonism as this the feeble light of the 
Arizonian flickered out, and that great luminary was, after the 
lapse of a few years, succeeded by the Star, whose editor and 
owner arrived in the Territory in the latter part of the year 1873, 
after the Apaches had been subdued and placed upon reserva- 



rpHE Feast of San Juan brought out some very curious cus- 
~L toms. The Mexican gallants, mounted on the fieriest 
steeds they could procure, would call at the homes of their " dul- 
cineas," place the ladies on the saddle in front, and ride up and 
down the streets, while disappointed rivals threw fire-crackers 
under the horses' feet. There would be not a little superb 
equestrianism displayed ; the secret of the whole performance 
seeming fco consist in the nearness one could attain to breaking his 
neck without doing so. 

There is another sport of the Mexicans which has almost if not 
quite died out in the vicinity of Tucson, but is still maintained 
in full vigor on the Eio Grande : running the chicken " correr 
el gallo." In this fascinating sport, as it looked to be for the 
horsemen, there is or was an old hen buried to the neck in the 
sand, and made the target for each rushing rider as he swoops 
down and endeavors to seize the crouching fowl If he succeed, 
he has to ride off at the fastest kind of a run to avoid the pur- 
suit of his comrades, who follow and endeavor to wrest the prize 
from his hands, and the result, of course, is that the poor hen is 
pulled to pieces. 

Nothing would give me greater pleasure than to describe for 
the benefit of my readers the scenes presenting themselves during 
the "Funccion of San Agostin " in Tucson, or that of San Fran- 
cisco in the Mexican town of Madalena, a hundred and twenty- 
five miles, more or less, to the south ; the music, the dancing, 
the gambling, the raffles, the drinking of all sorts of beverages 
strange to the palate of the American of the North ; the dishes, 
hot and cold, of the Mexican cuisine, the trading going on in all 



kinds of truck brought from remote parts of the country, the 
religious ceremonial brilliant with lights and sweet with music 
and redolent with incense. 

For one solid week these "funceiones lasted/" and during the 
whole time, from early morn till dewy eve, the thump, thump of 
the drum, the plinky, plink, plink of the harp, and the fluky- 
fluke of the flute accented the shuffling feet of the unwearied 
dancers. These and events like them deserve a volume by them- 
selves. I hope that what has already been written may be taken 
as a series of views, but not the complete series of those upon 
which we looked from day to day. No perfect picture of early 
times in Arizona and 'New Mexico could be delineated upon my 
narrow canvas ; the sight was distracted by strange scenes, the 
ears by strange sounds, many of each horrible beyond the wildest 
dreams. There was the ever-dreadful Apache on the one hand 
to terrify and torment, and the beautiful ruin of San Xavier on 
the other to bewilder and amaze. 

Of all the mission churches within the present limits of the 
United States, stretching in the long line from. San Antonio, 
Texas, to the presidio of San Francisco, and embracing such ex- 
amples as San Gabriel, outside of Los Angeles, and the mission 
of San Diego, there is not one superior, and there are few equal, 
to San Xavier del Bac, the church of the Papago Indians, nine 
miles above Tucson, on the Santa Cruz. It needs to be seen to 
be appreciated, as no literal description, certainly none of which 
I am capable, can do justice to its merits and beauty. What I 
have written here is an epitome of the experience and knowledge 
acquired during years of service there and of familiarity with 
its people and the conditions in which they lived. 

My readers should bear in mind that during the whole period 
of our stay in or near Tucson we were on the go constantly, mov- 
ing from point to point, scouting after an enemy who had no 
rival on the continent in coolness, daring, and subtlety. To 
save repetition, I will say that the country covered by our move- 
ments comprehended the region between the Eio Azul in $"ew 
Mexico, on the east, to Camp MacDowell, on the west; and 
from Camp Apache, on the north, to the Mexican pueblos of 
Santa Cruz and Madalena, far to the south. Of all this I wish 
to say the least possible, my intention being to give a clear 


picture of Arizona as it was before the arrival of General Crook,, 
and not to enter into unnecessary details,, in which undue reference 
must necessarily be had to my own experiences. 

But I do wish to say that we were for a number of weeks 
accompanied by Governor Safford, at the head of a contingent of 
Mexican volunteers, who did very good service in the mountains 
on the international boundary, the Huachuca, and others. We 
made camp one night withiu rifle-shot of what has since been the 
flourishing, and is now the decayed, mining town of Tombstone. 
On still another evening, one of our Mexican guides old Yictor 
Ruiz, one of the best men that ever lived on the bordersaid 
that he was anxious to ascertain whether or not his grandfather's 
memory was at fault in the description given of an abandoned 
silver mine,, which Euiz was certain could not he very far from 
where we were sitting. JSTaturally enough, we all volunteered to 
go with him in his search, and in less than ten minutes we had 
reached the spot where, under a mass of earth and stone, was 
hidden the shaft of which our guide had spoken. 

*The stories that have always circulated in Arizona about the 
fabulous wealth of her mineral leads as known to the Spaniards 
have been of such a character as to turn the brain of the most 
conservative. The Plancha de la Plata, where a lump of virgin 
silver weighing over two thousand pounds was exhumed ; the 
"Thorn Mine/' or the " Lost Cabin Mine/' in the Tonto Basin ; 
the ee Salero/' where the padre in charge, wishing to enter- 
tain his bishop in proper style, and finding that he had no 
salt-cellars ready, ordered certain of the Indians to dig out 
enough ore to make a solid silver basin, which was placed in 
all its crudity before the superior all these were ringing in 
our ears, and made our task of moving the rocks and debris a 
very light one. 

Disappointment attended our discovery ; the assays of the ore 
forwarded to San Francisco were not such as to stimulate the 
work of development ; the rock was not worth more than seven- 
teen dollars a ton, which in those years would not half pay the 
cost of reduction of silver. 

We were among the very first to come upon the rich ledges of 
copper which have since furnished the mainstay to the prosperity 
of the town of Clifton, on the border of New Mexico, and we 
knocked off pieces of pure metal, and brought them back to 


Tucson to show to the people there, on returning from our scouts 
in the upper Gila. 

On one occasion the Apaches ran off the herd of sheep belong- 
ingto Tully, Ochoa & DeLong, which were grazing in the foot-hills 
of the Santa Teresa not two miles from town. The young Mexi- 
can who was on duty, as " pastor" kept his ears open for the 
tinkle of the bell, and every now and then would rouse himself 
from his doze to look around the mesquite under which he sat, 
to ascertain that his flock was all right. Gradually, the heat of 
the day became more and more oppressive, and the poor boy, still 
hearing the tintinnabulation, was in a delightful day-dream, 
thinking of his sapper, perhaps, when he half-opened his eyes, 
and saw leering at him a full-grown Apache, who had all the 
while been gently shaking the bell taken an hour or two before 
from the neck of the wether which, with the rest of the flock, was 
a good long distance out of sight behind the hills, near the 
" Punta del Agua." The boy, frightened out of his wits, screamed 
lustily, and the Apache, delighted by his terror, flung the bell 
at his head, and then set off at a run to gain the hills where 
his comrades were. The alarm soon reached town, and the 
sheep were recovered before midnight, and by dawn the next 
day were back on their old pasturage, excepting the foot-sore 
and the weary, too weak to travel. 

Our scouting had its share of incidents grave, gay, melan- 
choly, ludicrous ; men killed and wounded ; Apaches ditto ; and 
the usual amount of hard climbing by day, or marching by night 
upon trails which sometimes led us upon the enemy, and very 
often did not. 

There was one very good man, Moore, if I remember his name 
correctly, who died of the "fever" malaria and was carried 
from the " Grassy Plain " into old Camp Goodwin, on the Gila, 
near the Warm Spring. No sooner had we arrived at Goodwin 
than one of the men soldier or civilian employee, I do not know 
now attempted to commit suicide, driven to despair by the utter 
isolation of his position; and two of our own company Ser- 
geant John Mott and one other, bofch excellent men dropped 
down, broken up with the "fever, 5 * which would yield to nothing 
but the most heroic treatment with quinine. 

In a skirmish with the Apaches near the head of Deer Creek, 


one of our men, named Shire, was struck by a rifle ball in the 
knee-cap, the ball ranging downward, and lodging in the lower 
leg near the ankle bone. We were sore distressed. There was no 
doctor with the little command, a criminal neglect for which 
Gushing was not responsible, and there was no guide, as Manuel 
Duran, who generally went out with us, was lying in Tucson 
seriously ill. No one was hurt badly enough to excite apprehen- 
sion excepting Shire, whose wound was not bleeding at all, the 
hemorrhage being on the inside. 

Sergeant Wax-field, Gushing, and I stayed up all night talking 
over the situation, and doing so in a low tone, lest Shire should 
suspect that we had not been telling the truth when we persuaded 
him to believe that he had been hit by a glancing bullet, which 
had benumbed the whole leg but had not inflicted a very serious 

Our Mexican packers were called into consultation, and the 
result was that by four in the morning, as soon as a cup of 
coffee could be made, I was on my way over to the Aravaypa 
Cation at the head of a small detachment in charge of the 
wounded man, who was firmly strapped to his saddle. We 
got along very well so long as we were on the high hills and 
mountains, where the horse of the sufferer could be led, and 
he himself supported by friendly hands on each side. To get 
down into the chasm of the Aravaypa was a horse of altogether 
a different color. The trail was extremely steep, stony, and 
slippery, and the soldier, heroic as he was, could not repress a 
groan as his horse jarred him by slipping under his weight on 
the wretched path. At the foot of the descent it was evident 
that something else in the way of transportation would have 
to be provided, as the man's strength was failing rapidly and he 
could no longer sit up. 

Lieutenant Cushing's orders were for me to leave the party 
just as soon as I thought I could do so safely, and then ride as 
fast as the trail would permit to Gamp Grant, and there get all 
the aid possible. It seemed to me that there could be no better 
time for hurrying to the post than the present, which found the 
detachment at a point where it could defend itself from the 
attack of any roving party of the enemy, and supplied with grass 
for the animals and fuel and water for the men. 

Shire had fainted as I mounted and started with one of the 


men, Corporal Harrington, for the post, some twelve miles away. 
We did not have much more of the cation to bother us, and made 
good speed all the way down the Aravaypa and into the post, 
where I hurriedly explained the situation and had an ambulance 
start up the cafion with blankets and other comforts, while in 
the post itself everything was made ready for the amputation in 
the hospital, which all knew to be a foregone conclusion, and a 
mounted party was sent to Tucson to summon Dr. Durant to 
assist in the operation. 

Having done all this, I started back up the cafion and came 
upon my own detachment slowly making its way down. In an- 
other hour the ambulance had rolled up to the door of the hos- 
pital, and the wounded man was on a cot under the influence of 
anaesthetics. The amputation was made at the upper third of the 
thigh, and resulted happily, and the patient in due time recovered, 
although he had a close call for his life. 

The winter of 1870 and the spring of 1871 saw no let up in the 
amount of scouting which was conducted against the Apaches. 
The enemy resorted to a system of tactics which had often been 
tried in the past and always with success. A number of simul- 
taneous attacks were made at points widely separated, thus con- 
fusing both troops and settlers, spreading a vague sense of 
fear over all the territory infested, and imposing upon the sol- 
diery an exceptional amount of work of the hardest conceivable 

Attacks were made in southern Arizona upon the stage stations 
at the San Pedro, and the Cienaga, as well as the one near the 
Picacho, and upon the ranches in the Barbacomori valley, and in 
the San Pedro, near Tres Alamos. Then came the news of a fight 
at Pete Kitchen's, and finally, growing bolder, the enemy drove 
ofi a herd of cattle from Tucson itself, some of them beeves, and 
others work-oxen belonging to a wagon-train from Texas. Lastly 
came the killing of the stage mail-rider, between the town and 
the Mission church of San Xavier, and the massacre of the party 
of Mexicans going down to Sonora, which occurred not far from 
the Sonoita. 

One of the members of this last party was a beautiful young 
Mexican lady Dofla Trinidad Aguirre who belonged to a very 
respectable family in the Mexican Republic, and was on her way 
back from a visit to relatives in Tucson. 


That one so young, so beautiful and bright, should have been 
snatched away by a most cruel death at the hands of savages, 
aroused the people of all the country south of the G-ila, and 
nothing was talked of, nothing was thought of, but vengeance 
upon the Apaches. 

Cushing all this time had kept our troop moving without 
respite. There were fights, and ambuscades, and attacks upon 
"rancherias,"and night-marches without number, several result- 
ing in the greatest success. I am not going to waste any space 
upon these, because there is much of the same sort to come, 
and I am afraid of tiring out the patience of my readers before 
reaching portions of this book where there are to be found 
descriptions of very spirited engagements. 

The trail of the raiders upon the ranch at the " Oienaga " 
(now called "Pantano" by the Southern Pacific Eailroad people) 
took down into the " Mestinez," or Mustang Mountains, so called 
from the fact that a herd of wild ponies were to be found there 
or not far off. They did not number more than sixty all told 
when I last saw them in 1870, and were in all probability the last 
herd of wild horses within the limits of the United States. In 
this range, called also the "Whetstone" Mountains, because 
there exists a deposit or ledge of the rock known as " novacu- 
lite " or whetstone of the finest quality, we came upon the half 
calcined bones of two men burned to death by the Apaches ; 
and after marching out into the open valley of the San. Pedro, and 
crossing a broad expanse covered with yucca and sage-brush, we 
came to a secluded spot close to the San Jos6 range, where the 
savages had been tearing up the letters contained in one of Uncle 
Sam's mail-bags, parts of which lay scattered about. 

When the work-oxen of the Texans were run off, the Apaches 
took them over the steepest, highest and rockiest part of the Sierra 
Santa Oatalina, where one would not believe that a bird would 
dare to fly. We followed closely, guided by Manuel Duran and 
others, but progress was difficult and slow, on account of the 
nature of the trail. As we picked our way, foot by foot, we 
could discern the faintest sort of a mark, showing that a trail 
had run across there and had lately been nsed by the Apaches. 
But all the good done by that hard march was the getting back 
of the meat of the stock which the Apaches killed just the mo- 
ment they reached the caflons under the Trumbull Peak. Two 


or three of the oxen were still alive, but so nearly run to death 
that we killed them as an act of mercy. 

Three of our party were hurt in the mlee, and we scored 
three hits, one a beautiful shot by Manuel, who killed his man 
the moment he exposed himself to his aim, and two wounded, 
how seriously we could not tell, as by the time we had made our 
way to the top of the rocks the enemy had gone with their 
wounded, leaving only two pools of blood to show where the 
bullets had taken effect. 

The trail leading to the place where the Apaches had taken 
refuge was so narrow that one of our pack- mules lost his footing 
and fell down the precipice, landing upon the top of a tree 
below and staying there for a full minute, when the branches 
broke under him and let him have another fall, breaking his 
back and making it necessary to blow his brains out as soon as 
the action was over and we could take time to breathe. 

Then followed the fearful scene of bloodshed known as the 
Ci Camp Grant Massacre," which can only be referred to a full 
description would require a volume of its own. A small party of 
Apaches had presented themselves at Camp Grant, and made 
known to the commanding officer that they and their friends 
up in the Aravaypa Cafion were willing and anxious to make 
peace and to stay near the post, provided they could get food 
and clothing. They were told to return with their whole tribe, 
which they soon did, and there is no good reason for supposing 
that the greater portion of them were not honest in their profes- 
sions and purposes. The blame of what was to follow could not 
be laid at the doors of the local military authorities, who exerted 
themselves in every way to convey information of what had hap- 
pened to the Department headquarters, then at Los Angeles. As 
previously stated, there was no mode of communication in Ari- 
zona save the stage, which took five days to make the trip from 
Tucson to Los Angeles, and as many more for a return trip, there 
being no telegraph in existence. 

Weeks and weeks were frittered away in making reports which 
should have reached headquarters at, once and should have been 
acted upon without the delay of a second. The story was circu- 
lated and generally believed, that the first report was returned 
to the officer sending it, with instructions to return it to Depart- 
ment headquarters "properly briefed/' that is, with a synopsis 


of its contents properly written on the outer flap of the com- 
munication when folded. There was no effort made, as there 
should have been made,, to separate the peaceably disposed 
Indians from those who still preferred to remain out on the war- 
path, and as a direct consequence of this neglect ensued one of the 
worst blots in the history of American civilization, the " Camp 
Grant Massacre." 

A party of more than one hundred Papago Indians, from the 
village of San Xavier, led by a small detachment of whites and 
half-breed Mexicans from Tucson, took up the trail of one of the 
parties of raiders which had lately attacked the settlers and the 
peaceable Indians in the valley of the Santa Cruz. What followed 
is matter of history, The pursuing party claimed that the trails 
led straight to the place occupied by the Apaches who had sur- 
rendered at Camp Grant, and it is likely that this is so, since one 
of the main trails leading to the country of the Aravaypa and 
Gila bands passed under the Sierra Pinaleno, near the point in 
question. It was claimed further that a horse belonging to Don 
Leopoldo Carrillo was found in the possession of one- of the young 
boys coming out of the village, and that some of the clothing of 
Dona Trinidad Aguirre was also found. 

These stories may be true, and they may be after- thoughts to 
cover up and extenuate the ferocity of the massacre which spared 
neither age nor sex in its wrath, but filled the valley of the Ara- 
vaypa with dead and dying. The incident, one of the saddest and 
most terrible in our annals, is one over which I would gladly draw 
a veil. To my mind it indicated the weak spot in all onr deal- 
ings with, the aborigines, a defective point never repaired and 
never likely to be. According to our system of settling up the 
public lands, there are no such things as colonies properly so 
called. Each settler is free to go where he pleases, to take up 
such area as the law permits, and to protect himself as best he 
can. The army has always been too small to afford all the 
protection the frontier needed, and affairs have been permitted 
to drift along in a happy-go-lucky sort of a way indicative 
rather of a sublime faifch in divine providence than of common 
sense and good judgment. 

The settlers, in all sections of the West, have been representa- 
tive of the best elements of the older States from which they set 
forth, but it is a well-known fact that among them have been a 


fair, possibly more than a fair, share of the reckless, the idle and 
the dissolute. On the other hand, among the savages, there 
have been as many young bloods anxious to win renown in battle 
as there have been old wise-heads desirous of preserving the best 
feeling with the new neighbors. The worst members of the two 
races are brought into contact, and the usual results follow; 
trouble springs up, and it is not the bad who suffer, but the 
peaceably disposed on each side. 

On the 5th day of May, 1871, Lieutenant Howard B, Gushing, 
Third Cavalry, with several civilians and three soldiers, was killed 
by the Chiricahua Apaches, under their famous chief " Cocheis," 
at the Bear Springs, in the Whetstone Mountains, about thirty- 
five miles from Tucson and about the same distance to the east 
of old Camp Crittenden. Gushing's whole force numbered 
twenty-two men, the larger part of whom were led into an 
ambuscade in the canon containing the spring. The fight was 
a desperate one, and fought with courage and great skill on both 
sides. Our forces were surrounded before a shot had been fired ; 
and it was while Gushing was endeavoring to lead his men back 
that he received the wounds which killed him. Had it not been 
for the courage and good judgment displayed by Sergeant John 
Mott, who had seen a great amount of service against the Apaches, 
not one of the command would have escaped alive out of the 

Mott was in command of the rear-guard, and, in coming up to 
the assistance of Lieutenant Gushing, detected the Apaches mov- 
ing behind a low range of hills to gain Cushing's rear. He sent 
word ahead, and that induced Lieutenant Gushing to fall back. 

After Gushing dropped, the Apaches made a determined charge 
and came upon our men hand to hand. The little detachment 
could save only those horses and mules which were ridden at the 
moment the enemy made the attack, because the men who had 
dismounted to fight on foot were unable to remount, such was the 
impetuosity of the rush made by the Chiricahuas. There were 
enough animals to "ride and tie," and Mott, by keeping up on 
the backbone of the hills running along the Barbacomori Valley, 
was enabled to reach Camp Crittenden without being surrounded 
or ambuscaded. 

Inside of forty-eight hours there were three troops of cavalry 
en route to Crittenden, and in pursuit of the Apaches, but no 


good could be effected. Major William J. Ross, at that time in 
command of Camp Crittenden, was most energetic in getting 
word to the various military commands in the southern part of 
the country, as well as in extending every aid and kindness to 
the wounded brought in by Mott. 

When the combined force had arrived at Bear Spring, there 
was to be seen every evidence of a most bloody struggle. The 
bodies of Lieutenant Gushing and comrades lay where they had 
fallen, stripped of clothing, which the Apaches always carried 
off from their victims. In all parts of the narrow little caflon 
were the carcasses of ponies and horses half -eaten by the coyotes 
and buzzards ; broken saddles, saddle-bags, canteens with bullet- 
holes in them, pieces of harness and shreds of clothing scattered 
about, charred to a crisp in the flames which the savages had 
ignited in the grass to conceal their line of retreat. 

Of b&w many Apaches had been killed, there was not the re- 
motest suggestion to be obtained. That there had been a heavy 
loss among the Indians could be suspected from the signs of 
bodies having been dragged to certain points, and there, appar- 
ently, put on pony-back. 

The Chiricahuas seemed to have ascended the cafion until 
they had attained the crest of the range in a fringe of pine tim- 
ber ; but no sooner did they pass over into the northern foot-hills 
than they broke in every direction, and did not re-unite until 
near our boundary line, with Mexico, where their trail was struck 
and followed for several days by Major Gerald Russell of the 
Third Cavalry. They never halted until they had regained the 
depths of the Sierra Madre, their chosen haunt, and towards 
which Russell followed them so long as his broken-down animals 
could travel. 

Of the distinguished services rendered to Arizona by Lieuten- 
ant Gushing, a book might well be written. It is not intended 
to disparage anybody when I say that he had performed hercu- 
lean and more notable work, perhaps, than had been performed 
by any other officer of corresponding rank either before or since. 
Southern Arizona owed much to the gallant officers who wore 
out strength and freely risked life and limb in her defence men 
of the stamp of Devin, C. 0. Carr, Sanford, Gerald Russell, 
Winters, Harris, Almy, Carroll, McCleave, Kelly, and many 
others. They were all good men and true ; but if there were any 


choice among them I am sure that the verdict, if left to those 
soldiers themselves, would be in favor of Gushing. 

Standing on the summit of the Whetstone Kange, which has 
no great height, one can see the places, or the hills overlooking 
them, where several other officers met their death at the hands 
of the same foe. To the west is Davidson's Cafton, where the 
Apaches ambushed and killed Lieutenant Eeid T. Stewart and 
Corporal Black; on the north, the cone of Trumbull overlooks 
the San Carlos Agency, where the brave Almy fell ; to the north- 
west are the Tortolita hills, near which Miller and Tappan were 
killed in ambuscade, as already narrated ; and to the east are the 
Chiricahua Mountains, in whose bosom rests Fort Bowie with its 
grewsome graveyard filled with such inscriptions as "Killed by 
the Apaches," "Met his death at the hands of the Apaches," 
"Died of wounds inflicted by Apache Indians," and at times 
"Tortured and killed by Apaches." One visit to that cemetery 
was warranted to furnish the most callous with nightmares for a 



WHEN General Crook received orders to go out to Arizona 
and assume command of that savage-infested Department, 
lie at once obeyed the order, and reached his new post of duty 
without baggage and without fuss. 

All the baggage he had would not make as much compass as 
a Remington type-writer. The only thing with him which could 
in any sense be classed as superfluous was a shotgun, but without 
this or a rifle he new travelled anywhere. 

He came, as I say., without the slightest pomp or parade, and 
without any one in San Francisco, except his immediate superiors, 
knowing of his departure, and without a soul in Tucson, not even 
the driver of the stage which had carried him and his baggage, 
knowing of his arrival. There were no railroads, there were no 
telegraphs in Arizona, and Crook was the last man in the world 
to seek notoriety had they existed. His whole idea of life was 
to do each duty well, and to let his work speak for itself. 

He arrived in. the morning, went up to the residence of his old 
friend, Governor Safford, with whom he lunched, and before sun- 
down every officer within the limits of what was then called the 
southern district of Arizona was under summons to report to him ; 
that is, if the orders had not reached them they were on the way. 

Prom each he soon extracted all he knew about the country, 
the lines of travel, the trails across the various mountains, the 
fords where any were required for the streams, the nature of 
the soil, especially its products, such as grasses, character of the 
climate, the condition of the pack-mules, and all pertaining to 
them, and every other item of interest a commander could possibly 


want to hare determined. But in reply not one word, not one 
glance, not one hint., as to what he was going to do or what he 
would like to do. 

This was the point in Crook's character which made the 
strongest impression upon every one coming in contact with him 
his ability to learn all that his informant had to supply, without 
yielding in return the slightest suggestion of his own plans and 
purposes. He refused himself to no one, no matter how humble, 
but was possessed of a certain dignity which repressed any ap- 
proach to undue familiarity. He was singularly averse to the 
least semblance of notoriety, and was as retiring as a girl. He 
never consulted with any one; made his own plans after the 
most studious deliberation, and kept them to himself with a 
taciturnity which at times must hare been exasperating to his 
subordinates. Although taciturn, reticent, and secretive, morose- 
ness formed no part of his nature, which was genial and sunny. 
He took great delight in conversation, especially in that wherein, 
he did not have to join if indisposed. 

He was always interested in the career and progress of the 
young officers under him, and glad to listen to their plans and 
learn their aspirations. No man can say that in him the subal- 
tern did not have the brightest of exemplars, since Crook was a 
man who never indulged in stimulant of any kind not so much 
as tea or coffee never used tobacco, was never heard to employ 
a profane or obscene word, and was ever and always an officer to 
do, and do without pomp or ceremony, all that Was required of 
him, and much more. 

No officer could claim that he was ever ordered to do a duty 
when the Department commander was present, which the latter 
would not in person lead. No officer of the same rank, at least 
in our service, issued so few orders. According to his creed, offi- 
cers did not need to be devilled with orders and instructions 
and memoranda ; all that they required was to obtain an insight 
into what was desired of them, and there was no better way to 
inculcate this than by personal example. 

Therefore, whenever there was a trouble of any magnitude under 
Crook's jurisdiction he started at once to the point nearest the 
skirmish line, and stayed there so long as the danger existed ; but 
he did it all so quietly, and with so little parade, that half the 
time no one would suspect that there was any hostility threatened 


until after the whole matter had blown over or been stamped out, 
and the General back at his headquarters. 

This aversion to display was carried to an extreme ; he never 
liked to put on uniform when it could be avoided ; never allowed 
an orderly to follow him about a post, and in every manner pos- 
sible manifested a nature of unusual modesty, and totally devoid 
of affectation. He had one great passion hunting, or better say, 
hunting and fishing. Often he would stray away for days with 
no companion but his dog and the horse or mule he rode, and 
remain absent until a full load of game deer, wild turkey, quail, 
or whatever it might happen to be rewarded his energy and 
patience. From this practice he diverged slightly as he grew 
older, yielding to the expostulations of his staff, who impressed 
upon him that it was nothing but the merest prudence to be 
accompanied by an Indian guide, who could in case of necessity 
break back for the command or the post according to circum- 

In personal appearance General Crook was manly and strong ; 
he was a little over six feet in height, straight as a lance, broad 
and square-shouldered, full-chested, and with an elasticity and 
sinewiness of limb which betrayed the latent muscular power 
gained by years of constant exercise in the hills and mountains of 
the remoter West. 

In his more youthful days, soon after being graduated from 
the Military Academy, he was assigned to duty with one of the 
companies of the Fourth Infantry, then serving in the Oregon 
Territory. It was the period of the gold-mining craze on the 
Pacific coast, and prices were simply prohibitory for all the com- 
forts of life. Crook took a mule, a frying-pan, a bag of salt and 
one of flour, a rifle and shotgun, and sallied out into the wilder- 
ness. By his energy and skill he kept the mess fully supplied with 
every kind of wild meat venison, quail, duck, and others and at 
the end of the first month, after paying all the expenses on account 
of ammunition, was enabled from the funds realized by selling 
the surplus meat fco miners and others, to declare a dividend of 
respectable proportions, to the great delight of his messmates. 

His lore for hunting and fishing, which received its greatest 
impetus in those days of his service in Oregon and Northern 
California, increased rather than diminished as the years passed 
by. He became not only an exceptionally good shot, but ac- 


quired a familiarity with the habits of wild animals possessed 
by but few naturalists. Little by little he was induced to read 
upon the subject, until the views of the most eminent ornithol- 
ogists and naturalists were known to him, and from this fol- 
lowed in due sequence a development of his taste for taxidermy, 
which enabled him to pass many a lonesome hour in the congenial 
task of preserving and mounting his constantly increasing col- 
lection of birds and pelts. 

There were few, if any, of the birds or beasts of the Eocky 
Mountains and the country west of them to the waters of the 
Pacific, which had not at some time furnished tribute to General 
CrooFs collection* In the pursuit of the wilder animals he 
cared nothing for fatigue, hunger, or the perils of the cliffs, or 
those of being seized in the jaws of an angry bear or mountain 

He used to take great, and, in my opinion, reprehensible risks 
in his encounters with grizzlies and brown bears, many of whose 
pelts decorated his quarters. Many times I can recall in Arizona, 
Wyoming, and Montana, where he had left the command, taking 
with him only one Indian guide as a companion, and had struck 
out to one flank or the other, following some " sign/' until an 
hour or two later a slender signal smoke warned the pack-train 
that he had a prize of bear-meat or venison waiting for the arrival 
of the animals which were to carry it back to camp. 

Such constant exercise toughened muscle and sinew to the 
rigidity of steel and the elasticity of rubber, while association 
with the natives enabled him constantly to learn their habits and 
ideas, and in time to become almost one of themselves. 

If night overtook him at a distance from camp, he would 
picket his animal to a bush convenient to the best grass, take out 
his heavy hunting-knife and cut down a pile of the smaller 
branches of the pine, cedar, or sage-brush, as the case might be, 
and with them make a couch upon which, wrapped in his over- 
coat and saddle-blanket, he would sleep composedly till the rise 
of the morning star, when he would light his fire, broil a slice 
of venison, give his horse some water, saddle up and be off to 
look for the trail of his people. 

His senses became highly educated ; his keen, blue-gray eyes 
would detect in a second and at a wonderful distance the slight- 
est movement across the horizon ; the slightest sound aroused 


his curiosity, the faintest odor awakened his suspicions. He 
noted the smallest depression in the sand, the least deflection 
in the twigs or branches ; no stone could be moved from its 
position in the trail without appealing at once to his perceptions. 
He became skilled in the language of "signs" and trails, and 
so perfectly conversant with all that is concealed in the great 
book of Nature that, in the mountains at least, he might read- 
ily take rank as being fully as much an Indian as the Indian 

There never was an officer in our military service so completely 
in accord with all the ideas, views, and opinions of the savages 
whom he had to fight or control as was General Crook. In time 
of campaign this knowledge placed him, as it were, in the secret 
councils of the enemy ; in time of peace it enabled him all the 
more completely to appreciate the doubts and misgivings of the 
Indians at the outset of a new life, and to devise plans by which 
they could all the more readily be brought to see that civiliza- 
tion was something which all could embrace without danger of 

But while General Crook was admitted, even by the Indians, to 
be more of an Indian than the Indian himself, it must in no wise 
be understood that he ever occupied any other relation than that 
of the older and more experienced brother who was always ready 
to hold out a helping hand to the younger just learning to walk 
and to climb. Crook never ceased to be a gentleman. Much as 
he might live among savages, he never lost the right to claim 
for himself the best that civilization and enlightenment had to 
bestow. He kept up with the current of thought on the more 
important questions of the day, although never a student in the 
stricter meaning of the term. His manners were always ex- 
tremely courteous, and without a trace of the austerity with 
which small minds seek to hedge themselves in from the ap- 
proach of inferiors or strangers. His voice was always low, his 
conversation easy, and his general bearing one of quiet dignity. 

He reminded me more of Daniel Boone than any other charac- 
ter, with this difference, that Crook, as might be expected, had 
the advantages of the better education of his day and generation. 
But he certainly recalled Boone in many particulars ; there was 
the same perfect indifference to peril of any kind, the same 
coolness, an equal fertility of resources, the same inner knowl- 


edge of the wiles and tricks of the enemy, the same modesty 
and disinclination to parade as a hero or a great military genius, 
or to obtrude upon public notice the deeds performed in obedi- 
ence to the promptings of duty. 

Such was Arizona, and such was General George Crook when 
he was assigned to the task of freeing her from the yoke of the 
shrewdest and most ferocious of all the tribes encountered by 
the white man within the present limits of the United States. 

A condensed account of the Apaches themselves would seem, 
not to be out of place at this point, since it will enable the reader 
all the more readily to comprehend the exact nature of the opera- 
tions undertaken against them., and what difficulties, if any, were 
to be encountered in their subjugation and in their elevation to a 
higher plane of civilization. 

"With a stupidity strictly consistent with the whole history of 
our contact with the aborigines, the people of the United States 
have maintained a bitter and an unrelenting warfare against a 
people whose name was unknown to them. The Apache is not 
the Apache ; the name " Apache " does not occur in the language 
of the fe Tinneh," by which name, or some of its variants as 
" Inde," "Dinde/* or something similar, our Indian prefers to 
designate himself "The Man ;" he knows nothing, or did not 
know anything until after being put upon the [Reservations, of the 
new-fangled title C Apache/' which has come down to us from 
the Mexicans, who borrowed it from the Maricopas and others, in 
whose language it occurs with the signification of " enemy." 

It was through the country of the tribes to the south that the 
Spaniards first were brought face to face with the "Tinneh" of 
Arizona, and it was from these Maricopas and others that the 
name was learned of the desperate fighters who lived in the higher 
ranges with th,e deer, the elk, the bear, and the coyote. 

And as the Spaniards have always insisted upon the use of a 
name which the Apaches have as persistently repudiated ; and as 
the Americans have followed blindly in the footsteps of the Cas- 
tilian, we must accept the inevitable and describe this tribe under 
the name of the Apaches of Arizona, although it is much like 
invading England by way of Ireland, and writing of the Anglo- 
Saxons under the Celtic designation of the "Sassenach." 

The Apache is the southernmost member of the great Tinneli 
family, which stretches across the circumpolar portion of the 


American Continent, from the shores of the Pacific to the western 
line of Hudson's Bay. In the frozen habitat of their hyperbo- 
rean ancestors, the Tinneb, as all accounts agree, are perfectly 
good-natured, lively, and not at all hard to get along with. 

But once forced out from the northern limits of the lake region 
of British America the Great Slave, the Great Bear, and others 
whether by over-population, failure of food, or other cause, the 
Tinneh appears upon the stage as a conqueror, and as a diploma- 
tist of the first class ; he shows an unusual astuteness even for an 
Indian, and a daring which secures for him at once and forever 
an ascendency over all the tribes within reach of him. This re- 
mark will apply with equal force to the Eogue Rivers of Oregon, 
the TTmpquas of northern California, the Hoopas of the same 
State, and the Navajoes and Apaches of -Nfew Mexico, Chihua- 
hua and Sonora, all of whom are members of this great Tinneh 

In the Apache the Spaniard, whether as soldier or priest, found 
a foe whom no artifice could terrify into submission, whom no 
eloquence could wean from the superstitions of his ancestors. 
Indifferent to the bullets of the arquebuses in the hands of 
soldiers in armor clad, serenely insensible to the arguments of the 
friars and priests who claimed spiritual dominion over all other 
tribes, the naked Apache, with no weapons save his bow and 
arrows, lance, war-club, knife and shield, roamed over a vast 
empire, the lord of the soil fiercer than the fiercest of tigers, 
wilder than the wild coyote he called his brother. 

For years I have collected the data and have contemplated 
the project of writing the history of this people, based not only 
upon the accounts transmitted to us from the Spaniards and their 
descendants, the Mexicans, but upon the Apache's own story as 
conserved in his myths and traditions ; but I have lacked both 
the leisure and the inclination to put the project into execution. 
It would require a man with the even-handed sense of justice 
possessed by a Guizot, and the keen, critical, analytical powers 
of a Gibbon, to deal fairly with a question in which the ferocity of 
the savage Red-man has been more than equalled by the ferbcity 
of the Christian Caucasian; in which the occasional treachery of 
the aborigines has found its best excuse in the unvarying Punic 
faith of the Caucasian invader ; in which promises on each side 
have been made only to deceive and to be broken ; in which the 


red hand of war has rested most heavily upon shrieking mother 
and wailing babe. 

If from this history the Caucasian can extract any cause of 
self-laudation I am glad of it : speaking as a censor who has read 
the evidence with as much impartiality as could be expected from 
one who started in with the sincere conviction that the only good 
Indian was a dead Indian, and that the only use to make of him 
was that of a fertilizer, and who, from studying the documents 
in the case, and listening little by little to the savage's own story, 
has arrived at the conclusion that perhaps Pope Paul III. was 
right when he solemnly declared that the natives of the !N"ew 
World had souls and must be treated as human beings, and ad- 
mitted to the sacraments when found ready to receive them, I 
feel it to be my duty to say that the Apache has found himself 
in the very best of company when he committed any atrocity, it 
matters not how vile, and that his complete history, if it could 
be written by himself, would not be any special cause of self- 
complacency to such white men as believe in a just God, who 
will visit the sins of parents upon their children even to the 
third and the fourth generation. 

We have become so thoroughly Pecksniffian in our self -lauda- 
tion, in our exaltation of our own virtues, that we have become 
grounded in the error of imagining that the American savage 
is more cruel in his war customs than other nations of the earth 
have been ; this, as I have already intimated, is a misconception, 
and statistics, for such as care to dig them out, will prove that I 
am right. The Assyrians cut their conquered foes limb from 
limb ; the Israelites spared neither parent nor child ; the Romans 
crucified head downward the gladiators who revolted under Spar- 
tacus ; even in the civilized England of the past century, the 
wretch convicted of treason was executed under circumstances of 
cruelty which would have been too much for the nerves of the 
fiercest of the Apaches or Sioux. Instances in support of what I 
here assert crop up all over the page of history ; the trouble is not 
to discover them, but to keep them from blinding the memory to 
matters more pleasant to remember. Certainly, the American 
aborigine is not indebted to his pale-faced brother, no matter of 
what nation or race he may be, for lessons in tenderness and 

Premising the few remarks which I will allow myself to make 


upon this subject, by stating that the territory over which the 
Apache roamed a conqueror, or a bold and scarcely resisted raider, 
comprehended the whole of the present Territories of Arizona and 
New Mexico, one half of the State of Texas the half west of San 
Antonio and the Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua, with 
frequent raids -which extended as far as Durango, Jalisco, and 
even on occasion the environs of Zacatecas, I can readily make 
the reader understand that an area greater than that of the whole 
German Empire and France combined "was laid prostrate under 
the heel of a foe as subtle, as swift, as deadly, and as uncertain as 
the rattle-snake or the mountain lion whose homes he shared. 

From the moment the Castilian landed on the coast of the 
present Mexican Republic, there was no such thing thought of 
as justice for the American Indian until the authorities of the 
Church took the matter in hand, and compelled an outward regard 
for the rights which eyen animals haye conceded to them. 

Christopher Columbus, whom some yery worthy people are 
thinking of haying eleyated to the dignity of a saint, made use of 
bloodhounds for running down the inhabitants of Hispaniola. 

The expedition of D } Ayllon to the coast of Chicora, now known 
as South Carolina, repaid the kind reception accorded by the 
natiyes by the basest treachery ; two ship-loads of the unfortu- 
nates enticed on board were carried off to work in the mines of 
the invaders. 

G-irolamo Benzoni, one of the earliest authors, describes the 
yery delightful way the Spaniards had of making slayes of all 
the savages they could capture, and branding them with a red- 
hot iron on the hip or cheek, so that their new owners could 
recognize them the more readily. 

Cabeza de Yaca and his wretched companions carried no arms, 
but met with nothing but an ovation from the simple-minded 
and grateful natives, whose ailments they endeavored to cure by 
prayer and the sign of the cross. 

Yet, Vaca tells us, that as they drew near the settlements of 
their own countrymen they found the whole country in a tumult, 
due to the efforts the Oastilians were making to enslave the popu- 
lace, and drive them by fire and sword to the plantations newly 
established. Humboldt is authority for the statement that the 
Apaches resolved upon a war of extermination upon the Span- 
iards, when they learned that all their people taken captive by the 


king's forces had been driven off, to die a lingering death upon 
the sngar plantations of Cuba or in the mines of Guanaxuato. 

Drawing nearer to onr own days, we read the fact set down in 
the clearest and coldest black and white, that the state govern- 
ments of Sonora and Chihuahua had offered and paid rewards 
of three hundred dollars for each scalp of an Apache that should 
be presented at certain designated headquarters, and we read 
without a tremor of horror that individuals, clad in the human 
form men like the Englishman Johnson, or the Irishman Glan- 
ton entered into contracts with the governor of Chihuahua to 
do such bloody work. 

Johnson was " a man of honor." He kept his word faithfully, 
and invited a large band of the Apaches in to see him and have 
a feast at the old Santa Rita mine in New Mexico I have been 
on the spot and seen the exact site and while they were eating 
bread and meat, suddenly opened upon them with a light field- 
piece loaded to the muzzle with nails, bullets, and scrap-iron, and 
filled the court-yard with dead. 

Johnson, I say, was " a gentleman," and abided by the terms 
of his contract ; but Glanton was a blackguard, and set out to 
kill anything and everything in human form, whether Indian 
or Mexican. His first "victory" was gained over a band of 
Apaches with whom he set about arranging a peace in northern 
Chihuahua, not far from El Paso. The bleeding scalps were 
torn from the heads of the slain, and carried in triumph to the 
city of Chihuahua, outside of whose limits the "conquerors" 
were met by a procession of the governor, all the leading state 
dignitaries and the clergy, and escorted back to the city limits, 
w here as we are told by Ruxton, the English officer who trav- 
elled across Chihuahua on horse-back in 1835-1837 the scalps 
were nailed with frantic joy to the portals of the grand cathe- 
dral, for whose erection the silver mines had been taxed so out- 

Glanton, having had his appetite for blood excited, passed 
westward across, Arizona until he reached the Colorado Kiver, 
near where Fort Tuma now stands. There he attempted to 
cross to the California or western bank, but the Tuma Indians, 
who had learned of his pleasant eccentricities of killing every one, 
without distinction of age, sex, or race, who happened to be out 
on the trail alone, let Glanton and his comrades get a few yards 


into the river, and then opened on them from an ambush in the 
reeds and killed the last one. 

And then there have been " Pinole Treaties," in which the 
Apaches have been invited to sit down and eat repasts seasoned 
with the exhilarating strychnine. So that, take-it for all in all, 
the honors haye been easy, so far as treachery, brutality, cruelty, 
and lust have been concerned. The one great difference has 
been that the Apache could not read or write and hand down to 
posterity the story of his wrongs as he, and he alone, knew them. 

When the Americans entered the territory occupied or infested 
by the Apaches, all accounts agree that the Apaches were friendly. 
The statements of Bartlett, the commissioner appointed to run 
the new boundary line between the United States and Mexico, 
are explicit upon this point. Indeed, one of the principal chiefs 
of the Apaches was anxious to aid the new-comers in advancing 
farther to the south, and in occupying more of the territory of 
the Mexicans than was ceded by the Gadsden purchase. One of 
Bartlett's teamsters a Mexican teamster named Jesus Vasquez 
causelessly and in the coldest blood drew bead upon a promi- 
nent Apache warrior and shot him through the head. The Apa- 
ches did nothing beyond laying the whole matter before the 
new commissioner, whose decision they awaited hopefully. Bart- 
lett thought that the sum of thirty dollars, deducted from the 
teamster's pay in monthly instalments, was about all that the 
young man's life was worth. The Apaches failed to concur in 
this estimate, and took to the war-path ; and, to quote the words 
of Bartlett, in less than forty-eight hours had the whole coun- 
try for hundreds of miles in every direction on fire, and all the 
settlers that were not killed fleeing for their lives to the towns 
on the Rio Grande. A better understanding was reached a 
few years after, through the exertions of officers of the stamp of 
Ewell, who were bold in war but tender in peace, and who ob- 
tained great influence over a simple race which could respect men 
whose word was not written in sand. 

At the outbreak of the war of the Eebellion, affairs in Arizona 
and !N"ew Mexico became greatly tangled. The troops were with- 
drawn, and the Apaches got the notion into their heads that the 
country was to be left to them and their long-time enemies, 
the Mexicans, to fight for the mastery. 

Eafael Pumpelly, who at that time was living in Arizona, gives 


a vivid but horrifying description of the chaotic condition in 
which affairs were left by the sudden withdrawal of the troops, 
leaving the mines, which, in each case, were provided with 
stores or warehouses filled with goods, a prey to the Apaches who 
swarmed down from the mountains and the Mexican bandits 
who poured in from Sonora. 

There was scarcely any choice between them, and occasionally 
it happened, when the mining superintendent had an unusual 
streak of good luck, that he would have them both to fight at 
once, as in Pumpelly^s own case. 

Not very long previous to this, Arizona had received a most 
liberal contingent of the toughs and scalawags banished from 
San Francisco by the efforts of its Vigilance Committee, and 
until these last had shot each other to death, or until they had 
been poisoned by Tucson whiskey or been killed by the Apaches, 
Arizona's chalice was filled to the brim, and the most mendacious 
real-estate boomer would have been unable to recommend her 
as a suitable place for an investment of capital, 

It is among the possibilities that the Apaches could have been 
kept in a state of friendliness toward the Americans during these 
troublous days, had it not been for one of those accidents which 
will occur to disturb the most harmonious relations, and destroy 
the egect of years of good work. The Ohiricahua Apaches, living 
close to what is now Fort Bowie, were especially well behaved, and 
old-timers have often told me that the great chief, Cocheis, had 
the wood contract for supplying the " station " of the Southern 
Overland Mail Company at that point with fuel. The Finals 
and the other bands still raided upon the villages of northern 
Mexico ; in fact, some of the Apaches have made their home in 
the Sierra Madre, in Mexico ; and until General Crook in person 
led a small expedition down there, and pulled the last one of 
them out, it was always understood that there was the habitat 
and the abiding place of a very respectable contingent so far as 
numbers were concerned of the tribe. 

A party of the Final Apaches had engaged in trade with a party 
of Mexicans close to Fort Bowie and it should be understood 
that there was both trade and war with the Castilian, and, worst 
of all, what was stolen from one Mexican found ready sale to 
another, the plunder from Sonora finding its way into the hands 
of the settlers in Chihuahua, or, if taken up into our country, sell- 


ing without trouble to the Mexicans living along the Rio Grande 
and during the trade had druuk more whiskey, or mescal, 
than was good for them ; that is to say, they had drunk more 
than one drop, and had then stolen or led away with them a little 
boy, the child of an Irish father and a Mexican mother, whom 
the Mexicans demanded back. 

The commanding officer, a lieutenant of no great experience, 
sent for the brother of Cocheis, and demanded the return of the 
babe; the reply was made, and, in the light of years elapsed, 
the reply is known to have been truthful, that the Chiricahuas 
knew nothing of the kidnapped youngster and therefore could 
not restore him. The upshot of the affair was that Cocheis's 
brother. was killed "while resisting arrest." In Broadway, if a 
man "resist arrest/' he is in danger of having his head cracked 
by a policeman's club ; but in the remoter West, he is in great 
good luck, sometimes, if he don't find himself riddled with 

It is an excellent method of impressing an Indian with the 
dignity of being arrested; but the cost of the treatment is gener- 
ally too great to make it one that can fairly be recommended for 
continuous use. In the present instance, Cocheis, who had also 
been arrested, but had cut his way out of the back of the tent in 
which he was confined, went on the war-path, and for the next 
ten years made Arizona and New Mexico at least the south- 
ern half of them and the northern portions of Sonora and Chi- 
huahua, about the liveliest places on God's footstool. 

The account, if put down by a Treasury expert, would read 
something like this : 


"The United States to Cocheis, 
"For one brother, killed 'while resisting arrest/" 


" By ten thousand (10,000) men, women, and children killed, 
wounded, or tortured to death, scared out of their senses or 
driven out of the country, their wagon and pack-trains run 
off and destroyed, ranchos ruined, and all industrial develop- 
ment stopped." 

If any man thinks that I am drawing a fancy sketch, let him 
write to John H. Marion,, Pete Kitchen, or any other old pioneer 


whose residence in either Arizona or New Mexico has been suffi- 
ciently long to include the major portion of the time that the 
whole force of the Apache nation was in hostilities. 

I have said that the exertions of the missionaries of the Eoman 
Catholic Church, ordinarily so successful with the aborigines of 
our Continent, were nugatory with the Apaches of Arizona ; I 
repeat this, at the same time taking care to say that unremitting 
effort was maintained to open up communication with the various 
bands nearest to the pueblos which, from the year 1580, or there- 
about, had been brought more or less completely under the sway 
of the Franciscans. 

With some of these pueblos, as at Picuris, the Apaches bad 
intermarried, and with others still, as at Pecos, they carried on 
constant trade, and thus afforded the necessary loop-hole for 
the entrance of zealous missionaries. The word of God was 
preached to them, and in several instances bands were coaxed to 
abandon their nomadic and predatory life, and settle down in 
permanent Tillages. The pages of writers, like John Gilmary 
Shea, fairly glow with the recital of the deeds of heroism per- 
formed in this work ; and it must be admitted that perceptible 
traces of it are still to be found among the Navajo branch of 
the Apache family, *which had acquired the peach and the apri- 
cot, the sheep and the goat, the cow, the donkey and the horse, 
either from the Franciscans direct, or else from the pueblo 
refugees who took shelter with them in 1680 at the time of the 
Great Rebellion, in which the pueblos of New Mexico arose en 
masse and threw off the yoke of Spain and the Church, all for 
twelve years of freedom, and the Moquis threw it off forever. 
Arizona the Apache portion of it remained a sealed book to the 
friars, and even the Jesuits, in the full tide of their career as 
successful winners of souls, were held at arm's length. 

There is one point in the mental make-up of the Apache 
especially worthy of attention, and that is the quickness with 
which he seizes upon the salient features of a strategetical com- 
bination, and derives from them all that can possibly be made to 
inure to his own advantage. For generations before the invasion 
by the Castilians that is to say, by the handful of Spaniards, 
and the colony of Tlascaltec natives and mulattoes, whom Espejo 
and Onate led into the valley of the Eio Grande between 1580 
and 1590 the Apache had been the unrelenting foe of the 


Pueblo tribes ; but the moment that the latter determined to 
throw off the galling yoke which had been placed upon their 
necks, the Apache became their warm friend, and received the 
fugitives in the recesses of the mountains, where he could bid 
defiance to the world. Therefore, we can always depend upon 
finding in the records of the settlements in the Rio Grande 
valley, and in Sonora and Chihuahaa, that every revolt or at- 
tempted revolt, of the Pueblos or sedentary tribes meant a cor- 
responding increase in the intensity of the hostilities prosecuted 
by the Apache nomads. 

In the revolts of 1680, as well as those of 1745 and 1750, the 
Apache swept the country far to the south. The great revolt of 
the Pueblos was the one of 1680, during which they succeeded 
in driving the governor and the surviving Spanish colonists 
from Santa E down to the present town of Juarez (formerly El 
Paso del Korte), several hundred miles nearer Mexico. At that 
place Otermin made a stand, but it was fully twelve years before 
the Spanish power was re-established through the efforts of 
Vargas and Cruzate. The other two attempts at insurrection 
failed miserably, the second.being merely a local one among the 
Papagoes of Arizona. It may be stated, in round terms, that 
from the year 1700 until they were expelled from the territory of 
Mexico, the exertions of the representatives of the Spanish power 
in "Mew Spain" were mainly in the direction of reducing the 
naked Apache, who drove them into a frenzy of rage and despair 
by his uniform success. 

The Tarahumaris, living in the Sierra Madre south of the 
present international boundary, were also for a time a thorn in 
the side of the European ; but they submitted finally to the 
instructions of the missionaries who penetrated into their coun- 
try, and who, on one occasion at least, brought them in from the 
war-path before they had fired a shot. 

The first reference to the Apaches by name is in the account 
of EspejVs expedition 1581 where they will be found de- 
scribed as the ff Apichi," and from that time down the Span- 
iards vie with each other in enumerating the crimes and the 
atrocities of which these fierce Tinneh have been, guilty. Tor- 
quemada grows eloquent and styles them the Pharaohs ("Fa- 
raones") who have persecuted the chosen people of Israel 
(meaning the settlers on the Bio Grande). 


Yet all the while that this black cloud hung over the fair face 
of nature raiding, killing, robbing, carrying women and chil- 
dren into captivity Jesuit and Franciscan vied with each other 
in schemes for getting these savages under their control. 

Father Eusebio Kino, of whom I have already spoken, formu- 
lated a plan in or about 1710 for establishing, or re-establishing, 
a mission in the villages of the Moquis, from which the Francis- 
cans had been driven in the great revolt and to which they had 
never permanently returned. Questions of ecclesiastical juris- 
diction seem to have had something to do with delaying the 
execution of the plan, which was really one for the spiritual and 
temporal conquest of the Apache, by moving out against him 
from all sides, and which would doubtless have met with good 
results had not Kino died at the mission of Madalena a few 
months after. Father Sotomayor, another Jesuit, one of Kino's 
companions, advanced from the " Pimeria," or country of the 
Pirn as, in which Tucson has since grown up, to and across the 
Salt River on the north, in an unsuccessful attempt to begin 
negotiations with the Apaches. 

The overthrow of the Spanish power afforded another oppor- 
tunity to the Apache to play his cards for all they were worth ; 
and for fully fifty years he was undisputed master of North- 
western Mexico the disturbed condition of public afiairs south 
of the Rio Grande, the war between the United States and the 
Mexican Republic, and our own Civil War, being additional 
factors in the equation from which the Apache reaped the fullest 
possible benefit. 

It is difficult to give a fair description of the personal appear- 
ance of the Apaches, because there is no uniform type to which 
reference can be made ; both in physique and in facial lineaments 
there seem to be two distinct classes among them. Many of the 
tribes are scarcely above medium size, although they look to be 
still smaller from their great girth of chest and width of shoul- 
ders. Many others are tall, well-made, and straight as arrows. 
There are long-headed men, with fine brows, aquiline noses, well- 
chiselled lips and chins, and flashing eyes ; and there are others 
with the flat occiput, flat nose, open nostrils, thin, everted lips, 
and projecting chins. 

One general rule may be laid down : the Apache, to whichever 


type he may belong, is strongly built, straight, sinewy, well- 
muscled, extremely strong in the lower limbs, provided with a 
round barrel chest, showing good lung power, keen, intelligent- 
looking eyes, good head, and a mouth showing determination, 
decision, and cruelty. He can be made a firm friend, but no 
mercy need be expected from him as an enemy, 

He is a good talker, can argue well from his own standpoint, 
cannot be hoodwinked by sophistry or plausible stories, keeps his 
word very faithfully, and is extremely honest in protecting prop- 
erty or anything placed under his care. No instance can be 
adduced of an Apache sentinel having stolen any of the govern- 
ment or other property he was appointed to guard. The Chiri- 
eahua and other Apache scouts, who were enlisted to carry on 
General Crook's campaign against " G-eronimo/' remained for 
nearly one week at Port Bowie, and during that time made 
numbers of purchases from the post-trader, Mr. Sydney R. 
De Long. These were all on credit, as the scouts were about 
leaving with the gallant and lamented Crawford on the expedi- 
tion which led to his death. Some months after, as I wished to 
learn something definite in regard to the honesty of this much- 
maligned people, I went to Mr. De Long and asked him to tell 
me what percentage of bad debts he had found among he 
Apaches. He examined his books, and said slowly : " They 
have bought seventeen hundred and eighty dollars' worth, and 
they have paid me back every single cent." 

(i And what percentage of bad debts do you find among your 
white customers ? " 

A cynical smile and a pitying glance were all the reply vouch- 

Around his own camp-fire the Apache is talkative, witty, fond 
of telling stories, and indulging in much harmless raillery. He 
is kind to children, and I have yet to see the first Indian child 
struck for any cause by either parent or relative. The children 
are well provided with games of different kinds, and the buck- 
skin doll-babies for the little girls are often very artistic in 
make-up. The boys have fiddles, flutes, and many sorts of diver- 
sion, but at a very early age are given bows and arrows, and 
amuse themselves as best they can with hunting for birds and 
small animals. They have sham-fights, wrestling matches, foot- 
races, games of shinny and " muskha/' the last really a series of 


lance-throws along the ground, teaching the youngster steadiness 
of aim and keeping every muscle fully exercised. They learn at 
a very early age the names and attributes of all the animals and 
plants about them ; the whole natural kingdom, in fact, is under- 
stood as far as their range of knowledge in such matters extends. 
They are inured to great fatigue and suffering, to deprivation 
of water, and to going without food for long periods. 

Unlike the Indians of the Plains, east of the Rocky Mountains, 
they rarely become good horsemen, trusting rather to their own 
muscles for advancing upon or escaping from an enemy in the 
mountainous and desert country with which they, the Apaches, 
are so perfectly familiar. Horses, mules, and donkeys, when 
captured, were rarely held longer than the time when they were 
needed to be eaten ; the Apache preferred the meat of these ani- 
mals to that of the cow, sheep, or goat, although all the last- 
named were eaten. Pork and fish were objects of the deepest 
repugnance to both men and women ; within the past twenty 
years since the Apaches have been enrolled as scouts and police 
at the agencies this aversion to bacon at least has been to a 
great extent overcome ; but no Apache would touch fish until 
Gerommo and the men with him were incarcerated at Port Pick- 
ens, Florida, when they were persuaded to eat the pompano and 
other delicious fishes to be found in Pensacola Bay. 

When we first became apprised of this peculiarity of the Apache 
appetite, we derived all the benefit from it that we could in driv- 
ing away the small boys who used to hang around our mess-canvas 
in the hope of getting a handful of sugar, or a piece of cracker, 
of which all hands, young and old, were passionately fond. All 
we had to do was to set a can of salmon or lobster in the mid- 
dle of the canvas, and the sight of that alone would drive away 
the bravest Apache boy that ever lived ; he would regard as un- 
canny the mortals who would eat such vile stuff. They could not 
understand what was the meaning of the red-garmented Mephis- 
tophelian figure on the can of devilled ham, and called that dish 
" Ohidin-bitzi " (ghost meat), because they fancied a resemblance 
to their delineations of their gods or spirits or ghosts. 

The expertness of the Apache in all that relates to tracking 
either man or beast over the rocky heights, or across the inter- 
minable sandy wastes of the region in which he makes his home, 
has been an occasion of astonishment to all Caucasians who have 


had the slightest acquaintance with him. He will follow through 
grass, over sand or rock, or through the chapparal of scrub oak, 
up and down the flanks of the steepest ridges, traces so faint that 
to the keenest-eyed American they do not appear at all. 

Conversely, he is fiendishly dexterous in the skill with which 
he conceals his own line of march when a pursuing enemy is to be 
thrown off the track. No serpent can surpass him in cunning ; 
he will dodge and twist and bend in all directions, boxing the 
compass, doubling like a fox, scattering his party the moment a 
piece of rocky ground is reached over which it would, under the 
best circumstances, be difficult to follow. Instead of moving in 
file, his party will here break into skirmishing order, covering a 
broad space and diverging at the most unexpected moment from 
the primitive direction, and not perhaps reuniting for miles. 
Pursuit is retarded and very frequently baffled. The pursuers 
must hold on to the trail, or all is lost. There must be no guess- 
work. Following a trail is like being on a ship : so long as one is 
on shipboard, he is all right ; but if he once go overboard, he 
is all wrong. So with a trail : to be a mile away from it is fully as 
bad as being fifty, if it be not found again. In the meantime 
the Apache raiders, who know full well that the pursuit must 
slacken for a while, have reunited at some designated hill, or 
near some spring or water "tank/' and are pushing across the 
high mountains as fast as legs harder than leather can carry 
them. If there be squaws with the party, they carry all plunder 
on their backs in long, conical baskets of their own make, unless 
they have made a haul of ponies, in which case they sometimes 
ride, and at all times use the animals to pack. 

At the summit of each ridge, concealed behind rocks or trees, 
a few picked men, generally not more than two or three, will 
remain waiting for the approach of pursuit ; when the tired 
cavalry draw near, and begin, dismounted, the ascent of the 
mountain, there are always good chances for the Apaches to let 
them have half a dozen well-aimed shots just enough to check 
the onward movement, and compel them to halt and close up, 
and, while all this is going on, the Apache rear-guard, whether 
in the saddle or on foot, is up and away, as *hard to catch as the 
timid quail huddling in the mesquite. 

Or it may so happen the Apache prefers, for reasons best 
known to himself, to await the coining of night, when he will 


sneak in upon the herd and stampede it, and set the soldiery on 
foot, or drive a few arrows against the sentinels, if he can discern 
where they may be moving in the gloom. 

All sorts of signals are made for the information of other 
parties of Apaches. At times, it is an inscription or pictograph 
incised in the smooth bark of a sycamore ; at others, a tracing 
upon a smooth-faced rock under a ledge which will protect it 
from the elements ; or ifc may be a knot tied in the tall sacaton 
or in the filaments of the yucca ; or one or more stones placed in 
the crotch of a limb, or a sapling laid against another tree, or a 
piece of buckskin carelessly laid over a branch. All these, placed 
as agreed upon, afford signals to members of their own band, and 
only Apaches or savages with perceptions as keen would detect 
their presence. 

When information of some important happening is to be com- 
municated to a distance and at once, and the party is situated 
upon the summit of a mountain chain or in other secure position, 
a fire is lighted of the cones of the resinous pine, and the smoke 
is instantaneously making its way far above the tracery of the 
foliage. A similar method is employed when they desire to 
apprise kinsfolk of the death of relatives ; in the latter case the 
brush " jacal" of the deceased the whole village, in fact is set 
on fire and reduced to ashes. 

The Apache was a hard foe to subdue, not because he was full 
of wiles and tricks and experienced in all that pertains to the art 
of war, but because he had so few artificial wants and depended 
almost absolutely upon what his great mother Nature stood 
ready to supply. Starting out upon the war-path, he wore 
scarcely any clothing save a pair of buckskin moccasins reaching 
to mid-thigh and held to the waist by a string of the same mate- 
rial ; a piece of muslin encircling the loins and dangling down 
behind about to the calves of the legs, a war-hat of buckskin sur- 
mounted by hawk and eagle plumage, a rifle (the necessary ammu- 
nition in belt) or a bow, with the quiver filled with arrows reputed 
to be poisonous, a blanket thrown over the shoulders, a water- 
tight wicker jug to serve as a canteen, and perhaps a small 
amount of "jerked" meat, or else of " pinole" or parched corn- 

That is all, excepting his sacred relics and " medicine," for now 
is the time when the Apache is going to risk no failure by neglect- 


ing the precaution needed to get all his ghosts and gods on his 
side. He will have sacred cords of buckskin and shells, sacred 
sashes ornamented with the figures of the powers invoked to 
secure him success ; possibly, if he be very opulent, he may have 
bought from a "medicine man" a sacred shirt, which differs from 
the sash merely in being bigger and in having more figures ; and 
a perfect menagerie of amulets and talismans and relics of all 
kinds, medicine arrows, pieces of crystal, petrified wood, little 
bags of the sacred meal called " hoddentin, " fragments of wood 
which has been struck by lightning, and any and all kinds of 
trash which his fancy or his fears have taught him are endowed 
with power over the future and the supernatural. Like the 
Eoman he is not content with paying respect to his own gods ; 
he adopts those of all the enemies who yield to his power. In 
many and many an instance I have seen dangling from the 
neck, belt or wrist of an Apache warrior the cross, the medals, 
the Agnus Dei or the rosary of the Mexican victims whom his 
rifle or arrow had deprived of life. 

To his captives the Apache was cruel, brutal, merciless ; if of 
full age, he wasted no time with them, unless on those rare occa- 
sions when he wanted to extract some information about what his 
pursuers were doing or contemplated doing, in which case death 
might be deferred for a few brief hours. Where the captive was 
of tender years, unable to get along without a mother's care, it 
was promptly put out of its misery by having its brains dashed 
against a convenient rock or tree ; but where it happened that the 
raiders had secured boys or girls sufficiently old to withstand 
the hardships of the new life, they were accepted into the hand 
and treated as kindly as if Apache to the manner-born. 

It was often a matter of interest to me to note the great amount 
of real, earnest, affectionate good-will that had grown up between 
the Mexican captives and the other members of the tribe ; there 
were not a few of these captives who, upon finding a chance, made 
their escape back to their own people, but in nearly all cases they 
have admitted to me that their life among the savages was one of 
great kindness, after they had learned enough of the language to 
understand and be understood. 

Many of these captives have risen to positions of influence 
among the Apaches, There are men and women like' " Seyeri- 
ano," " Conception," " Antonio/' "Jesus Maria," "Victor," 


"Francesca/' "Maria/ 7 and others I could name, who have 
amassed property and gained influence among the people who 
led them into slavery. 

A brief account of the more prominent of foods entering into 
the dietary of the Apache may not be out of place, as it will 
serve to emphasize my remarks concerning his ability to practi- 
cally snap his fingers at any attempts to reduce him to starvation 
by the ordinary methods. The same remarks, in a minor degree, 
apply to all our wilder tribes. Our Government had never been 
able to starve any of them until it had them placed on a reserva- 
tion. The Apache was not so well provided with meat as he 
might have been, because the general area of Arizona was so arid 
and barren that it could not be classed as a game country ; never- 
theless, in the higher elevations of the Sierra Mogollon and the 
San Francisco, there were to be found plenty of deer, some elk, 
and, in places like the Grand Cafion of the Colorado, the Gallon 
of the Rio Salado, and others, there were some Eocky Mountain 
sheep ; down on the plains or deserts, called in the Spanish 
idiom "playas" or *' beaches/* there were quite large herds of 
antelope, and bears were encountered in all the high and rocky 

Wild turkeys flock in the timbered ranges, while on the lower 
levels, in the thickets of sage-brush and mesquite, quail are 
numerous enough to feed Moses and all the Israelites were they 
to come back to life again. The jack-rabbit is caught by being 
" rounded up," and the field-rat adds something to the meat 
supply. The latter used to be caught in a very peculiar way. 
The rat burrowed under a mesquite or other bush, and cast up 
in a mound all the earth excavated from the spot selected for 
its dwelling; and down through this cut or bored five or six 
entrances, so that any intruder, such as a snake, would be unable 
to bar the retreat of ttle inmates, who could seek safety through 
some channel other than the one seized upon by the invader. 

The Apache was perfectly well acquainted with all this, and 
laid his plans accordingly. Three or four boys would surround 
each habitation, and, while one took station at the main entrance 
and laid the curved end of his " rat-stick" across its mouth, the 
others devoted themselves to prodding down with their sticks 
into the other channels. The rats, of course, seeing one hole 
undisturbed, would dart up that, and, when each had reached 


the opening, lie would rest for a moment, with his body just half 
out, while he scanned the horizon to see where the enemy was. 
That was the supreme moment for both rat and Apache, and, 
with scarcely any percentage of errors worth mentioning, the 
Apache was nearly always successful. He would quickly and 
powerfully draw the stick towards him and break the back of 
the poor rodent, and in another second have it dangling from 
his belt. One gash of the knife would eviscerate the little ani- 
mal, and then it was thrown upon a bed of hot coals, which speed- 
ily burned off all the hair and cooked it as well. 

The above completed the list of meats of which use was made, 
unless we include the horses, cows, oxen, donkeys, sheep, and 
mules driven off from Mexicans and Americans, which were all 
eaten as great delicacies. Some few of the meats prepared by 
the Apache cooks are palatable, and I especially remember their 
method of baking a deer's head surrounded and covered by hot 
embers. They roast a side of venison to perfection over a bed of 
embers, and broil liver and steak in a savory manner ; but their 
fonne louche, when they can get it, is an unborn fawn, which 
they believe to be far more delicious than mule meat. 

The mainstay of the Apache larder was always the mescal, or 
agave the American aloe a species of the so-called century 
plant. This was cut down by the squaws and baked in ^mescal- 
pits," made for all the world like a clam-bake. There would 
be first laid down a course of stones, then one of wet grass, if 
procurable, then the mescal, then another covering of grass, and 
lastly one of earth. All over Arizona old " mescal-pits^ are to 
be found, as the plant was always cooked as close as possible 
to the spot where it was cut, thus saving the women unnecessary 

Three days are required to bake mescal properly, and, when 
done, it has a taste very much like that of old-fashioned molasses 
candy, although its first effects are those of all the aloe family. 
The central stalk is the best portion, as the broad, thorny 
leaves, although yielding a sweet mass, are so filled with filament 
that it is impossible to chew them, and they must be sucked. 

The fruit of the Spanish bayonet, when dried, has a very 
pleasant taste, not unlike that of a fig. It can also be eaten in 
the raw or pulpy state, but will then, so the Apaches tell me, 
often bring on fever. 


Of the bread made from mesquite beans, as of the use made 
of the fruit of the giant cactus, mention has already been made 
in the beginning of this work. Sweet acorns are also used freely. 

The " nopal/' or Indian fig, supplies a fruit which is very 
good, and is much liked by the squaws and children, but it is so 
covered with a beard of spines, that until I had seen some of the 
squaws gathering it, I could not see how it could be so generally 
employed as an article of food. They would take in one hand a 
small wooden fork made for the purpose, and with that seize the 
fruit of the plant ; with the other hand, a brush made of the 
stiff filaments of the sacaton was passed rapidly over the spines, 
knocking them all off much sooner than it has taken to write 
this paragraph on the typewriter. It requires no time at all to 
fill a basket with them, and either fresh or dried they are good 

The seeds of the sunflower are parched and ground up with 
corn-meal or mesquite beans to make a rich cake. 

There are several varieties of seed-bearing grasses of impor- 
tance to the Apache. The squaws show considerable dexterity 
in collecting these ; they place their conical baskets under the 
tops of the stalks, draw these down until they incline over 
the baskets, and then hit them a rap with a small stick, which 
causes all the seed to fall into the receptacle provided. 

In damp, elevated swales the wild potatoes grow plentifully. 
These are eaten by both Apaches and Navajoes, who use with 
them a pinch of clay to correct acridity. A small black walnut 
is eaten, and so is a wild cherry. The wild strawberry is too rare 
to be noticed in this treatise, but is known to the Apaches. 
Corn was planted in small areas by the Sierra Blanca band when- 
ever undisturbed by the scouting parties of their enemies. After 
General Crook had conquered the whole nation and placed the 
various bands upon reservations, he insisted upon careful atten- 
tion being paid to the planting of either corn or barley, and im- 
mense quantities of each were raised and sold to the United 
States Government for the use of its horses and mules. Of this 
a full description will follow in due time. 

The Apaches have a very strict code of etiquette, as well as 
morals, viewed from their own standpoint. It is considered very 
impolite for a stranger to ask an Apache his name, and an 
Apache will never give it, but will allow the friend at his side 


to reply for him ; the names of the dead are never referred to, 
and it is an insult to speak of them by name. Yet, after a good 
long while has elapsed, the name of a warrior killed in battle or 
distinguished in any way may be conferred upon his grandchild 
or some other relative. 

IsTo Apache, no matter what his standing may be in society, 
will speak to or of his mother-in-law a courtesy which the old 
lady reciprocates. One of the funniest incidents I can remember 
was seeing a very desperate Chiricahua Apache, named "Ka-e- 
tennay/' who was regarded as one of the boldest and bravest men 
in the whole nation, trying to avoid running face to face against 
his mother-in-law ; he hung on to stones, from which had he 
fallen he would have been dashed to pieces or certainly broken 
several of his limbs. There are times at the Agencies when 
Indians have to be counted for rations even then the rule is 
not relaxed. The mother-in-law will take a seat with her son- 
in-law and the rest of the family ; but a few paces removed, and 
with her back turned to them all ; references to her are by signs 
on ly she is never mentioned otherwise. 

When an Apache young man begins to feel the first promptings 
of love for any particular young damsel, he makes known the 
depth and sincerity of his affection by presenting the young 
woman with a calico skirt, cut and sewed by his own fair fingers. 
The Apache men are good sewers, and the IN'avajo men do all the 
knitting for their tribe, and the same may be said of the men of 
the Zunis. 

Only ill-bred Americans or Europeans, who have never had any 
"raising/ 5 would think of speaking of the Bear, the Snake, the 
Lightning or the Mule, without employing the reverential prefix 
"Ostin," meaning "Old Man/' and equivalent to the Eoman title 
" Senator." But you can't teach politeness to Americans, and, 
the Apache knows it and wastes no time or vain regrets on the 
defects of their training. 

"You must stop talking about bear/' said a chief to me one 
night at the camp-fire, " or we '11 not have a good hunt." 

In the same manner no good will come from talking about 
owls, whose hooting, especially if on top of a " jacal/' or in the 
branches of a tree under which people are seated or sleeping, 
means certain death. I have known, of one case where our brav- 
est scouts ran away from a place where an owl had perched and 


begun its lugubrious ditty, and at another time the scouts, as we 
were about entering the main range of the Sierra Madre, made a 
great fuss and would not be pacified until one of the whites of 
our command bad released a little owl which he had captured. 
This same superstition obta'ned with equal force among the 
Romans, and, indeed, there are few if any spots in the world, 
where the owl has nofc been regarded as the messenger of death 
or misfortune. 

When an Apache starts out on the war-path for the first four 
times, he will refrain from letting water touch his lips ; he will 
suck it through a small reed or cane which he carries for the 
purpose. Similarly, he will nofc scratch his head with the naked 
fingers, but resorts to a small wooden scratcher carried with the 
drinking-tube. Traces of these two superstitions can also be 
found in other parts of the globe. There are all kinds of super- 
stitions upon every conceiyable kind of subject, but there are too 
many of them to be told in extenso in a book treating of military 

As might be inferred, the "medicine men " wield an amount 
of influence which cannot be understood by civilized people who 
have not been brought into intimate relations with the aborigines 
in a wild state. The study of the religious life and thought of 
our savage tribes has always been to me of the greatest interest 
and of supreme importance ; nothing has been so neglected by 
the Americans as an examination into the mental processes 
by which an Indian arrives at his conclusions, the omens, augu- 
ries, hopes and fears by which he is controlled and led to one 
extreme or the other in all he does, or a study of the leaders who 
keep him under control from the cradle to the grave. Certainly, 
if we are in earnest in our protestations of a desire to elevate and 
enlighten the aborigine which I for one most sincerely doubt 
then we cannot begin too soon to investigate all that pertains to 
him mentally as well as physically. Looking at the subject in 
the strictest and most completely practical light, we should save 
millions of dollars in expenditure, and many valuable lives, -and 
not be making ourselves a holy show and a laughing-stock for the 
rest of the world by massing troops and munitions of war from 
the four corners of the country every time an Indian medicine 
man or spirit doctor announces that he can raise the dead. Until 
we provide something better, the savage will rely upon his own 


religious practices to help him through all difficulties, and his 
medicine man will be called upon to furnish the singing, drum- 
ming and dancing that may be requisite to cure the sick or avert 
disease of any kind. 

The ee cures " of the medicine men are effected generally by 
incantations, the sprinkling of hoddentin or sacred powder, sweat- 
baths, and at times by suction of the arm, back or shoulder in 
which pain may hare taken up its abode. If they fail, as they 
very often do, then they cast about and pretty soon have indi- 
cated some poor old crone as the maleficent obstacle to the suc- 
cess of their ministrations, and the miserable hag is very soon 
burnt or stoned to death. 

The influence quietly exerted upon tribal councils by the women 
of the Apache and Navajo tribes has been noted by many 

I will curtail my remarks upon the manners and customs of 
the Apaches at this point, as there will necessarily be many other 
allusions to them before this narrative shall be completed. One 
thing more is all I care to say. The endurance of their war- 
riors while on raids was something which extorted expressions 
of wonder from all white men who ever had anything to do with 
their subjugation. Seventy-five miles a day was nothing at all 
unusual for them to march when pursued, their tactics being to 
make three or four such marches, in the certainty of being able to 
wear out or throw off the track the most energetic and the most 
intelligent opponents. 

Their vision is so keen that they can discern movements of 
troops or the approach of wagon-trains for a distance of thirty 
miles, and so inured are they to the torrid heats of the burning 
sands of Arizona south of the G-ila and Northern Mexico, that 
they seem to care nothing for temperatures under which the 
American soldier droops and dies. The Apache, as a matter of 
fact, would strip himself of everything and travel naked, which 
the civilized man would not do ; but the amount of clothing 
retained by the soldiers was too small to be considered a very 
important factor. 

If necessary, the Apache will go without water for as long a 
time almost as a camel. A small stone or a twig inserted in 
the mouth will cause a more abundant flow of saliva and assuage 
his thirst. He travels with fewer "impedimenta" than any 


other tribe of men in the world, not even excepting the Aus- 
tralians, but sometimes he allows himself the luxury or comfort 
of a pack of cards, imitated from those of the Mexicans, and 
made out of horse-hide, or a set of the small painted sticks with 
which to play the game of "Tze-chis," or, on occasions when an 
unusually large number of Apaches happen to be travelling 
together, some one of the party will be loaded with the hoops 
and poles of the "mushka ;" for, be it known, that the Apache, 
like savages everywhere, and not a few civilized men, too, for that 
matter, is so addicted to gambling that he will play away the 
little he owns of clothing and all else he possesses in the world. 

Perhaps no instance could afford a better idea of the degree of 
ruggedness the Apaches attain than the one coming under my 
personal observation in the post hospital of Port Bowie, in 1886, 
where one of our Apache scouts was under treatment for a gun- 
shot wound in the thigh. The moment Mr. Charles Lummis 
and myself approached the bedside of the young man, he asked 
for a " tobacco-shmoke," which he received in the form of a 
bunch of cigarettes. One of these he placed in his mouth, and, 
drawing a match, coolly proceeded to strike a light on his foot, 
which, in its horny, callous appearance, closely resembled the 
back of a mud tortoise. 





HOW it all came about I never knew; no one ever knew. 
There were no railroads and no telegraphs in those days, 
and there were no messages flashed across the country telling just 
what was going to be done and when and how. But be all that as it 
may, before any officer or man knew what had happened, and while 
the good people in Tucson were still asking each other whether 
the new commander had a " policy " or not he had not, hut 
that's neither here nor therewe were out on the road, five full 
companies of cavalry, and a command of scouts and trailers 
gathered together from the best available sources, and the cam- 
paign had begun. 

Eumors had reached Tucson from what source no one could 
tell that the Government would not permit Crook to carry on 
offensive operations against the Apaches, and there were officers 
in the Department, some even in our own command, who were 
inclined to lend an ear to them. They were enthusiasts, how- 
ever, who based their views upon the fact that "Loco" and 
" Yictorio," prominent chiefs of the Warm Springs band over in 
New Mexico, had been ever since September of the year 1869, a 
period of not quite two years, encamped within sight of old Fort 
Craig, New Mexico, on the Eio Grande, waiting to hear from 
the Great Father in regard to having a Eeservation established 
for them where they and their children could live afc peace. 

The more conservative sadly shook their heads. They knew 
that there had not been time for the various documents and 
reports in the case to make the round of the various bureaus in 


Washington, and lead to the formulation of any scheme in the 
premises. It used to take from four to six months for such a 
simple thing as a requisition for rations or clothing to produce 
any effect, and, of course, it would seem that the caring for a 
Jarge body would consume still longer time for deliberation. 
But, no matter what Washington officialism might do or not do, 
General Crook was not the man to delay at his end of the line. 
We were on our way to Fort Bowie, in the eastern section of 
Arizona, leaving Tucson at six o'clock in the morning of July 11, 
1871, and filing out on the mail road where the heat before ten 
o'clock attained 110 Fahrenheit in the shade, as we learned 
from the party left behind in Tucson to bring up the mail. 

As it happened, Crook's first movement was stopped ; but not 
until it had almost ended and been, what it was intended to be, 
a "practice march " of the best kind, in which officers and men 
could get acquainted with each other and with the country in 
which at a later moment they should have to work in earnest. 
Our line of travel lay due east one hundred and ten miles to 
old Fort Bowie, thence north through the mountains to Camp 
Apache, thence across an unmapped region over and at the base 
of the great Mogollon range to Camp Verde and Prescott on the 
west. In all, some six hundred and seventy-five miles were trav- 
elled, and most of it being in the presence of a tireless enemy, 
made it the best kind of a school of instruction. The first man 
up in the morning, the first to be saddled, the first ready for the 
road, was our indefatigable commander, who, in a suit of canvas, 
and seated upon a good strong mule, with his rifle carried across 
the pommel of his saddle, led the way. 

With the exception of Colonel Guy V. Henry, Captain W. W. 
Robinson of the Seventh Cavalry, and myself, none of the officers 
of that scout are left in the army. Major Ross, our capable 
quartermaster, is still alive and is now a citizen of Tucson, 
Crook, Stanwood, Smith, Meinhold, Mullan, and Brent are dead, 
and Henry has had such a close call for his life (at the Rosebud, 
June 17, 1876) that I am almost tempted to include him in the 

The detachment of scouts made a curious ethnographical col- 
lection. There were Navajoes, Apaches, Opatas, Yaqtds, Pueb- 
los, Mexicans, Americans, and half-breeds of any tribe one could 
name. It was an omnium gatherum the best that could be 


summoned together at the time ; some were good, and others 
were good for nothing. They were a fair sample of the social 
driftwood of the Southwest, and several of them had been con- 
cerned in every revolution or counter-revolution in northwestern 
Mexico since the day that Maximilian landed. Manuel Duran, 
the old Apache, whom by this time I knew very intimately, 
couldn't quite make it all out. He had never seen so many 
troops together before without something being in the wind, and 
what it meant he set about unravelling. He approached, the 
morning we arrived at Sulphur Springs, and in the most confi- 
dential manner asked me to ride off to one side of the road with 
him, which I, of course, did. 

" You are a friend of the new Comandante," he said, " and I 
am a friend of yours. You must tell me all." 

" But, Manuel, I do not fully understand what you are driving 

"Ah, mi teniente, you cannot fool me. I am too old ; I know 
all about such things." 

" But, tell me, Manuel, what is this great mystery you wish 
to know ? 

Manuel's right eyelid dropped just a trifle, just enough to be 
called a wink, and he pointed with his thumb at General Crook 
in advance. His voice sank to a whisper, but it was still per- 
fectly clear and plain, as he asked : " When is the new Coman- 
dante going to pronounce ? " 

I didn't explode nor roll out of the saddle, although it was 
with the greatest difficulty I kept from doing either ; but the 
idea of General Crook, with five companies of cavalry and one 
of scouts, revolting against the general Government and issu- 
ing a " pronunciamiento," was too much for my gravity, and I 
yelled. Often in succeeding years I have thought of that talk 
with poor Manuel, and never without a chuckle. 

We learned to know each other, we learned to know Crook, we 
learned to know the scouts and guides, and tell which of them 
were to be relied upon, and which were not worth their salt ; we 
learned to know a great deal about packers, pack-mules and pack- 
ing, which to my great surprise I found to be a science and such 
a science that as great a soldier as Gerieral Crook had not thought 
it beneath his genius to study it ; and, applying the principles 
of military discipline to the organization of trains, make them 


as nearly perfect as they ever have been or can be in our army 
history. Last, but not least, we learned the country the general 
direction of the rivers, mountains, passes, where was to be found 
the best grazing, where the most fuel, where the securest shelter. 
Some of the command had had a little experience of the same 
kind previously, but now we were all in attendance at a per- 
ambulating academy, and had to answer such questions as the 
general commanding might wish to propound on the spot. 

Side scouts were kept out constantly, and each officer, upon his 
return, was made to tell all he had learned of the topography and 
of Indian "sign." There was a great plenty of the latter, but 
none of it very fresh ; in the dim distance, on the blue mountain- 
tops, we could discern at frequent intervals the smoke sent up in 
signals by the Apaches ; often, we "were at a loss to tell whether 
it was smoke or the swift- whirling sf trebillon " of dust, carrying 
off in its uncanny embrace the spirit of some mighty chief. While 
we slowly marched over "playas" of sand, without one drop of 
water for miles, we were tantalized by the sight of cool, pellucid 
lakelets from which issued water whose gurgle and ripple could 
almost be heard, but the illusion dissipated as we drew nearer 
and saw that the mirage-fiend had been mocking our thirst with 
spectral waters. 

Our commanding general showed himself to be a man who 
took the deepest interest in everything we had to tell, whether it 
was of peccaries chased off on one side of the road, of quail flushed 
in great numbers, of the swift- walking, long-tailed road-runner 
the " paisano " or " chapparal cock," of which the Mexicans relate 
that it will imprison the deadly rattler by constructing around 
its sleeping coils a fence of cactus spines ; of tarantulas and centi- 
pedes and snakes possibly, some of the snake-stories of Arizona 
may have been a trifle exaggerated, but then we had no fish, and 
a man must have something upon which to let his imagination 
have full swing ; of badgers run to their holes ; of coyotes raced 
to death; of jackass-rabbits surrounded and captured; and all 
the lore of plant and animal life in which the Mexican border 
is so rich. Nothing was too insignificant to be noted, nothing 
too trivial to be treasured up in our memories; such was the 
lesson taught during our moments of conversation with General 
Crook. The guides and trailers soon found that although they 
who had been born and brought up in that vast region could tell 


Crook much, they could never tell him anything twice, while as 
for reading signs on the trail there was none of them his superior. 

At times we would march for miles through a country in which 
grew only the white-plumed yucca with trembling, serrated leaves; 
again, mescal would fill the- hillsides so thickly that one could 
almost imagine that it had been planted purposely; or we passed 
along between masses of the dust-laden, ghostly sage-brush, or 
close to the foul-smelling joints of the <( hediondilla." The floral 
wealth of Arizona astonished us the moment we had gained the 
higher elevations of the Mogollon and the other ranges. Arizona 
will hold a high place in any list that may be prepared in. this 
connection; there are as many as twenty and thirty different 
varieties of very lovely flowers and blossoms to be plucked within 
a stoned-throw of one's saddle after reaching camp of an even- 
ing, phloxes, marguerites, chrysanthemums, verbenas, golden- 
rod, sumach, columbines, delicate ferns, forget-me-nots, and many 
others for which my very limited knowledge of botany furnishes 
no name. The flowers of Arizona are delightful in color, but they 
yield no perfume, probably on account of the great dryness of 
the atmosphere. 

As for grasses one has only to say what kind he wants, and lo ! 
it is at his feet from the coarse sacaton which is deadly to animals 
except when it is very green and tender ; the dainty mesquite 
the bunch, and the white and black grama, succulent and nutri- 
tious. But I am speaking of the situations where we would make 
camp, because, as already stated, there are miles and miles of land 
purely desert, and clothed only with thorny cacti and others of 
that ilk. I must say, too, that the wild grasses of Arizona always 
seemed to me to have but slight root in the soil, and my observa- 
tion is that the presence of herds of cattle soon tears them up and 
leaves the land bare. 

If the marching over the deserts had its unpleasant features, 
certainly the compensation offered by the camping places in the 
cafions, by limpid streams of rippling water, close to the grateful 
foliage of cottonwood, sycamore, ash, or walnut ; or, in the moun- 
tains, the pine and juniper, and sheltered from the sun by walls 
of solid granite, porphyry or basalt, was a most delightful antith- 
esis, and one well worthy of the sacrifices undergone to attain 
it. Strong pickets were invariably posted, as no risks could be 
run in that region ; we were fortunate to have just enougli evi- 


dence of the close proximity of the Apaches to stimulate all to 
keep both eyes open. 

"F" troop of the Third Cavalry, to -which I belonged, had 
the misfortune to give the alarm to a large band of Chiricahua 
Apaches coming down the Sulphur Springs Valley from Sonora, 
with a herd of ponies or cattle ; we did not have the remotest idea 
that there were Indians in the country, not having seen the 
faintest sign, when all of a sudden at the close of a night march, 
very near where the new post of Camp Grant has since been 
erected on the flank of the noble Sierra Bonita or Mount Graham, 
we came upon their fires with the freshly slaughtered beeves un- 
divided, and the blood still warm ; but our advance had alarmed 
the enemy, and they had moved off, scattering as they departed. 

Similarly, Robinson I think it was, came so close upon the 
heels of a party of raiders that they dropped a herd of fifteen 
or twenty "burros" with which they Had just come up from 
the Mexican border. Our pack-trains ran in upon a band of 
seven bears in the Aravaypa canon which scared the mules almost 
out of their senses, but the packers soon laid five of the ursines 
low and wounded the other two which, however, escaped over the 
rough, dangerous rocks. 

There were sections of country passed over which fairly reeked 
with the baleful malaria, like the junction of the San Carlos and 
the G-ila. There were others' along which for miles and miles 
could be seen nothing but lava, either in solid waves, or worse 
yet, in " nigger-head " lumps of all sizes. There were mountain 
ranges with flanks hidden under a solid matting of the scrub- 
oak, and others upon whose summits grew dense forests of grace- 
ful pines, whose branches, redolent with balsamic odors, screened 
from the too fierce glow of the noonday sun. There were broad 
stretches of desert, where the slightest movement raised clouds of 
dust which would almost stifle both men and beasts ; and gloomy 
ravines and startling cafions, in whose depths flowed waters as 
swift and clear and cool as any that have ever rippled along the 
pages of poetry. 

Camp Apache was reached after a march and scout of all the 
intermediate country and a complete familiarization with the 
course of all the streams passed over en route. Nature had been 
more than liberal in her apportionment of attractions at this 
point, and there are truly few fairer scenes in the length and 


breadth of our territory. The post, still in the rawest possible 
state and not half -constructed, was situated upon a gently sloping 
mesa, surrounded by higher hills running back to the plateaux 
which formed the first line of the Mogollon range. Grass was to 
he had in plenty, while, as for timber, the flanks of every eleva- 
tion, as well as the summits of the mountains themselves, were 
covered with lofty pine, cedar, and oak, with a sprinkling of the 
" madrofio," or mountain mahogany. 

Two branches of the Sierra Blanca River unite almost in front 
of the camp, and supply all the water needed for any purpose, 
besides being stocked fairly well with trout, a fish which is rare 
in other sections of the Territory. Hunting was very good, and 
the sportsman could find, with very slight trouble, deer, bear, elk,, 
and other varieties of four-footed animals, with wild turkey and 
quail in abundance. In the vicinity of this lovely site lived a 
large number of the i.paches, under chiefs who were peaceably 
disposed towards the whites men like the old Miguel, Eski- 
tistsla, Pedro, Pitone, Alchise, and others, who expressed them- 
selves as friendly, and showed by their actions the sincerity of 
their avowals. They planted small farms with corn, gathered 
the wild seeds, hunted, and were happy as savages are when 
unmolested. Colonel John Green, of the First Cavalry, was in 
command, with two troops of his own regiment and two compa- 
nies of the Twenty-third Infantry. Good feeling existed between 
the military and the Indians, and the latter seemed anxious to 
put themselves in " the white man's road." 

General Crook had several interviews with Miguel and the 
others who came in to see him, and to them he explained his 
views. To my surprise he didn't have any " policy," in which 
respect he differed from every other man I have met, as all seem 
to have " policies " about the management of Indians, and the 
less they know the more " policy " they seem to keep in stock. 
Crook's talk was very plain ; a child could have understood 
every word he said. He told the circle of listening Indians that 
he had not come to make war, but to avoid it if possible. Peace 
was the best condition in which to live, and he hoped that those 
who were around him would see that peace was not only prefera- 
ble, but essential, and not for themselves alone, but for the rest 
of their people as well. The white people were crowding in all 
over the Western country, and soon it would be impossible for 


any one to live upon game ; it would be driven away or killed off. 
Far better for every one to make up his mind to plant and to 
raise horses, cows, and sheep, and make his living in that way ; 
his animals would thrive and increase while he slept, and in less 
than no time the Apache would be wealthier than the Mexican. 
So long as the Apache behaved himself he should receive the 
fullest protection from the troops, and no white man should be 
allowed to do him harm ; but so long as any fragment of the tribe 
kept out on the war-path, it would be impossible to afford all the 
protection to the well-disposed that they were entitled to receive, 
as bad men could say that it was not easy to discriminate between 
those who were good and those who were bad. Therefore, he 
wished to ascertain for himself just who were disposed to remain 
at peace permanently and who preferred to continue in hostility. 
He had no desire to punish any man or woman for any acts of 
the past. He would blot them all out and begin over again. It 
was no use to try to explain how the war with the whites had 
begun. All that he cared to say was, that it must end, and end 
at once. He would send out to all the bands still in the moun- 
tains, and tell them just the same thing. He did not intend to 
tell one story to one band and another to another ; but to all the 
same words, and it would be well for all to listen with both ears. 
If every one came in without necessitating a resort to bloodshed 
he should be very glad ; but, if any refused, then he should 
expect the good men to aid him in running down the bad ones. 
That was the way the white people did ; if there were bad men 
in a certain neighborhood, all the law-abiding citizens turned out 
to assist the officers of the law in arresting and punishing those 
who would not behave themselves. He hoped that the Apaches 
would see that it was their duty to do the same. He hoped to be 
able to find work for them all. It was by work, and by work 
only, that they could hope to advance and become rich. 

He wanted them always to tell him the exact truth, as he 
should never say anything to them which was not true ; and he 
hoped that as they became better acquainted, they would always 
feel that his word could be relied on. He would do all in his 
power for them, but would never make them a promise he could 
not carry out. There was no good in such a manner of doing, 
and bad feeling often grew up between good friends through 
misunderstandings in regard to promises not kept. He would 


make no such promises ; and as the way in which they might 
remember a thing might happen to be different from the way in 
which he remembered it, he would do all he could to prevent 
misunderstandings, by having every word he said to them put 
down in black and white on paper, of which, if they so desired, 
they could keep a copy. When men were afraid to put their 
words on paper, it looked as if they did not mean half what they 
said. He wanted to treat the Apache just the same as he would 
treat any other man as a man. He did not believe in one kind 
of treatment for the white and another for the Indian. All 
should fare alike ; but so long as the Indian remained ignorant 
of our laws and language it was for his own good that the troops 
remained with him, and he must keep within the limits of the 
Reservations set apart for him. He hoped the time would soon 
come when the children of the Apaches would be going to school, 
learning all the white men had to teach to their own children, 
and all of them, young or old, free to travel as they pleased all 
over the country, able to work anywhere, and not in fear of the 
white men or the white men of them. Finally, he repeated his 
urgent request that every effort should be made to spread these 
views among all the others who might still be out in the moun- 
tains, and to convince them that the safest and best course for all 
to adopt was that of peace with all mankind. After a reasonable 
time had been given for all to come in, he intended to start out 
in person and see to it that the last man returned to the Reser- 
vations or died in the mountains. 

To all this the Apaches listened with deep attention, at inter- 
vals expressing approbation after their manner by heavy grunts 
and the utterance of the monosyllable " Inju" (good). 

The Apaches living in the vicinity of Camp Apache are of 
purer Tinneh blood than those bands which occupied the western 
crest of the long Mogollon plateau, or the summits of the lofty 
Matitzal. The latter have very appreciably intermixed with the 
conquered people of the same stock as the Mojaves and Yumas of 
the Colorado valley, and the consequence is that the two languages 
are, in many cases, spoken interchangeably, and not a few of 
the chiefs and head men possess two names one in the Apache, 
the other in the Mojave tongue. 

After leaving Camp Apache, the command was greatly reduced 
by the departure of three of the companies in as many directions; 


one of these Guy Y. Henry's ran in on a party of hostile 
Apaches and exchanged shots, killing one warrior whose body 
fell into our hands. The course of those who were to accompany 
G-eneral Crook was nearly due west, along the rim of what is 
called the Mogollon Mountain or plateau, a range of yery large 
size and great elevation, covered on its summits with a forest 
of large pine-trees. It is a strange upheaval, a strange freak 
of nature, a mountain canted up on one side ; one rides along the 
edge and looks down two and three thousand feet into what is 
termed the " Tonto Basin," a weird scene of grandeur and rugged 
beauty. The (e Basin " is a basin only in the sense that it is all 
lower than the ranges enclosing it the Mogollon, the Matitzal 
and the Sierra Ancha but its whole triangular area is so cut up 
by ravines, arroyos, small stream beds and hills of very good 
height, that it may safely be pronounced one of the roughest spots 
on the globe. It is plentifully watered by the affluents of the 
Eio Verde and its East Fork, and by the Tonto and the Little 
Tonto; since the subjugation of the Apaches it has produced 
abundantly of peaches and strawberries, and potatoes have done 
wonderfully on the summit of the Mogollon itself in the sheltered 
swales in the pine forest. At the date of our march all this 
section of Arizona was still unmapped, and we had to depend 
upon Apache guides to conduct us until within sight of the 
Matitzal range, four or five days out from Camp Apache. 

The most singular thing to note about the Mogollon was the 
fact that the streams which flowed upon its surface in almost 
every case made their way to the north and east into Shevlon's 
Fork, even where they had their origin in springs almost upon 
the crest itself. One exception is the spring named after General 
Crook (General's Springs), which he discovered, and near which 
he had such a narrow escape from being killed by Apaches that 
makes into the East Fork of the Verde. It is an awe-inspiring 
sensation to be able to sit or stand upon the edge of such a preci- 
pice and look down upon a broad expanse mantled with juicy 
grasses, the paradise of live stock. There is no finer grazing 
section anywhere than the Tonto Basin, and cattle, sheep, and 
horses all now do well in it. It is from its ruggedness eminently 
suited for the purpose, and in this respect differs from the Sul- 
phur Springs valley which has been occupied by cattlemen to the 
exclusion of the farmer, despite the fact that all along its length 


one can find water by digging a few feet beneath the surface. 
Such land as the Sulphur Springs valley would be more profitably 
employed in the cultivation of the grape and cereals than as a 
range for a few thousand head of cattle as is now the case. 

The Tonto Basin was well supplied with deer and other wild 
animals, as well as with mescal, Spanish bayonet, acorn-bearing 
oak, walnuts, and other favorite foods of the Apaches, while the 
higher levels of the Mogollon and the other ranges were at one 
and the same time pleasant abiding-places during the heats of 
summer, and ramparts of protection against the sudden incursion 
of an enemy. I have already spoken of the wealth of flowers to 
be seen in these high places ; I can only add that throughout 
our march across the Mogollon range some eleven days in time 
we saw spread out before us a carpet of colors which would rival 
the best examples of the looms of Turkey or Persia. 

Approaching the western edge of the plateau, we entered the 
country occupied by the Tonto Apaches, the fiercest band of this 
wild and apparently incorrigible family. We were riding along 
in a very lovely stretch of pine forest one sunny afternoon, admir- 
ing the wealth of timber which would one day be made tributary 
to the world's commerce, looking down upon the ever-varying 
colors of the wild flowers which spangled the ground for leagues 
(because in these forests upon the summits of all of Arizona's great 
mountain ranges there is never any underbrush, as is the case in 
countries where there is a greater amount of humidity in the 
atmosphere), and ever and anon exchanging expressions of pleas- 
ure and wonder at the vista spread out beneath us in the immense 
Basin to the left and front, bounded by the lofty ridges of the 
Sierra Ancha and the Matitzal ; each one was talking pleasantly 
to his neighbor, and as it happened the road we were pursuing 
to call it road where human being had never before passed was 
so even and clear that we were riding five and six abreast, General 
Crook, Lieutenant Eoss, Captain Brent, Mr. Thomas Moore, and 
myself a short distance in advance of the cavalry, and the pack- 
train whose tinkling bells sounded lazily among the trees and 
were all delighted to be able to go into camp in such a romantic 
spot when " whiz ! whiz ! " sounded the arrows of a small party 
of Tontos who had been watching our advance and determined to 
try the effects of a brisk attack, not knowing that we were 
merely the advance of a larger command. 


The Apaches could not, in so dense a forest, see any distance 
ahead ; but did not hesitate to do the best they could to stampede 
us, and consequently attacked boldly with arrows which made 
no noise to arouse the suspicions of the white men in rear. The 
arrows were discharged with such force that one of them entered 
a pine-tree as far as the feathers, and another not quite so far, 
but still too far to allow of its extraction. There was a trifle of 
excitement until we could get our bearings and see just what was 
the matter, and in the mean time every man had found his tree 
without waiting for any command. The Apaches of the Tonto 
band did not number more than fifteen or twenty at most and 
were already in retreat, as they saw the companies coming up at 
a brisk trot, the commanders having noticed the confusion in the 
advance. Two of the Apaches were cut off from their comrades, 
and as we supposed were certain to fall into our hands as pris- 
oners. This would have been exactly what General Crook desired, 
because he could then have the means of opening communication 
with the band in. question, which had refused to respond to any 
and all overtures for the cessation of hostilities. 

There they stood ; almost entirely concealed behind great boul- 
ders on the very edge of the precipice, their bows drawn to a semi- 
circle, eyes gleaming with a snaky black fire, long unkempt hair 
flowing down over their shoulders, bodies almost completely naked, 
faces streaked with the juice of the baked mescal and the blood 
of the deer or antelope a most repulsive picture and yet one in 
which there was not the slightest suggestion of cowardice. They 
seemed to know their doom, but not to fear it in the slightest 
degree. The tinkling of the pack-train bells showed that all our 
command had arrived, and then the Apaches, realizing that it was 
useless to delay further, fired their arrows more in. bravado 
than with the hope of inflicting injury, as our men were all well 
covered by the trees, and then over the precipice they went, as we 
supposed, to certain death and destruction. We were all so hor- 
rified at the sight, that for a moment or more it did not occur to 
any one to look over the crest, but when we did it was seen that 
the two savages were rapidly following down the merest thread of a 
trail outlined in the vertical face of the basalt, and jumping from 
rock to rock like mountain sheep. General Crook drew bead, 
aimed quickly and fired ; the arm of one of the fugitives hung 
limp by his side, and the red stream gushing out showed that he 


had been badly hurt ; but he did not relax his speed a particle, 
but kept up with his comrade in a headlong dash down the preci- 
pice, and escaped into the scrub-oak on the lower flanks although 
the evening air resounded with the noise of carbines reverberat- 
ing from peak to peak. It was so hard to believe that any human 
beings could escape down such a terrible place, that every one 
was rather in expectation of seeing the Apaches dashed to pieces, 
and for that reason no one could do his best shooting. 

At this time we had neither the detachment of scouts with 
which we had left Tucson they had been discharged at Camp 
Apache the moment that General Crook received word that the 
authorities in Washington were about to make the trial of send- 
ing commissioners to treat with the Apaches nor the small 
party of five Apaches who had conducted us out from Camp 
Apache until we had reached the centre of the Mogollon ; and, 
as the country was unmapped and unknown, we had to depend 
upon ourselves for reaching Camp Verde, which no one in the 
party had ever visited. 

"We had reached the eastern extremity of the plateau, and could 
see the Bradshaw and other ranges to the west and south, and 
the sky-piercing cone of the San Francisco to the northwest, but 
were afraid to trust ourselves in the dark and forbidding mass of 
brakes and cafions of great depth which filled the country imme- 
diately in our front. It was the vicinity of the Fossil Creek 
cafion, some fifteen hundred to two thousand feet deep, which. 
we deemed it best to avoid, although had we known it we 
might have crossed in safety by an excellent, although precipi- 
tous, trail. Our only guide was Archie Macintosh, who belonged 
up in the Hudson's Bay Company's territory, and was totally 
unacquainted with Arizona, but a wonderful man in any coun- 
try. He and General Crook and Tom Moore conferred together, 
and concluded it was best to strike due north and head all the 
canons spoken of. This we did, but the result was no improve- 
ment, as we got into the Clear Creek cation, which, is one of the 
deepest and most beautiful to look upon in all the Southwest, but 
one very hard upon all who must descend and ascend. When we 
descended we found plenty of cold, clear water, and the banks of 
the stream lined with the wild hop, which, loaded the atmosphere 
with a heavy perfume of lupulin. 

Still heading due north, we struck the cafion of Beaver Creek, 


and were compelled to march along its vertical walls of basalt, 
unable to reach the water in the tiny, entrancing rivulet below, 
but at last ran in upon the wagon-road from the Little Colorado 
to Camp Verde. We were getting rapidly down from the sum- 
mit of the Mogollon, and entering a country exactly similar to 
that of the major portion of Southern Arizona. Thore was the 
same vegetation of yucca, mescal, nopal, Spanish bayonet, giant 
cactus, palo verde, hediondilla, mesquite, and sage-brush, laden 
with the dust of summer, but there was also a considerable 
sprinkling of the cedar, scrub-pine, scrub-oak, madrofio, or 
mountain mahogany, and some little mulberry. 

Near this trail there are to be seen several archaeological curi- 
osities worthy of a visit from the students of any part of the 
world. There is the wonderful " Montezuma's Well," a lakelet 
of eighty or ninety feet in depth, situated in the centre of a 
subsidence of rock, in which is a cave once inhabited by a pre- 
historic people, while around the circumference of the pool itself 
are the cliff-dwellings, of which so many examples are to be 
encountered in the vicinity. One of these cliff-dwellings, in 
excellent preservation when I last visited it, is the six-story 
house of stone on the Beaver Creek, which issues from the cave 
at Montezuma's Wells, and flows into the Verde River, near the 
post of the same name. We came upon the trails of scouting 
parties descending the Mogollon, and learned soon after that 
they had been made by the commands of Lieutenants Crawford 
and Morton, both of whom had been doing excellent and arduous 
work against the hostile bands during the previous summer. 

I have already remarked that during this practice march all 
the members of our command learned General Crook, but of far 
greater consequence than that was the fact that he learned his 
officers and men. He was the most untiring and indefatigable 
man I ever met ; and, whether climbing up or down the rugged 
face of some rocky caflon, facing sun or rain, never appeared to 
be in the slightest degree distressed or annoyed. No matter 
what happened in the camp, or on the march, he knew it ; he 
was always awake and on his feet the moment the cook of the 
pack-train was aroused to prepare the morning meal, which was 
frequently as early as two o'clock, and remained on his feefc 
during the remainder of the day. I am unable to explain 
exactly how he did it, but I can assure my readers that Crook 


learned, while on that march, the name of every plant, animal, 
and mineral passed near the trail, as well as the uses to which 
the natives put them, each and all ; likewise the hahits of the 
birds, reptiles, and animals, and the coarse and general character 
of all the streams, little or Trig. The Indians eviiiced an awe for 
him from the first moment of their meeting ; they did not seem 
to understand how it was that a white man could so quickly 
absorb all that they had to teach. 

In the character of General Crook there appeared a very re- 
markable tenderness for all those for whose care he in any manner 
became responsible ; this tenderness manifested itself in a way 
peculiar to himself, and, as usual with him,, was never made the 
occasion or excuse for parade. He was at all times anxious to 
secure for his men while on campaign all the necessaries of life, 
and to do that he knew from his very wide experience that there 
was nothing to compare to a thoroughly organized and well- 
equipped pack-train, which could follow a command by night or by 
day, and into every locality, no matter how rocky, how thickly 
wooded, or how hopelessly desert. He made the study of pack- 
trains the great study of his life, and had always the satisfaction of 
knowing that the trains in the department under his control were 
in such admirable condition, that the moment trouble was threat- 
ened in other sections, his pack-trains were selected as being best 
suited for the most arduous work. He found the nucleus ready 
to hand in the system of pack-transportation which the exigencies 
of the mining communities on the Pacific coast had caused to be 
brought up from Chili, Peru, and the western States of the Mex- 
ican Republic. 

The fault with these trains was that they were run as money- 
making concerns, and the men, as well as the animals belonging 
to them, were in nearly every case employed as temporary make- 
shifts, and as soon as the emergency had ended were discharged. 
The idea upon which Crook worked, and which he successfully 
carried cut, was to select trains under the pack-masters who had 
enjoyed the widest experience, and were by nature best adapted 
to the important duties they would be called upon to perform. 
Those who were too much addicted to alcoholic stimulants, or were 
for other cause un suited, were as opportunity presented replaced 
by better material. As with the men, so with the animals ; the ill- 
assorted collections of bony giants and undersized Sonora " rats/* 


whose withers were always a mass of sores and whose hoofs were 
always broken and out of sorts, were as speedily as possible sold off 
or transferred to other uses, and in their places we saw trains of 
animals which in weight, size and build, were of the type which 
experience had shown to be most appropriate. 

The "aparejos," or pack-cushions, formerly issued by the quar- 
termaster's department, had been burlesques, and killed more mules 
than they helped in carrying their loads. Crook insisted upon 
having each mule provided with an "aparejo" made especially for 
him, saying that it was just as ridiculous to expect a mule to carry 
a burden with an ill-fitting "aparejo " as it would be to expect a 
soldier to march comfortably with a knapsack which did not fit 
squarely to his back and shoulders. Every article used in these 
pack-trains had to be of the best materials, for the very excellent 
reason that while out on scout, it was impossible to replace any- 
thing broken, and a column might be embarrassed by the failure 
of a train to arrive with ammunition or rations therefore, on the 
score of economy, it was better to have all the very best make in 
the first place. 

According to the nomenclature then in vogue in pack-trains, 
there were to be placed upon each mule in due order of sequence 
a small cloth extending from the withers to the loins, and called 
from the office it was intended to perform, the " suadera," or 
sweat-cloth. Then came, according to the needs of the case, two or 
three saddle blankets, then the ( : aparejo " itself a large mattress, 
we may say, stuffed with hay or straw weighing between fifty-five 
and sixty-five pounds, and of such dimensions as to receive and 
distribute to best advantage all over the mule's back the burden 
to be carried which was known by the Spanish term of "cargo. 1 " 
Over the " aparego," the " corona/' and over that the " savrin- 
hammer," and then the load or " cargo " evenly divided so as to 
balance on the two sides. In practice, the ee corona " is not now 
used, except to cover the "aparejo" after reaching camp, but 
there was a time way back in Andalusia and in the Chilean Andes 
when the heart of the " arriero " or muleteer, or " packer," as he 
is called in the dreadfully prosy language of the quartermaster's 
department, took the greatest delight in devising the pattern, 
quaint or horrible, but always gaudy and in the gayest of colors, 
which should decorate and protect his favorite mules. I do not 
know how true it is, but " Chileno John " and others told me that 


the main service expected of the "corona" was to enable the 
'* arriero " who couldn't read or write to tell just where his own 
" aparejos " were, but of this I am unable to say anything posi- 

The philological outrage which I have written phonetically as 
" suvrin-hammer " would set devout Mohammedans crazy were 
they to know of its existence ; it is a base corruption of the old 
Hispano-Moresqueterm "sobre-en-jalma," over the jalma, the 
Arabic word for pack-saddle, which has wandered far away, far 
from the date-palms of the Sahara, and the rippling fountains 
of Granada, to gladden the hearts and break the tongues of Cape 
Cod Yankees in the Q-ila Valley. In the same boat with it is. 
the Zuni word "Tinka^ for the flux to be used in working sil- 
ver ; it is a travelled word, and first saw the light in the gloomy 
mountain ranges of far-off Thibet, where it was pronounced 
"Tincal" or " Atincal/* and meant borax; thence, it made its 
way with caravans to and through Arabia and Spain to the Spanish 
settlements in the land of the West. Everything about a pack- 
train was Spanish or Arabic in origin, as I have taken care to 
apprise my readers in another work, but it may be proper to repeat 
here that the first, as it was the largest organized pack-train in 
history, was that of fifteen thousand mules which Isabella the 
Catholic called into the service of the Crown of Castile and Leon 
at the time she established the city of Santa Fe in the " Vega," 1 
and began in good earnest the siege of Granada. 

One could pick up not a little good Spanish in a pack-train in 
the times of which I speak twenty-one years ago and there were 
many expressions in general use which preserved all the flavor of 
other lands and other ideas. ' Thus the train itself was generally 
known as the "atajo ;" the pack-master was called the "patron ;" 
his principal assistant, whose functions were to attend to every- 
thing pertaining to the loads, was styled "cargador; " the cook 
was designated the " cencero," f rom the fact that he rode the bell- 
mare, usually a white animal, from the superstition preyailing 
among Spanish packers that mules liked the color white better 
than any other. 

Packers were always careful not to let any stray colts in among 
the mules, because they would set the mules crazy. This idea is 
not an absurd one, as I can testify from my personal observation. 
The mules are so anxious to play with young colts that they will 


do nothing else ; and, being stronger than the youngster, will 
often injure it by crowding up against it. The old mules of a 
train know their business perfectly well. They need no one to 
show them where their place is when the evening's "feed " is to 
be apportioned on the canvas, and in every way deport them- 
selves as sedate, prim, well-behaved members of society, from 
whom all vestiges of the frivolities of youth have been eradicated. 
They never wander far from the sound of the bell, and give no 
trouble to the packers " on herd." 

But a far different story must be told of the inexperienced, 
skittish young mule, fresh from the blue grass of Missouri or 
Nebraska. He js the source of more profanity than he is worth, 
and were it not that the Eecording Angel understands the aggra- 
vation in the case, he would have his hands full in entering all 
the "cuss words " to which the green pack-mule has given rise. 
He will not mind the bell, will wander away from his comrades 
on herd, and in sundry and divers ways demonstrates the per- 
versity of his nature. To contravene his maliciousness, it is 
necessary to mark him in such a manner that every packer will 
see at a glance that he is a new arrival, and thereupon set to 
work to drive him back to his proper place in his own herd. The 
most certain, as it is the most convenient way to effect this, is by 
neatly reaching his mane and shaving his tail so that nothing is 
left but a pencil or tassel of hair at the extreme end. He is now 
known as a "shave-tail," and everybody can recognize him at 
first sight. His sedate and well-trained comrade is called* a 

These terms, in frontier sarcasm, have been transferred to offi- 
cers of the army, who, in the parlance of the packers, are known 
as "bell-sharps" and "shave-tails" respectively; the former be- 
ing the old captain or field-officer of many "fogies," who knows 
too much to be wasting his energies in needless excursions about 
the country, and the latter, the youngster fresh from his studies 
on the Hudson, who fondly imagines he knows it all, and is not 
above having people know that he does. He is a " shave-tail " 
all elegance of uniform, spick-span new, well groomed, and with- 
out sense enough to come in for "feed" when the bell rings. 
On the plains these two classes of very excellent gentlemen used 
to be termed " coffee-coolers " and "goslings." 

There are few more animated sights than a pack-train at the 


moment of feeding and grooming the mules. The care shown 
equals almost that given to the average "baby, and the dumb 
animals seem to respond to all attentions. 0-eneral Crook kept 
himself posted as to what was done to every mule, and, as a 
result, had the satisfaction of seeing his trains carrying a net 
average of three hundred and twenty pounds to the mule, while 
a pamphlet issued by the Government had explicitly stated that 
the highest average should not exceed one hundred and seven ty- 
five. So that, viewed in the most sordid light, the care which 
0-eneral Crook bestowed upon his trains yielded wonderful re- 
sults. Not a day passed that General Crook did not pass from 
one to two hours in personal inspection of the workings of his 
trains, and he has often since told me that he felt then the great 
responsibility of having his transportation in the most perfect 
order, because so much was to be demanded of it. 

The packers themselves were an interesting study, drawn as 
they were from the four corners of the earth, although the major 
portion, as was to be expected, was of Spanish- American origin. 
Not an evening passed on this trip across the mountains of the 
Mogollon Eange that Crook did not quietly take a seat close to 
the camp-fire of some of the packers, and listen intently to their 
4< reminiscences " of early mining days in California or "up on 
the Frazer in British Columbia." "Hank ? n Yank," Tom 
Moore, Jim O'Neill, Charlie Hopkins, Jack Long, Long Jim 
Cook, and others, were "forty-niners/' and well able to discuss 
the most exciting times known to the new Pactolus, with its 
accompanying trying days of the vigilance committee and other 
episodes of equal interest. These were "men" in the truest 
sense of the term ; they had faced all perils, endured all priva- 
tions, and conquered in a manly way, which is the one unfailing 
test of greatness in human nature. Some of the narratives were 
mirth-provoking beyond my powers of repetition, and for General 
Crook they formed an unfailing source of quiet amusement when- 
ever a chance offered to listen to them as told by the packers. 

One of our men I have forgotten to mention him sooner 
Was Johnnie Hart, a very quiet and reserved person, with a great 
amount of force, to be shown when needed. There was little of 
either the United States or Mexico over which he had not wan- 
dered as a mining " prospector," delving for metals, precious or 
non-precious. Bad luck overtook him in Sonora just about when 


that country was the scene of the liveliest kind of a time between 
the French and the native Mexicans, and while the hostile fac- 
tions of the Gandaras and the Pesquieras were doing- their best 
to destroy what little the rapacity of the Gallic invaders left 
intact. Johnnie was rudely awakened one night by a loud rap- 
ping at the door of the hut in which he had taken shelter, and 
learned,, to his great surprise, that he was needed as a "volunta- 
rio," which meant, as nearly as he could understand, that he was 
to put on handcuffs and march with the squad to division head- 
quarters, and there be assigned to a company. In vain he 
explained, or thought he was explaining, that he was an Ameri- 
can citizen and not subject to conscription. All the satisfaction 
he got was to be told that every morning and evening he was to 
cheer "for our noble Constitution and for General Pesquiera." 

After all, it was not such a very hard life. The marches were 
short, and the country well filled with chickens, eggs, and goats. 
What more could a soldier want ? So, our friend did not com- 
plain, and went about his few duties with cheerfulness, and was 
making rapid progress in the shibboleth of ' f Long live our noble 
Constitution and General Pesquiera," when, one evening, the 
first sergeant of his company hit him a violent slap on the side of 
the head, and said : " You idiot, do you not know enough to 
cheer for General Gandara ? " And then it was that poor Johnnie 
learned for the first time he had been absent for several days on 
a foraging expedition and had just returned that the general 
commanding had sold out the whole division to General Gandara 
the previous day for a dollar and six bits a head. 

This was the last straw. Johnnie Hart was willing to fight, and 
it made very little difference to him on which side; but he could 
not put up with such a sudden swinging of the pendulum, and 
as he expressed it, "made up his mind to skip the hull outfit ? n 
punch the breeze fur Maz'tlan." 

All the packers were sociable, and inclined to be friendly to 
every one. The Spaniards, like "Chileno John/' Jos6 de Leon, 
Lauriano Gomez, and others, were never more happy work com- 
pleted than in explaining their language to such Americans as 
evinced a desire to learn it. Gomez was well posted in Spanish 
literature, especially poetry, and would often recite for us with 
much animation and expression the verses of his native tongue. 
He preferred the madrigals and love ditties of all kinds ; and was 


never more pleased than when he had organized a quartette and 
had begun to awaken the echoes of the grand old cafLons or forests 
with the deliciously plaintive notes of " La Golondrina," " Adios 
de Guaymas/' or other songs in minor key, decidedly nasalized. 
I may say that at a later date I have listened to a recitation by a 
packer named Hale, of Espronceda's lines "The Bandit Chief " 
in a very creditable style in the balsam-breathing forests of the 
Sierra Madre. 

The experiences of old Sam Wisser, in the more remote portions 
of Sonora and Sinaloa, never failed to " bring down the house/' 
when related in his homely Pennsylvania-German brogue. I will 
condense the story for the benefit of those who may care to listen. 
Sam's previous business had been "prospecting " for mines,, and, 
in pursuit, of his calling, he had travelled far and near, generally 
so intent upon the search for wealth at a distance that he failed 
to secure any of that which often lay at his feet. Equipped with 
the traditional pack-mule, pick, spade, frying-pan, and blankets, 
he started out on his mission having as a companion a man who 
did not pretend to be much of a "prospector/' but was travelling 
for his health, or what was left of it. They had not reached the 
Eldorado of their hopes ; but were far down in Sinaloa when 
the comrade died, and it became Sam's sad duty to administer 
upon the " estate." The mule wasn't worth much and was indeed 
almost as badly worn out as its defunct master. The dead man's 
clothing was buried with him, and his revolver went a good ways 
in paying the expenses of interment. There remained nothing 
but a very modest-looking valise nearly filled with bottles, pill- 
boxes, and pots of various medicinal preparations warranted to 
cure all the ills that flesh is heir to. An ordinary man would have 
thrown all this away as so much rubbish, but our friend was 
a genius he carefully examined each and every package, and 
learned exactly what they were all worth according to the advertise- 
ments. Nothing escaped his scrutiny, from the picture of the 
wretch "before taking/' to that of the rubicund, aldermanic, smil- 
ing athlete " after taking six bottles." All the testimonials from 
shining lights of pulpit and bar were read through from date to 
signature, and the result of it all was that Sam came to the very 
logical conclusion that if he had in his possession panaceas for all 
ailments, why should he not practise the healing art ? The next 
morning dawned upon a new Esculapius, and lighted up the legend 


<f Medico " tacked upon the frame of the door of Sam's hovel. It 
made no difference to the budding practitioner what the disorder 
was; he had the appropriate remedy at hand, and was most liberal 
in the amount of dosing to be given to his patients, which went 
far to increase their confidence in a man who seemed so willing 
to give them the full worth of their money. The only trouble 
was that Sam never gave the same dose twice to the same patient; ; 
this was because he had no memorandum books, and could not 
keep in mind all the circumstances of each case. The man who 
had Oroton-oil pills in the morning received a tablespoonful of 
somebody's ''Siberian Solvent" at night, and there was such a 
crowd that poor Sam was kept much more busy than he at first 
supposed he should be, because the people were not disposed to let 
go by an opportunity of ridding themselves of all infirmities, when 
the same could be eradicated by a physician who accepted in pay- 
ment anything from a two-bit-piece to a string of chile Colorado. 
Sam's practice was not confined to any one locality. It reached 
from the southern end of the Mexican State of Sinaloa to the 
international boundary. Sam, in other words, had become a trav- 
elling doctor he kept travelling but as his mule had had a good 
rest and some feed in the beginning of its master's new career, the 
pursuers were never able to quite catch up with the Gringo quack 
whose nostrums were depopulating the country. 

From the valley of the Verde to the town of Prescott, according 
to the steep roads and trails connecting them in 1871, was some- 
thing over fifty-five miles, the first part of the journey extremely 
rough and precipitous, the latter half within sight of hills clad 
with graceful pines and cooled by the breezes from the higher 
ranges. The country was well grassed ; there was a very pleasing 
absence of the cactus vegetation to be seen farther to the south, 
adobe houses were replaced by comfortable-looking dwellings and 
barns of plank or stone ; the water in the wells was cold and pure, 
and the lofty peaks, the San Francisco and the Black Kange and 
the Bradsbaw, were for months in the year buried in snow. 



A FEW words should be spoken in praise of a community 
which of all those on the southwestern frontier preserved 
the distinction of being thoroughly American. Prescott was not 
merely picturesque in location and dainty in appearance, with 
all its houses neatly painted and surrounded with paling fences 
and supplied with windows after the American style it was a 
village transplanted bodily from the centre of the Delaware, the 
Mohawk, or the Connecticut valley. Its inhabitants were Ameri- 
cans ; American men had brought American wives out with them 
from their old homes in the far East, and these American wives 
had not forgotten the lessons of elegance and thrift learned in 
childhood. Everything about the houses recalled the scenes 
familiar to the dweller in the country near Pittsburgh or other 
busy community. The houses were built in American style ; the 
doors were American doors and fastened with American bolts and 
locks, opened by American knobs, and not closed by letting 
a heavy cottonwood log fall against them. 

The furniture was the neat cottage furniture with which all 
must be familiar who have ever had the privilege of entering an 
American country home ; there were carpets, mirrors, rocking- 
chairs, tables, lamps, and all other appurtenances, just as one 
might expect to find them in any part of our country excepting 


Arizona and New Mexico. There were American books, Ameri- 
can newspapers, American magazines the last intelligently read. 
The language was American, and nothing elsethe man who 
hoped to acquire a correct knowledge of Oastilian in Prescott 
would surely be disappointed. Not even so much as a Spanish 
advertisement could be found in the columns of The Miner, 
in which, week after week, John H. Marion fought out the battle 
of "America for the Americans." The stores were American 
stores, selling nothing but American goods. In one word, the 
transition from Tucson to Prescott was as sudden and as radical 
as that between Madrid and Manchester. 

In one respect only was there the slightest resemblance : in 
Prescott, as in Tucson, the gambling saloons were never closed- 
Sunday or Monday, night or morning, the "game" went, and 
the Toice of the "dealer" was heard in the land. Prescott was 
essentially a mining town deriving its business from the wants of 
the various ee claims" on the Agua Fria, the Big Bug and Lynx 
Creek on the east, and others in the west as far as Oerbat and 
Mineral Park. There was an air of comfort about it which indi- 
cated intelligence and refinement rather than wealth which its 
people did not as yet enjoy. 

At this time, in obedience to orders received from the Secretary 
of War, I was assigned to duty as aide-de-camp, and in that posi- 
tion had the best possible opportunity for becoming acquainted 
"with the country, the Indians and white people in it, and to 
absorb a knowledge of all that was to be done and that was done. 
General Crook's first move was to bring the department head- 
quarters to Prescott; they had been for a long while at Los 
Angeles, California, some five hundred miles across the desert,. 
to the west, and in the complete absence of railroad and telegraph 
facilities they might just as well have been in Alaska. His next 
duty was to perfect the knowledge already gained of the enor- 
mous area placed under his charge, and this necessitated an 
incredible amount of travelling on mule-back, in ambulance and 
buckboard, over roads, or rather trails, which eclipsed any of the 
horrors portrayed by the pencil of Dor6. There was great danger 
in, all this, but Crook travelled without escort, except on, very 
special occasions, as he did not wish to break down Ids men by 

The Apaches had been fully as active in the neighborhood of 


Prescott as they had been in that of Tucson, and to this day such 
names as "The Burnt Ranch" a point four miles to the north- 
west of the town commemorate attacks and massacres by the ab- 
origines. The mail-rider had several times teen " corraled " at the 
Point of Rocks, very close to the town, and all of this portion of 
Arizona had groaned under the depredations not of the Apaches 
alone but of the Navajos, Hualpais, and Apache-Mo j ayes, and 
now and then of the Sevinches, a small band of thieves of Pi-Ute 
stock, liying in the Grand Oafion of the Colorado on the north- 
ern boundary of the territory. I have still preserved as relics of 
those days copies of The Miner of Preseott and of The Citizen of 
Tucson, in every column of which are to be found references to 
Indian depredations. 

There should still be in Washington a copy of the petition for- 
warded by the inhabitants pleading for more adequate protection, 
in which are given the names of over four hundred American 
citizens killed in encounters with the savages within an extremely 
limited period two or three years and the dates and localities 
of the occurrences. 

Fort Whipple, the name of the military post within one mile 
of the town, was a ramshackle, tumble-down palisade of un- 
barked pine logs hewn from the adjacent slopes ; it was supposed 
to " command" something, exactly what, I do not remember, as 
it was so dilapidated that every time the wind rose we were 
afraid that the palisade was doomed. The quarters for both 
officers and men were also log houses, with the exception of one 
single-room shanty on the apex of the hill nearest to town, which 
was constructed of unseasoned, unpainted pine planks, and which 
served as G-eneral Crook's " Headquarters/' and, at night, as the 
place wherein he stretched his limbs in slumber. He foresaw 
that the negotiations which Mr. Vincent Collyer had been com- 
missioned to carry on with the roving bands of the Apaches 
would result in naught, because the distrust of the savages for 
the white man, and all he said and did, had become so confirmed 
that it would take more than one or two pleasant talks full of 
glowing promises to eradicate it. Therefore, General Crook felt 
that it would be prudent for him to keep himself in the best 
physical trim, to be the better able to undergo the fatigues of 
the campaigns which were sure to come, and come very soon. 

The Apaches are not the only tribe in Arizona ; there are ser- 


eral others, which have in the past been a source of trouble to 
the settlers and of expense to the authorities. One of these was 
the Hualpais, whose place of abode was in the Grand CafLon, and 
who were both brave and crafty in war ; they were then at Camp 
Beale Springs in northwestern Arizona, forty-five miles from 
the Colorado Biver, and under the care of an officer long since 
dead Captain Thomas Byrne, Twelfth Infantry, who was a 
genius in his way. "Old Tommy/' as he was affectionately 
called by every one in the service or out of it, had a " deludherin' 
tongue/' which he used free]y in the cause of peace, knowing as 
he did that if this small tribe of resolute people should ever 
return to the war-path, it would take half a dozen regiments to 
dislodge them from the dizzy cliffs of the " Music/' the " Sunup/' 
the Wickyty-wizz/' and the "Diamond." 

So Tommy relied solely upon his native eloquence, seconded 
by the scantiest allowance of rations from the subsistence stores 
of the camp. He acquired an ascendancy over the minds of the 
chiefs and head men "Sharum," "Levy-Levy/' "Sequonya," 
" Enyacue-yusa/' " Ahcula-watta," "Colorow," and "Hualpai 
Charlie " which was little short of miraculous. He was an old 
bachelor, but seemed to have a warm spot in his heart for all the 
little naked and half -naked youngsters in and around his camp, 
to whom he gave most liberally of the indigestible candy and 
sweet cakes of the trader's store. 

The squaws were allowed all the hard-tack they could eat, but 
only on the most solemn occasions could they gratify their taste 
for castor oil the condition of the medical supplies would not 
warrant the issue of all they demanded. I have read that certain 
of the tribes of Africa use castor oil in cooking, but I know of 
no other tribe of American Indians so greedy for this medicine. 
But taste is at best something which cannot be explained or ac- 
counted for ; I recall that the trader at the San Carlos Agency 
once made a bad investment of money in buying cheap candies ; 
they were nearly all hoarhound and peppermint, which the 
Apaches would not buy or accept as a gift. 

Tommy had succeeded in impressing upon the minds of his 
savage wards the importance of letting him know the moment 
anything like an outbreak, no matter how slight it might be, 
should be threatened. There was to be no fighting, no firing of 
guns and pistols, and no seeking redress for injuries excepting 


through, the commanding officer,, who was the court of last 
appeal. One day "Hualpai Charlie" came running in like an 
antelope, all out of breath, his eyes blazing with excitement : 
<e Gappy Byrne get yo* sogy heap quick. White man over da 
Min'nul Pa'k, all bloke out." An investigation was made, and 
developed the cause of "CharlieV apprehensions : the recently 
established mining town of " Mineral Park 5 ' in the Cerbat range 
had "struck it rich/' and was celebrating the event in appropriate 
style ; bands of miners, more or less sober, were staggering about 
in the 1 one street, painting the town red. There was the usual 
amount of shooting at themselves and at the few lamps in the 
two saloons, and "Charlie," who ha* not yet learned that one 
of the inalienable rights of the Caucasian is to make a fool of 
himself now and then, took fright, and ran in the whole fourteen 
miles to communicate the first advices of the "outbreak" to his 
commanding officer and friend. 

Captain Byrne was most conscientious in all his dealings with 
these wild, suspicious people, and gained their affection to an 
extent not to be credited in these days, when there seems to be 
a recurrence to the ante-bellum theory that the only good Indian 
be it buck, squaw, or puling babe is the dead one. I have 
seen the old man coax sulking warriors back into good humor, 
and persuade them that the best thing in the world for them all 
was the good-will of tKe Great Father. " Come now, Sharum," 
I have heard him say, "shure phat is de matther wid yiz ? Have 
yiz ivir axed me for anythin* that oi didn't promise it to yiz ? " 

Poor Tommy was cut off too soon in life to redeem all his 
pledges, and I fear that there is still a balance of unpaid prom- 
ises, comprehending mouth organs, hoop skirts, velocipedes, 
anything that struck the fancy of a chief and for which he made 
instant demand upon his military patron. To carry matters for- 
ward a little, I wish to say that Tommy remained the "frind," 
as he pronounced the term, -of the Hualpais to the very last, and 
even after he had been superseded by the civil agent, or acting 
agent, he remained at the post respected and regarded by all the 
tribe as their brother and adviser. 

Like a flash of lightning out of a clear sky, the Hualpais went 
on the war-path, and fired into the agency buildings before leav- 
ing for their old strongholds in the Caflon of the Colorado. No 
one knew why they had so suddenly shown this treacherous 


nature, and the territorial press (there was a telegraph line ia 
operation by this time) was filled with gloomy forebodings on 
account of the "well-known treachery of the Indian character." 
Tommy Byrne realized full well how much it would cost Uncle 
Sam in blood and treasure if this outbreak were not stopped in 
its incipiency, and without waiting for his spirited little horse 
to be saddled he was a superb rider threw himself across its 
back and took out into the hills after the fugitives. When the 
Hualpais saw the cloud of dust coming out on the road, they 
blazed into it, but the kind Providence, which is said to look out 
for the Irish under all circumstances, took pity on the brave old 
man, and spared him even after he had dashed up his horse 
white with foam to the knot of chiefs who stood on the brow of 
a lava mesa. 

At first the Hualpais were sullen, but soon they melted enough 
to tell the story of their grievances, and especially the grievance 
they had against Captain Byrne himself. The new agent had 
been robbing them in the most bare-faced manner, and in their 
ignorance they imagined that it was Tommy Byrne's duty to 
regulate all affairs at his camp. They did not want to hurt him, 
and would let him go safely back, but for them there was nothing 
but the war-path and plenty of it. 

Tommy said gently, " Come back with me, and HI see that 
you are righted/' Back they went, following after the one, un- 
armed man. Straight to the beef scales went the now thoroughly 
aroused officer, and in less time than it takes to relate, he had 
detected the manner in which false weights had been secured by 
a tampering with the poise. A two-year-old Texas steer, which, 
horns and all, would not weigh eight hundred pounds, would 
mark seventeen hundred, and other things in the same ratio. 
Nearly the whole amount of the salt and flour supply had been 
sold to the miners in the Oerbat range, and the poor Hualpais, 
who had been such valiant and efficient allies, had been swindled 
out of everything but their breath, and but a small part of that 
was left. 

Tommy seized upon the agency and took charge ; the Hual- 
pais were perfectly satisfied, but the agent left that night for 
California and never came back. A great hubbub was raised 
about the matter, but nothing came of it, and a bitter war was 
averted by the prompt, decisive action of a plain, unlettered 


officer, who had no ideas about managing savages beyond treating 
them with kindness and justice. 

General Crook not only saw to the condition of the Hualpais, 
but of their relatives, the Mojaves, on the river, and kept them 
both in good temper towards the whites ; not only this, but more 
than this he sent up among the Pi-Utes of Nevada and Southern 
Utah and explained the situation to them and secured the promise 
of a contingent of one hundred of their warriors for service against 
the Apaches, should the latter decline to listen to the propositions 
of the commissioner sent to treat with them. When hostilities 
did break out, the Pi-Utes sent down the promised auxiliaries, 
under their chief, "Captain Tom," and, like the Hualpais, they 
rendered faithful service. 

What has become of the Pi-Utes I cannot say, but of the Hual- 
pais I ana sorry to have to relate that the moment hostilities 
ended, the Great Father began to ignore and neglect them, until 
finally their condition became so deplorable that certain fashion- 
able ladies of New York, who were doing a great deal of good 
unknown to the world at large, sent money to General Crook to 
be used in keeping them from starving to death. 

Liquor is freely given to the women, who have become fear- 
fully demoralized, and I can assert of my own knowledge that 
five years since several photographers made large sales along the 
Atlantic and Pacific railroad of the pictures of nude women of 
this once dreaded band, which had committed no other offence 
than that of trusting in the faith of the Government of the 
United States. 

In the desolate, romantic country of the Hualpais and their 
brothers, the Ava-Supais, amid the Cyclopean monoliths which 
line the cafLons of Cataract Creek, the Little Colorado, the Grand 
Cafion or the Diamond, one may sit and listen, as I have often 
listened, to the simple tales and myths of a wild, untutored race. 
There are stories to be heard of the prowess of " Mustamho " 
and f 'Matyavela," of (e Pathrax-sapa " and " Pathrax-carrawee/' 
of the goddess " Ouathenya," and a multiplicity of deities ani- 
mal and human which have served to beguile the time after the 
day's march had ended and night was at hand. All the elements 
of nature are actual, visible entities for these simple children 
the stars are possessed of the same powers as man, all the chief 
animals have the faculty of speech, and the coyote is the one 


who is man's good friend and has brought; him the great boon of 
fire. The gods of the Hualpais are different in name though not 
in functions or peculiarities from those of the Apaches and Nava- 
jos, but are almost identical with those of the Mojaves. 

As with the Apaches, so with the Hualpais, the " medicine 
men" wield an unknown and an immeasurable influence, and 
claim power over the forces of nature, which is from time to 
time renewed by rubbing the body against certain sacred stones 
not far from Beale Springs. The Hualpai medicine men also 
indulge in a sacred intoxication by breaking up the leaves, twigs, 
and root of the stramonium or " jimson weed," and making a 
beverage which, when drunk, induces an exhilaration, in the 
course of which the drunkard utters prophecies. 

While the colonies along the Atlantic coast were formulating 
their grievances against the English crown and preparing to 
throw off all allegiance to the throne of Great Britain, two priests 
of the Roman Catholic Church were engaged in exploring these 
desolate wilds, and in making an effort to win the Hualpais and 
their brothers to Christianity. 

Father Escalante started out from Santa E4, New Mexico, in 
the year 1776, and travelling northwest through Utah finally 
reached the Great Salt Lake, which he designated as the Lake of 
the Timpanagos. This name is perfectly intelligible to those 
who happen to know of the existence down to the present day of 
the band of Utes called the Timpanoags, who inhabit the cafions 
close to the present city of Salt Lake. Travelling on foot south- 
ward, Escalante passed down through Utah and crossed the 
Grand CaLon of the Colorado, either at what is now known as 
Lee's Ferry, or the mouth of the Kanab Wash, or the mouth of 
the Diamond ; thence east through the Moqui and the Zuni vil- 
lages back to Santa Fe. Escalante expected to be joined near 
the Grand Cafion by Father Garces, who had travelled from the 
mission of San Gabriel, near Los Angeles, and crossed the Col- 
orado in the country inhabited by the Mojaves ; but, although 
each performed the part assigned to him, the proposed meeting 
did not take place. 

It is impossible to avoid reference to these matters, which will 
obtrude themselves upon the mind of any one travelling through 
Arizona. There is an ever-present suggestion of the past and un- 
known, that has a fascination all its own for those who yield to 


it. Thus, at Bowers' Ranch on the Ag'ua Fria, eighteen miles 
northeast from Prescott, one sits down to his supper in a room 
which once formed part of a prehistoric dwelling ; and the same 
thing may be said of Wales Arnold's, over near Montezuma's 
Wells, where many of the stones used in the masonry came from 
the pueblo ruins close at hand. 

Having visited the northern line of his department, General 
Crook gave all his attention to the question of supplies ; every- 
thing consumed in the department, at that date, had to be 
freighted at great expense from San Francisco, first by steamship 
around Cape San Lucas to the mouth of the Eio Colorado, then 
up the river in small steamers as far as Ehrenburg and Fort 
Mojave, and the remainder of the distance two hundred miles 
by heavy teams. To a very considerable extent, these supplies 
were distributed from post to post by pack-trains, a proceeding 
which evoked the liveliest remonstrances from the Contractors 
interested in the business of hauling freight, but their complaints 
availed them nothing. Crook foresaw the demands that the 
near future would surely make upon his pack-trains, which he 
could by no surer method keep in the highest discipline and 
efficiency than by having them constantly on the move from post 
to post carrying supplies. The mules became hardened, the 
packers made more skilful in the use of all the " hitches " the 
" Diamond" and others constituting the mysteries of their call- 
ing, and the detachments sent along as escorts were constantly 
learning something new about the country as well as how to care 
for themselves and animals. 

Sixty-two miles from Prescott to the southwest lay the sickly 
and dismal post of Camp Date creek, on the creek of the same 
name. Here were congregated about one thousand of the band 
known as the Apache- Yumas, with a sprinkling of Apache- 
Mojaves, tribes allied to the Mojaves on the Colorado, and to 
the Hualpais, but differing from them in disposition, as the Date 
Creek people were not all anxious 'for peace, but would now and 
then send small parties of their young men to raid and steal from 
the puny settlements like Wickenburg. The culmination of 
the series was the "Loring" or "Wickenburg" massacre, so- 
called from the talented young scientist, Loring, a member of 
the Wheeler surveying expedition, who, with his companions 
a stage-load was brutally murdered not far from Wickenburg ; 


of the party only two escaped, one a woman named Shephard, 
and the other a man named Kruger, both badly wounded. 

General Crook was soon satisfied that this terrible outrage had 
been committed by a portion of the irreconcilable element at the 
Date Creek Agency, but how to single them out as individuals and 
inflict the punishment their crime deserved, without entailing dis- 
aster upon well-meaning men, women, and babies who had not 
been implicated, was for a long while a most serious problem. 
There were many of the tribe satisfied to cultivate peaceful rela- 
tions with the whites, but none so favorably disposed as to impart 
the smallest particle of information in regard to the murder, as 
it was no part of their purpose to surrender any of their relatives 
for punishment. 

It would take too much time to narrate in detail the ce patient 
search and vigil long" attending the ferreting out of the indi- 
yiduals concerned in the Loring massacre ; it was a matter of 
days and weeks and months, but Crook knew that he had the 
right clew, and, although many times baffled, he returned to the 
scent with renewed energy and determination. The culprits, who 
included in their ranks, or at least among their sympathizers, 
some very influential men of the tribe, had also begun, on their 
side, to suspect that all was not right ; one of them, I under- 
stood, escaped to Southern California, and there found work in 
some of the Mexican settlements, which he could do readily as 
he spoke Spanish fluently, and once having donned the raiment 
of civilization, there would be nothing whatever to distinguish 
him from the average of pepple about him. 

Word reached General Crook, through the Hualpais, that 
when next he visited Camp Date Creek, he was to be murdered 
with all those who might accompany him. He was warned to 
be on the look-out, and told that the plan of the conspirators was 
this : They would appear in front of the house in which he 
should take up his quarters, and say that they had come for a 
talk upon some tribal matter of importance ; when the General 
made his appearance, the Indians were to sit down in a semi- 
circle in front of the door, each with his carbine hidden under 
his blanket, or carelessly exposed on his lap. The conversation 
was to be decidedly harmonious, and there was to 1 be nothing said 
that was not perfectly agreeable to the whites. After the " talk " 
had progressed a few minutes, the leading conspirator would 


remark that they would all be the better for a little smoke, and 
as soon as the tobacco was handed out to them, the chief con- 
spirator was to take some and begin rolling a cigarette. (The 
Indians of the southwest do not ordinarily use the pipe.) "When 
the first puff was taken from the cigarette, the man next to the 
chief was to suddenly level his weapon and kill General Crook, 
the others at the very same moment taking the lives of the whites 
closest to them. The whole tribe would then be made to break 
away from the reserve and take to the inaccessible cliffs and cafions 
at the head of the Santa Maria fork of the Bill Williams. The 
plan would have succeeded perfectly, had it not been for the 
warning received, and also for the fact that the expected visit 
had to be made much sooner than was anticipated, and thus 
prevented all the gang from getting together. 

Captain Philip Dwyer, Fifth Cavalry, the officer in command 
of the camp, suddenly died, and this took me down post-haste to 
assume command, Dwyer was a very brave, handsome, and intel- 
ligent soldier, much beloved by all his comrades. He was the 
only officer left at Date Creek all the others and most of the 
garrison were absent on detached service of one kind and another 
and there was no one to look after the dead man but Mr. Wil- 
bur Ilugus, the post trader, and myself. The surroundings were 
most dismal and squalid ; all the furniture in the room in which 
the corpse lay was two or three plain wooden chairs, the bed 
occupied as described, and a pine table upon which stood a candle- 
stick,, with the candle melted and burned in the socket. Dwyer 
had been " ailing" for several days, but no one could tell exactly 
what was the matter with him ; and, of course, no one suspected 
that one so strong and athletic could be in danger of death. 

One of the enlisted men of his company, a bright young 
trumpeter, was sitting up with him, and about the hour of 
midnight, Dwyer became a trifle uneasy and asked : " Can you 
sing that new song, ' Put me under the daisies ' ? " 

"Oh, yes, Captain/* replied the trumpeter; "I have often 
sung it, and will gladly sing it now/' 

So he began to sing, very sweetly, the ditty, which seemed to 
calm the nervousness of his superior officer. But the candle had 
burned down in the socket, and when the young soldier went to 
replace it, he could find neither candle nor match, and he saw 
in the flickering light and shadow that the face of the Captain 


was strangely set, and of a ghastly purplish hue. The trumpeter 
ran swiftly to the nearest house to get another light, and to call 
for help, but upon returning found the Captain dead. 

Many strange sights have I seen, but none that produced a 
stranger or more pathetic appeal to my emotions than the funeral 
of >Phil Dwyer ; we got together just as good an apology for a 
coffin as that timberless country would furnish, and then wrapped 
our dead friend in his regimentals, and all hands were then ready 
to start for the cemetery. 

At the head marched Mr. Hugus, Doctor Williams (the 
Indian agent), myself, and Lieutenant Hay, of the Twenty-third 
Infantry, who arrived at the post early in the morning ; then 
came the troop of cavalry, dismounted, and all the civilians liv- 
ing in and around the camp ; and lastly every Indian man, 
woman, or child able to walk or toddle, for all of them, young 
or old, good or bad, loved Phil Dwyer. The soldiers and civil- 
ians formed in one line at the head of the grave, and the 
Apache-Tumas in two long lines at right angles to them, and 
on each side. The few short, expressive, and tender sentences of 
the burial service were read, then the bugles sang taps, and 
three volleys were fired across he hills, the clods rattled down 
on the breast of the dead, and the ceremony was over. 

As soon as General Crook learned of the death of Dwyer, he 
hurried to Date Creek, now left without any officer of its proper 
garrison, and informed the Indians that he intended having a 
talk with them on the morrow, at a place designated by himself. 
The conspirators thought that their scheme could be carried out 
without trouble, especially since they saw no signs of suspicion 
on the part of the whites. General Crook came to the place 
appointed, without any escort of troops, but carelessly strolling 
forward were a dozen or more of the packers, who had been en- 
gaged in all kinds of m616es since the days of early California 
mining. Each of these was armed to the teeth, and every 
revolver was on the full cock, and every knife ready for instant 
use. The talk was very agreeable, and not an unpleasant word 
had been uttered on either side, when all of a sudden the Indian 
in the centre asked for a little tobacco, and, when it was handed 
to him, began rolling a cigarette ; before the first puff of smoke 
had rolled away from his lips one of the warriors alongside of him 
levelled his carbine full at General Crook, and fired. Lieutenant 


Ross, aide-de-camp to the General, was waiting for the move- 
ment, and struck the arm of the murderer so that the bullet was 
deflected upwards, and the life of the General was saved. The 
scrimmage became a perfect Kilkenny fight in another second or 
two, and every man made for the man nearest to him, the Indian 
who had given the signal being grasped in the vise-like grip of 
Hank Hewitt, with whom he struggled vainly. Hewitt was a man 
of great power and able to master most men other than profes- 
sional athletes or prize-fighters ; the Indian was not going to 
submit so long as life lasted, and struggled, bit, and kicked to 
free himself, but all in vain, as Hank had caught him from the 
back of the head, and the red man was at a total disadvantage. 
Hewitt started to drag his captive to the guard-house, but 
changed his mind, and seizing the Apache-Mojave by both ears 
pulled his head down violently against the rocks, and either 
broke his skull or brought on concussion of the brain, as the 
Indian died that night in the guard-house. 

Others of the party were killed and wounded, and still others, 
with the ferocity of tigers, fought their way out through our feeble 
lines, and made their way to the point of rendezvous at the head 
of the Santa Maria. Word was at once sent to them by members 
of their own tribe that they must come in and surrender at once, 
or else the whole party must expect to be punished for what was 
originally the crime of a few. No answer was received, and 
their punishment was arranged for ; they were led to suppose that 
the advance was to be made from Date Creek, but, after letting 
them alone for several weeks just long enough to allay to some 
extent their suspicions Crook pushed out a column of the 
Fifth Cavalry under command of Colonel Julius W. Mason, and 
by forced marches under the guidance of a strong detachment of 
Hualpai scouts, the encampment of the hostiles was located just 
where the Hualpais said it would be, at the " Muchos CafLones/' 
a point where five caflons united to form the Santa Maria ; and 
there the troops and the scouts attacked suddenly and with spirit^ 
and in less than no time everything was in our hands, and the 
enemy had to record a loss of more than forty. It was a terrible 
blow, struck at the beginning of winter and upon a band which 
had causelessly slaughtered a stagef ul of our best people, not as 
an act of war, which would have been excusable, but as an act 
of highway robbery, by sneaking off the reservation where the 


Government was allowing them rations and clothing in quantity 
sufficient to eke out their own supplier of wild food. This action 
of the "Muchos Cafiones" had a very beneficial effect upon the 
campaign which began against the Apaches in the Tonto Basin a 
few weeks later. It humbled the pride of those of the Apache- 
Yumas who had never been in earnest in their professions of 
peace, and strengthened the hands of the chiefs like " Jam- 
aspi," " Ochacama," " Hoch-a-chi-waca," " Quaca~thew-ya/> and 
"Tom," who were sincerely anxious to accept the new condition 
of things. There was a third element in this tribe, led by a 
chief of ability, " Chimahuevi-Sal," which did not want to fight, 
if fighting could be avoided, but did not care much for the 
new white neighbors whom they saw crowding in upon them. 
" Chimahuevi-Sal " made his escape from the reservation with 
about one hundred and fifty of his followers, intending to go 
down on the south side of the Mexican line and find an asylum 
among the Cocopahs. They were pursued and brought back 
without bloodshed by Captain James Burns, a brave and humane 
officer of the Fifth Cavalry, who died sixteen years ago worn out 
by the hard work demanded in Arizona. 

It does not seem just, at first sight, to deny to Indians the 
right to domicile themselves in another country if they so desire, 
and if a peaceful life can be assured them ; but, in the end, it 
will be found that constant visiting will spring up between the 
people living in the old home and the new, and all sorts of 
complications are sure to result. The Apache-Mojaves and the 
Apache-Tontos, living in the Tonto Basin, misapprehending the 
reasons for the cessation of scouting against them, had become 
emboldened to make a series of annoying and destructive attacks 
upon the ranchos in the Agua Fria Valley, upon those near 
Wickenburg, and those near what is now the prosperous town 
of Phoenix, in the Salt River Valley. Their chiefs "Delt-che" 
(The Red Ant) and " Oha-lipun " (The Buckskin-colored Hat) 
were brave, bold, able, and enterprising, and rightfully regarded 
as among the worst enemies the white men ever had. The own- 
ers of two of the ranchos attacked were very peculiar persons. 
One of them, Townsend, of the Dripping Springs in the Middle 
Agua Fria, was supposed to be a half-breed Cherokee from the 
Indian Nation; he certainly had all the looks the snapping 
black eyes, the coal-black, long, lank hair, and the swarthy skin 


of the full-blooded aborigine, with all the cunning, shrewdness, 
contempt for privation and danger, and ability to read "sign," 
that distinguish the red men. It was his wont at the appear- 
ance of the new moon, when raiding parties of Apaches might be 
expected, to leave his house, make a wide circuit in the moun- 
tains and return, hoping to be able to ''cut " the trail of some 
prowlers ; if he did, he would carefully secrete himself in the 
rocks on the high hills overlooking his home, and wait until the 
Apaches would make some movement to let him discover where 
they were and what they intended doing. 

He was a dead shot, cunning as a snake, wily and brave, and 
modest at the same time, and the general belief was that he had 
sent twenty-seven Apaches to the Happy Hunting Grounds. 
Townsend and Boggs, his next-door neighbor who lived a mile or 
two from him, had made up their minds that they would " farm " 
in the fertile bottom lands of the Agua Pria ; the Apaches had 
made up their minds that they should not ; hence it goes with- 
out saying that neither Townsend nor Bcggs, nor any of their 
hired men, ever felt really lonesome in the seclusion of their 
lovely valley. The sequel to this story is the sequel to all such 
stories about early Arizona: the Apaches "got him" at last, 
and my friend Townsend has long been sleeping his last sleep 
under the shadow of a huge bowlder within a hundred yards of 
his home at the " Dripping Springs." 

The antipodes of Townsend's rancho, as its proprietor was the 
antipodes of Townsend himself, was the " station " of Barrel 
Duppa at the "sink" of the same Agua Fria, some fifty miles 
below. Darrel Duppa was one of the queerest specimens of 
humanity, as his ranch was one of the queerest examples to be 
found in Arizona, and I might add in ISTew Mexico and Sonora 
as well. There was nothing superfluous about Duppa in the way 
of flesh, neither was there anything about the " station " that 
could be regarded as superfluous, either in furniture or ornament. 
Duppa was credited with being the wild, harum-scarum son of 
an English family of respectability, his father having occupied a 
position in the diplomatic or consular service of Great Britain, 
and the son having been born in Marseilles. Rumor had it that 
Duppa spoke several languages French, Spanish, Italian, Ger- 
man that he understood the classics, and that, when sober, he 
used faultless English. I can certify to his employment of excel- 


lent French and Spanish, and what had to my ears the sound 
of pretty good Italian, and I know too that he was hospitable to 
a fault, and not afraid of man or devil. Three bullet wounds, 
received in three different fights with the Apaches, attested his 
grit, although they might not be accepted as equally conclusive 
evidence of good judgment. The site of his "location" was 
in the midst of the .most uncompromising piece of desert in a 
region which boasts of possessing more desert land than any 
other territory in the Union. The surrounding hills and mesas 
yielded a perennial crop of cactus, and little of anything else. 

The dwelling itself was nothing but a "ramada," a term which 
has already been defined as a roof of branches ; the walls were of 
rough, unplastered wattle work, of the thorny branches of the 
ironwood, no thicker than a man's finger, which were lashed by 
thongs of raw-hide to horizontal slats of cottonwood ; the floor 
of the bare earth, of course that almost went without saying in 
those days and the furniture rather too simple and meagre even 
for Carthusians. As I recall the place to mind, there appears 
the long, unpainted table of pine, which served for meals or 
gambling, or the rare occasions when any one took into his head 
the notion to write a letter. This room constituted the ranch 
in its entirety. Along the sides were scattered piles of blankets, 
which about midnight were spread out as couches for tired 
laborers or travellers. At one extremity, a meagre array of 
Dutch ovens, flat-irons, and frying-pans revealed the " kitchen/' 
presided over by a hirsute, husky-voiced gnome, half Vulcan, 
half Centaur, who, immersed for most of the day in the mys- 
teries of the larder, at stated intervals broke the stillness with 
the hoarse command: " Hash pile! Come a' runninM " There 
is hardly any use to describe the rifles, pistols, belts of ammuni- 
tion, saddles, spurs, and whips, which lined the walls, and cov- 
ered the joists and cross-beams; they were just as much part 
and parcel of the establishment as the dogs and ponies were. To 
keep out the sand-laden wind, which blew fiercely down from 
the north when it wasn't blowing down with equal fierceness from 
the south, or the west, or the east, strips of canvas or gunny- 
sacking were tacked on the inner side of the cactus branches. 

My first visit to this Elysium was made about midnight, and I 
remember that the meal served up was unique if not absolutely 
paralyzing on the score of originality. There was a great plenty 


of Mexican figs in raw-hide sacks, fairly good tea, which had the 
one great merit of hotness, and lots and lots of whiskey ; but 
there was no bread, as the supply of flour had run short, and, on 
account of the appearance of Apaches during the past few days, 
it had not been considered wise to send a party over to Phoenix 
for a replenishment. A wounded Mexican, lying down in one 
corner, was proof that the story was well founded. All the light 
in the ranch was afl! orded by a single stable lantern, by the 
flickering flames from the cook's fire, and the glinting stars. In 
our saddle-bags we had several slices of bacon and some biscuits, 
so we did not fare half so badly as we might have done. What 
caused me most wonder was why Duppa had ever concluded to 
live in such a forlorn spot ; the best answer I could get to my 
queries was that the Apaches had attacked him at the moment 
he was approaching the banks of the Agua Fria at this point, 
and after he had repulsed them he thought he would stay there 
merely to let them know he could do it. This explanation was 
satisfactory to every one else, and I had to accept it. 

We should, before going farther, cast a retrospective glance 
upon the southern part of the territory, where the Apaches were 
doing some energetic work in be-devilling the settlers ; there were 
raids upon Montgomery's at " Tres Alamos/" the " Cienaga," 
and other places not very remote from Tucson, and the Chiri- 
cahuas apparently had come up from Sonora bent upon a mission 
of destruction. They paid particular attention to the country 
about Fort Bowie and the San Simon, and had several brushes 
with Captain Gerald BussdTs Troop "K" of the Third Cavalry. 
While watering his horses in the narrow, high, rock-walled defile 
in the Dragoon Mountains, known on the frontier at that time 
as "Cocheis's Stronghold," Eussell was unexpectedly assailed by 
Cocheis and his band, the first intimation of the presence of the 
Chiricahuas being the firing of the shot, which, striking the 
guide, Bob Whitney, in the head, splashed his brains out upon 
EusselTs face. Poor Bob Whitney was an unusually handsome 
fellow, of great courage and extended service against the Apaches ; 
he had been wounded scores of times, I came near saying, but to 
be exact, he had been wounded at least half a dozen times by 
both bullets and arrows. He and Maria Jilda Grijalva, an 
escaped Mexican prisoner, who knew every foot of the southern. 


Apache country, had been guides for the commands of Winters 
and Bussell, and had seen about as much hard work as men care 
to see in a whole generation. 

So far as the army was concerned, the most distressing of all 
these skirmishes and ambuscades was that in which Lieutenant 
Eeid T. Steward lost his life in company with Corporal Black, 
of his regiment, the Fifth Cavalry. They were ambushed near 
the spring in the Davidson Cafion, twenty-five or thirty miles 
from Tucson, and both were killed at the same moment. 



SO long as the representative of the Government, Mr. Vincent 
Collyer, remained in Arizona ; so long as there flickered 
the feeblest ray of light and hope that hostilities might be averted 
and peace secured. Crook persisted in keeping his troops ready 
to defend the exposed ranchos and settlements as fully as possi- 
ble, but no offensive movements were permitted, lest the Apaches 
should have reason to believe that our people meant treachery, 
and were cloaking military operations under the mask of peace 
negotiations. These conferences, or attempts at conferences, 
came to naught, and at last, about the date of the attack made 
upon General Crook and his party at Camp Date Creek, orders 
were received to drive the Apaches upon the reservations assigned 
them and to keep them there. 

The time fixed by General Crook for the beginning of his . 
campaign against the Apaches had been the 15th of November, 
1872 a date which would have marked the beginning of winter 
and made the retreat of the different bands to the higher ele- 
vations of the mountain ranges a source of great discomfort, not 
to say of suffering to them, as their almost total want of clothing 
would cause them to feel the fullest effects of the colder temper- 
ature, and also there would be increased danger of detection by 
the troops, to whose eyes, or those of the Indian scouts accom- 
panying them, all smokes from camp-fires would be visible. 

The incident just i elated as happening at Camp Date Creek 


precipitated matters somewhat, but not to a very appreciable 
extent, since Mason's attack upon the bands of Apache-Mo- 
javes and Apache- Yumas in the " Muchos Cafiones" did not 
take place until the last days of the month of September, and 
those bands having but slender relations with the other portions 
of the Apache family over in the Tonto Basin, the latter would 
not be too much on their guard. Crook started out from his 
headquarters at Fort Whipple on the day set, and marched as 
fast as his animals would carry him by way of Camp Verde and 
the Colorado Chiquito to Camp Apache, a distance, as the roads 
and trails then measured, of about two hundred and fifty miles. 
Upon the summit of the Colorado plateau, which in places attains 
an elevation of more than ten thousand feet, the cold was intense, 
and we found every spring and creek frozen solid, thus making 
the task of watering our stock one of great difficulty. 

Our line of march led through the immense pine forests, 
and to the right of the lofty snow-mantled peak of San Francisco, 
one of the most beautiful mountains in America. It seems to have 
been, at some period not very remote, a focus of volcanic disturb- 
ance, pouring out lava in inconceivable quantities, covering the 
earth for one hundred miles square, and to a depth in places of five 
hundred feet. This depth can be ascertained by any geologist 
who will take the trail out from the station of Ash Fork, on the 
present Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, and go north-northeast, to 
the Cataract Cafion, to the village of the Ava-Supais. In begin- 
ning the descent towards the Cataract Cation, at the ce Black 
Tanks, " the enormous depth of the "flow " can be seen at a glance. 
What was the " forest primeval " at that time on the Mogollon 
has since been raided by the rapacious forces of commerce, and at 
one point Flagstaff, favorably located in the timber belt has 
since been established the great Ayers-Eiordan saw and planing 
mill, equipped with every modern appliance for the destruction 
of the old giants whose heads had nodded in the breezes of cent- 
uries. Man's inhumanity to man is an awful thing. His inhu- 
manity to God's beautiful trees is scarcely inferior to it. Trees 
are nearly human ; they used to console man with their oracles, 
and I must confess my regret that the Christian dispensation has 
so changed the opinions of the world that the soughing of the 
evening wind through their branches is no longer a message of 


hope or a solace to sorrow. Reflection tells me that without the 
use of this great belt of timber the construction of the railroad 
from El Paso to the City of Mexico would have been attended 
with increased expense and enhanced difficulty perhaps post- 
poned for a generation but, for all that, I cannot repress a sen- 
timent of regret that the demands of civilization have caused the 
denudation of so many square miles of our forests in all parts of 
the timbered West. 

Our camp was aroused every morning at jfcwo o'clock, and we 
were out on the road by four, making long marches and not halt- 
ing until late in the afternoon. Camp Apache was reached by the 
time expected, and the work of getting together a force of scouts 
begun at once. One of the first young men to respond to the call 
for scouts to enlist in the work of ferreting out and subjugating 
the hostiles was " Na-kay-do-klunni," called afterwards by the 
soldiers " Bobby Doklinny." I have still in my possession, among 
other papers, the scrap of manuscript upon which is traced in 
lead pencil the name of this Apache, whom I enrolled among the 
very first at Camp Apache on this occasion. The work of enlist- 
ment; was afterwards turned over to Lieutenant Alexander 0. 
Brodie, of the First Cavalry, as I was obliged to leave with Gen- 
eral Crook for the south. " Bobby," to adopt the soldiers* 
name, became in his maturity a great " medicine man " among 
his people, and began a dance in which he used to raise the 
spirits of his ancestors. Of course, he scared the people of the 
United States out of their senses, and instead of offering him a 
bonus for all the ghosts he could bring back to life, the troops 
were hurried hither and thither, and there was an "outbreak/* 
as is always bound to be the case under such circumstances. 
" Bobby Doklinny " was killed, and with him a number of his 
tribe, while on our side there was grief for the death of brave 
officers and gallant men. 

One of the white men met at Camp Apache was Corydon B. 
Cooley, who had married a woman of the Sierra Blanca band, 
and had acquired a very decided influence over them. Cooley's 
efforts were consistently in the direction of bringing about a 
better understanding between the two races, and so far as 
"Pedro's" and "Miguel's" people were concerned, his exer- 
tions bore good fruit. But it is of Mrs. Cooley I wish to speak 


at this moment. She was, and I hope still is, because I trust 
that she is still alive, a woman of extraordinary character, anx- 
ious to advance and to have her children receive all the benefits 
of education. She tried hard to learn, and was ever on the alert 
to imitate the housekeeping of the few ladies who followed their 
husbands down to Camp Apache, all of whom took a great and 
womanly interest in the advancement of their swarthy sister. On 
my way back from the snake dance of the Moquis I once dined 
at Cooley's ranch in company with Mr. Peter Moran, the artist, 
and can assure my readers that the little home we entered was 
as clean as homes generally are, and that the dinner served was 
as good as any to be obtained in Delmonico's. 

For those readers who care to learn of such things I insert a 
brief description of " Cooley's Ranch" as we found it in that year, 
1881, of course many years after the Apaches had been subdued. 
The ranch was on the summit of the Mogollon plateau, at its 
eastern extremity, near the head of Show Low Creek, one of the 
affluents of the Shevlons Fork of the Colorado Chiquito. The 
contour of the plateau is here a charming series of gentle hills 
and dales, the hills carpeted with juicy black " grama/' and 
spangled with flowers growing at the feet of graceful pines and 
majestic oaks ; and the dales, watered by babbling brooks flow- 
ing through fields of ripening corn and potatoes. In the centre 
of a small but exquisitely beautiful park, studded with pine trees 
without undergrowth, stood the frame house and the outbuild- 
ings of the ranch we were seeking. Cooley was well provided 
with every creature comfort to be looked for in the most pros- 
perous farming community in the older States. His fields and 
garden patches were yielding bountifully of corn, pumpkins, 
cucumbers, wheat, peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes, barley, oats, 
strawberries, gooseberries, horse-radish, and musk-melons. He 
had set out an orchard of apple, crab, dwarf pear, peach, apricot, 
quince, plum, and cherry trees, and could supply any reasonable 
demand for butter, cream, milk, eggs, or fresh meat from his 
poultry yard or herd of cows and drove of sheep. There was an 
ice-house well filled, two deep wells, and several springs of pure 
water. The house was comfortably furnished, lumber being 
plenty and at hand from the saw-mill running on the property. 

Four decidedly pretty gipsy-like little girls assisted their 
mother in gracefully doing the honors to the strangers, and con- 


ducted us to a table upon which smoked a perfectly cooked meal 
of Irish stew of mutton, home-made bread, boiled and stewed 
mushrooms plucked since our arrival fresh home-made but- 
ter, buttermilk, peas and beans from the garden, and aromatic 
coffee. The table itself was neatly spread, and everything was 
well served. If one Apache woman can teach herself all this, it 
does not seem to be hoping for too much when I express the 
belief that in a few years others may be encouraged to imitate 
her example. I have inherited from General Crook a strong 
belief in this phase of. the Indian problem. Let the main work 
be done with the young women, in teaching them how to cook, 
and what to cook, and how to become good housekeepers, and 
the work will be more than half finished. In all tribes the influ- 
ence of the women, although silent, is most potent. Upon the 
squaws falls the most grievous part of the burden of war, and if 
they can be made to taste the luxuries of civilized life, and to 
regard them as necessaries, the idea of resuming hostilities will 
year by year be combated with more vigor. It was upon this 
principle that the work of missionary effort was carried on among 
the Canadian tribes, and we see how, after one or two genera- 
tions of women had been educated, all trouble disappeared, and 
the best of feeling between the two races was developed and 
maintained for all time. 

From Camp Apache to old Camp Grant was by the trail a trifle 
over one hundred miles, but over a country so cut up with caflons, 
and so rocky, that the distance seemed very much greater. The 
canon of the Prieto or Black Kiver, the passage of the Apache 
range, the descent of the Aravaypa, were all considered and with 
justice to be specially severe upon the muscles and nerves of 
travellers, not only because of depth and steepness, but also 
because the trail was filled with loose stones which rolled from 
under the careless tread, and wrenched the feet and ankles of 
the unwary. 

Of the general character of the approaches to old Camp Grant, 
enough has already been written in the earlier chapters. I wish 
to add that the marches were still exceptionally long and severe, 
as General Crook was determined to arrive on time, as promised 
to the chiefs who were expecting him. On account of getting 
entangled in the canons back of the Picacho San Carlos, it took 
us more than twenty-four hours to pass over the distance between 


the Black EiTer and the mouth of the San Carlos, the start being 
made at sis o'clock one day, and ending at eight o'clock the next 
morning, a total of twenty-six hours of marching and climbing. 
Every one in the command was pretty well tired out, and glad to 
throw himself down with head on saddle, just as soon as horses 
and mules could be lariated on grass and pickets established, but 
General Crook took his shot-gun and followed up the Gila a mile 
or two, and got a fine mess of reed birds for our breakfast. It 
was this insensibility to fatigue, coupled with a contempt for 
danger, or rather with a skill in evading all traps that might be 
set for him, which won for Crook the admiration of all who 
served with him ; there was no private soldier, no packer, no 
teamster, who could "down the ole man " in any work, or outlast 
him on a march or a climb over the rugged peaks of Arizona ; they 
knew that, and they also knew that in the hour of danger Crook 
would be found on the skirmish line, and not in the telegraph office. 

At old Camp Grant, the operations of the campaign began in 
earnest ; in two or three days the troops afc that post were ready to 
move out under command of Major Brown, of the Fifth Cavalry, 
and the general plan of the campaign unfolded itself. It was to 
make a clean sweep of the Tonto Basin, the region in which the 
hostiles had always been so successful in eluding and defying the 
troops, and this sweep was to be made by a number of converging 
columns, each able to look out for itself, each provided with a 
force of Indian scouts, each followed by a pack-train with all 
needful supplies, and each led by officers physically able to go 
almost anywhere. After the centre of the Basin had been reached, 
if there should be no decisive action in the meantime, these com- 
mands were to turn back and break out in different directions, 
scouring the country, so that no nook or corner should be left 
unexamined. The posts were stripped of the last available officer 
and man, the expectation, being that, by closely pursuing the 
enemy, but little leisure would be left him for making raids upon 
our settlements, either military or civil, and that the constant 
movements of- the various detachments would always bring some 
within helping distance of beleaguered stations. 

General Crook kept at the front, moving from point to point, 
along the whole periphery, and exercising complete personal 
supervision of the details, but leaving the movements from each 
post under the control of the officers selected for the work. 


Major George M. Randall, Twenty-third Infantry, managed 
affairs at Camp Apache, having under him as chief of scouts, 
Mr. 0. E. Cooley, of whom mention has just been made. Major 
George F. Price, Fifth Cavalry, commanded from Date Creek. 
Major Alexander MacGregor, First Cavalry, had the superinten- 
dence of the troops to move out from Fort Whipple ; Colonel 
Julius W. Mason, Fifth Cavalry, of those to work down from 
Camp Hualpai, while those of the post of Camp MacDowell were 
commanded by Captain James Burns, Fifth Cavalry. Colonel C. 
C. C. Carr, First Cavalry, led those from Verde. All these 
officers were experienced, and of great discretion and good judg- 
ment. Each and all did excellent work and struck blow after 
blow upon the savages. 

Before starting out, General Crook's instructions were commu- 
nicated to both Indian scouts and soldiers at Camp Grant ; as 
they were of the same tenor as those already given at other posts, 
I have not thought it necessary to repeat them for each post. 
Briefly, they directed that the Indians should be induced to sur- 
render in all cases where possible ; where they preferred to fight, 
they were to get all the fighting they wanted, and in one good 
dose instead of in a number of petty engagements, but in either 
case were to be hunted down until the last one in hostility had 
been killed or captured. Every effort should be made to avoid 
the killing of women and children. Prisoners of either sex 
should be guarded from ill-treatment of any kind. When pris- 
oners could be induced to enlist as scouts, they should be so 
enlisted, because the wilder the Apache was, the more he was 
likely to know of the wiles and stratagems of those still out in the 
mountains, their hiding-places and intentions. No excuse was 
to be accepted for leaving a trail ; if horses played out, the enemy 
must be followed on foot, and no sacrifice should be left untried 
to make the campaign short, sharp, and decisive. 

Lieutenant and Brevet Major William J. Ross, Twenty-first 
Infantry, and myself were attached to the command of Major 
Brown, to operate from Camp Grant, through the Mescal, Pinal, 
Superstition, and Matitzal ranges, over to Camp MacDowell and 
there receive further instructions. Before leaving the post, I had 
to record a very singular affair which goes to show how thoroughly 
self-satisfied and stupid officialism can always become if properly 
encouraged. There was a Roman Catholic priest dining at our 


mess Father Antonio Jouvenceau who had been sent out from 
Tucson to try and establish a mission among the bands living in 
the vicinity of Camp Apache. There wasn't anything in the 
shape of supplies in the country outside of the army stores, and 
of these the missionary desired permission to buy enough to keep 
himself alive until lie could make other arrangements, or become 
accustomed to the wild food of such friends as he might make 
among the savages. Every request he made was refused on the 
ground that there was no precedent. I know that there was " no 
precedent " for doing anything to bring savages to a condition of 
peace, but I have never ceased fco regret that there was not, because 
I feel sure that had the slightest encouragement been given to 
Father Antonio or to a handful of men like him, the wildest of 
the Apaches might have been induced to listen to reason, and 
there would have been no such expensive wars. A missionary 
could not well be expected to load himself down with supplies 
and carry them on his own back while he was hunting favorable 
specimens of the Indians upon whom to make an impression. 
There were numbers of Mexican prisoners among the Apaches 
who retained enough respect for the religion of their childhood 
to be from first acquaintance the firm and devoted friends of the 
new-comer, and once set on a good basis in the Apache villages, 
the rest would have been easy. This, however, is merely conjec- 
ture on my part. 

The new recruits from among the Apaches were under the 
command of a chief responding to the name of "Esquinosquizn/* 
meaning "Bocon" or Big Mouth. He was crafty, cruel, daring, 
and ambitious ; he indulged whenever he could in the intoxicant 
"Tizwin," made of fermented corn and really nothing but a 
sour beer which will not intoxicate unless the drinker subject 
himself, as the Apache does, to a preliminary fast of from two to 
four days. This indulgence led to his death at San Carlos some 
months later. The personnel of Brown's command was excellent ; 
it represented soldiers of considerable experience and inured to 
all the climatic variations to be expected in Arizona, and nowhere 
else in greater degree. There were two companies of the Fifth 
Cavalry, and a detachment of thirty Apache scouts, that being 
as many as could be apportioned to each command in the initial 
stages of the campaign. Captain Alfred B. Taylor, Lieutenant 
Jacob Almy, Lieutenant William J. Ross, and myself constituted 


the commissioned list, until, at a point in the Superstition Moun- 
tains, we were joined by Captain James Burns and First Lieu- 
tenant Earl D. Thomas, Fifth Cavalry, with Company G of 
that regiment, and a large body not quite one hundred 
of Pima Indians. In addition to the above we had Archie Mac- 
intosh, Joe Felmer, and Antonio Besias as guides and interpreters 
to take charge of the scouts. Mr. James Dailey, a civilian vol- 
unteer, was also with the command. The pack train carried 
along rations for thirty days, and there was no lack of flour, 
bacon, beans, coffee, with a little chile Colorado for the packers, 
and a small quantity of dried peaches and chocolate, of which 
many persons in that country made use in preference to coffee. 
We were all cut down to the lowest notch in the matter of cloth- 
ing, a deprivation of which no one complained, since the loss was 
not severely felt amid such surroundings. 

It was now that the great amount of information which General 
Crook had personally absorbed in regard to Arizona came of the 
best service. He had been in constant conference with the 
Apache scouts and interpreters concerning all that was to be 
done and all that was positively known of the whereabouts of the 
hostiles; especially did he desire to find the "rancheria" of the 
chief "Chuntz," who had recently murdered in cold blood, at 
Camp Grant, a Mexican boy too young to have been a cause of 
rancor to any one. It may be said in one word that the smallest 
details of this expedition were arranged by General Crook in 
person before we started down the San Pedro. He had learned 
from " Esquinosquizn " of the site of the rancheria supposed to 
be occupied by { ' Deltchay " in the lofty range called the "Four 
Peaks" or the " Matitzal," the latter by the Indians and the for- 
mer by the Americans, on account of there being the distinctive 
feature of four peaks of great elevation overlooking the country 
for hundreds of miles in all directions. One of the most impor- 
tant duties confided to our force was the destruction of this 
rancheria if we could find it. These points were not generally 
known at the time we left Grant, neither was it known that one 
of our Apache guides, "Nantaje, " christened "Joe" by the 
soldiers, had been raised in that very stronghold, and deputed to 
conduct us to it. First, we were to look up "Chuntz,"if we 
could, and wipe him out, and then do our best to clean up the 
stronghold of "Deltchay." 


I will avoid details of this march because it followed quite 
closely the line of the first and second scouts made by Lieutenant 
Gushing, the preceding year, which have been already outlined. 
We followed down the dusty bottom of the San Pedro, through 
a jungle of mesquite and sage brush, which always seem to grow 
>n land which with irrigation will yield bountifully of wheat, 
and crossed over to the feeble streamlet marked on the maps as 
Deer Creek. We crossed the GHla at a point where the Mescal 
and Final ranges seemed to come together, but the country was 
so broken that it was hard to tell to which range the hills belonged. 
The trails were rough, and the rocks were largely granites, 
porphyry, and pudding stones, often of rare beauty. There was 
an abundance of mescal, cholla cactus, manzanita, Spanish bayo- 
net, pitahaya, and scrub oak so long as we remained in the foot- 
hills, but upon gaining the higher levels of the Final range, we 
found first juniper, and then pine of good dimensions and in 
great quantity. The scenery upon the summit of the Final was 
exhilarating and picturesque, but the winds were bitter and the 
ground deep with snow, so that we made no complaint when the 
line of march led us to a camp on the northwest extremity, where 
we found water trickling down the flanks of the range into a 
beautiful narrow cafion, whose steep walls hid us from the prying 
gaze of the enemy's spies, and also protected from the wind ; the 
slopes were green with juicy grama grass, and dotted with oaks 
which gracefully arranged themselves in clusters of twos and 
threes, giving grateful shade to men and animals. Far above us 
waved the branches of tall pines and cedars, and at their feet 
could be seen the banks of snow, but in our own position the 
weather was rather that of the south temperate or the northern 
part of the torrid zone. 

This rapid change of climate made scouting in ^Arizona very 
trying. During this campaign we were often obliged to leave 
the warm valleys in the morning and climb to the higher altitudes 
and go into bivouac upon summits where the snow was hip deep, 
as on the Matitzal, the Mogollon plateau, and the Sierra Ancha. 
To add to the discomfort, the pine was so thoroughly soaked 
through with snow and rain that it would not burn, and unless 
cedar could be found, the command was in bad luck. Our 
Apache scouts, under Macintosh, Felmer, and Besias, were kept 
from twelve to twenty-four hours in advance of the main body, 


but always in communication, the intention being to make use of 
them to determine the whereabouts of the hos tiles, but to let the 
soldiers do the work of cleaning them out. It was difficult to 
restrain the scouts, who were too fond of war to let slip any good 
excuse for a fight, and consequently Macintosh had two or three 
skirmishes of no great consequence, but which showed that his 
scouts could be depended upon both as trailers and as a fighting 
force. In one of these, the village or "rancheria" of "Chuntz," 
consisting of twelve " jacales," was destroyed with a very full 
winter stock of food, but only one of the party was wounded, and 
all escaped, going in the direction of the Cafion of the Rio Salado 
or Salt Kiver. The advance of the scouts had been discovered 
by a squaw, who gave the alarm and enabled the whole party to 

A day or two after this, the scouts again struck the trail 
of the enemy, and had a sharp brush with them, killing several 
and capturing three. The Apaches had been making ready to 
plant during the coming spring, had dug irrigating ditches, and 
had also accumulated a great store of all kinds of provisions 
suited to their needs, among others a full supply of baked mescal, 
as well as of the various seeds of grass, sunflower, and the beans 
of mesquite which form so important a part of their food. As 
well as could be determined, this was on or near the head of the 
little stream marked on the maps as Eaccoon Creek, on the south 
slope of the Sierra Ancha. Close by was a prehistoric ruin, whose 
wall of rubble stone was still three feet high. On the other 
(the south) side of the Salt River we passed under a well-preserved 
cliff-dwelling in the cafion of Pinto Creek, a place which I hav e 
since examined carefully, digging out sandals of the "palmilla" 
fibre, dried mescal, corn husks and other foods, and some small 
pieces of textile fabrics, with one or two axes and hammers of 
stone, arrows, and the usual debris to be expected in such cases. 
We worked our way over into the edge of the Superstition 
Mountains. There was very little to do, and it was evident that 
whether through fear of our own and the other commands which 
must have been seen, or from a desire to concentrate during the 
cold weather, the Apaches had nearly all abandoned that section 
of country, and sought refuge somewhere else. 

The Apache scouts, however, insisted that we were to find a 
" heap " of Indians "poco tiempo " (very soon). By their advice, 


most of our officers and men had provided themselves with moc- 
casins which would make no noise in clambering over the rocks 
or down the slippery trails where rolling stones might arouse the 
sleeping enemy. The Apaches, I noticed, stuffed their mocca- 
sins with dry hay, and it was also apparent that they knew all the 
minute points about making themselves comfortable with small 
means. Just as soon as they reached camp, those who were not 
posted as pickets or detailed to go off on side scouts in small 
parties of five and six, would devote their attention to getting 
their bed ready for the night ; the grass in the vicinity would be 
plucked in handfuls, and spread out over the smoothed surface 
upon which two or three of the scouts purposed sleeping together ; 
a semicircle of good-sized pieces of rock made a wind "break, and 
then one or two blankets would be spread out, and upon that the 
three would recline, huddling close together, each wrapped up 
in his own blanket. Whenever fires were allowed, the Apaches 
would kindle small ones, and lie down close to them with feet 
towards the flame. According to the theory of the Indian, the 
white man makes so great a conflagration that, besides alarming 
the whole country, he makes it so hot that no one can draw near, 
whereas the Apache, with better sense, contents himself with a 
small collection of embers, over which he can if necessary crouch 
and keep warm. 

The fine condition of our pack-trains awakened continued 
interest, and evoked constant praise ; the mules had followed us 
over some of the worst trails in Arizona, and were still as fresh 
as when they left Grant, and all in condition for the most ardu- 
ous service with the exception of two, one of which ate, or was 
supposed to have eaten, of the insect known as the "Compra 
mucho " or the "Nifta de la Tierra," which is extremely poison- 
ous to those animals which swallow it in the grass to which it 
clings. This mule died. Another was bitten on the lip by a 
rattlesnake, and though by the prompt application of a poultice 
of the weed called the " golondrina " we managed to save its life 
for a few days, it too died. On Christmas Day we were joined 
by Captain James Burns, Fifth Cavalry, with Lieutenant Earl D. 
Thomas, of the same regiment, and a command consisting of 
forty enlisted men of Company G, and a body of not quite one 
hundred Pima Indians. They had been out from MacDowell for 
six days, and had crossed over the highest point of the Matitzal 


range, and had destroyed a " rancheria," killing six and captur- 
ing two ; one, a squaw, sent in to MacDowell, and the other, a 
small but very bright and active boy, whom the men had promptly 
adopted,, and upon whom had been bestowed the name "Mike " 
Burns, which he has retained to this day. This boy, then not 
more than six or seven years old, was already an expert in the 
use of the bow and arrow, and, what suited Captain Burns much 
better, he could knock down quail with stones, and add much to 
the pleasures of a very meagre mess, as no shooting was allowed. 
During the past twenty years, Mike Burns has, through the 
interposition of General Crook, been sent to Carlisle, and there 
received the rudiments of an education ; we have met at the San 
Carlos Agency, and talked over old times, and I have learned 
what was not then known, that in Burns's fight with the band on 
the summit of the Four Peaks, seven of the latter were killed, 
and the men and women who escaped, under the leadership of 
Mike's own father, hurried to the stronghold in the cafion of the 
Salt Eiver, where they were all killed by our command a few days 
later. On the evening of the 27th of December, 1872, we were 
bivouacked in a narrow canon called the Cottonwood Creek, 
flowing into the Salado at the eastern base of the Matitzal, when 
Major Brown announced to his officers that the object for which 
General Crook had sent out this particular detachment was almost 
attained ; that he had been in conference with "N~antaje," one 
of our Apache scouts, who had been brought up in the cave in 
the cafion of the Salt Eiver, and that he had expressed a desire 
to lead us there, provided we made up our minds to make the 
journey before day-dawn, as the position of the enemy was such- 
that if we should be discovered on the trail, not one of our party 
would return alive. The Apaches are familiar with the stars, 
and "Nantaje " had said that if we were to go, he wanted to start 
out with the first appearance above the eastern horizon of a cer- 
tain star with which he was acquainted. 

Brown gave orders that every officer and man who was not in 
the best condition for making a severe march and climb over 
rugged mountains, should stay with the pack-trains and be on 
the watch for any prowling band of the enemy. First, there was 
made a pile of the aparejos and supplies which could serve in 
emergency as a breastwork for those to remain behind ; then a 
picket line was stretched, to which the mules and horses could be 


tied, and kept under shelter from fire ; and lastly, every officer 
and man looked carefully to his weapons and ammunition, for we 
were to start out on foot and climb through the rough promon- 
tory of the Matitzal into the Salt Eiver Canon, and on to the 
place in which we were to come upon the cave inhabited by 
the hostiles of whom we were in search. Every belt was filled 
with cartridges, and twenty extra were laid away in the blanket 
which each wore slung across his shoulders, and in which were 
placed the meagre allowance of bread, bacon, and coffee taken as 
provision, with the canteen of water. The Apache scouts had 
asked the privilege of cooking and eating the mule which had 
died during the morning, and as the sky had clouded and the 
light of small fires could not well be seen, Major Brown consented, 
and they stuffed themselves to their hearts 3 content, in a meal 
which had not a few points of resemblance to the "Festins a 
manger tout," mentioned by Father Lafitau, Parkman, and other 
writers. Before eight o'clock, we were on our way, "Nantaje" 
in the van, and all marching briskly towards the summit of the 
high mesas which enclosed the cafion. 

The night became extremely cold, and we were only too glad 
of the opportunity of pushing ahead with vigor, and regretted 
very much to hear the whispered command to halt and lie down 
until the last of the rear-guard could be heard from. The 
Apache scouts in front had detected lights in advance, and assured 
Major Brown that they must be from the fires of the Indians of 
whom we were in quest. While they went ahead to search and 
determine exactly what was the matter, the rest of us were com- 
pelled to lie prone to the ground, so as to afford the least chance 
to the enemy to detect any signs of life among us ; no one spoke 
beyond a whisper, and even when the cold compelled any of the 
party to cough, it was done with the head wrapped up closely in 
a blanket or cape. "Nantaje/' "Bocon/ 5 and others were occu- 
pied with the examination of the track into which the first-named 
had stepped, as he and Brown were walking ahead ; it seemed to 
the Indian, to be the footprint of a man, but when all had nestled 
down close to the earth, covered heads over with blankets, and 
struck a match, it proved to be the track of a great bear, which 
closely resembles that of a human being. Within a few moments, 
Pelmer, Archie, and the others, sent on to discover the cause of 
the fires seen ahead, returned with the intelligence that the 


Apaches had just been raiding upon the white and Pima Indian 
settlements in the valley of the Gila, and had driven off fifteen 
horses and mules, which, being barefoot and sore from climbing 
the rocky trail up the face of the mountain, had been abandoned 
in a little hook where there was a slight amount of grass and a 
little water. Worst news of all, there had been four large 
"wickyups" in the same place which had just been vacated, and 
whether on account of discovering our approach or not it was 
hard to say. 

We were becoming rather nervous by this time, as we still had 
in mind what "Nantaje" had said the previous evening about 
killing the last of the enemy, or being compelled to fight our own 
way back. "Nantaje" was thoroughly composed, and smiled 
when some of the party insinuated a doubt about the existence of 
any large "rancheria" in the neighborhood. " Wait and see," 
was all the reply he would vouchsafe. 

By advice of (< Nantaje," Major Brown ordered Lieutenant 
William J. Ross to proceed forward on the trail with, twelve or 
fifteen of the best shots among the soldiers, and such of the 
packers as had obtained permission to accompany the command. 
"Nantaje" led them down the slippery, rocky, dangerous trail in 
the wall of the gloomy canon, which in the cold gray light of the 
slowly creeping dawn, and under the gloom of our surroundings, 
made us think of the Valley of the Shadow of Death. "They 
ought to be very near here," said Major Brown. " Good Heavens ! 
what is all that ?" It was a noise equal to that of a full battery 
of six-pounders going off at once. Brown knew that something 
of the greatest consequence had happened, and he wasn't the man 
to wait for the arrival of messengers ; he ordered me to take 
command of the first forty men in the advance, without waiting 
to see whether they were white or red, soldiers or packers, and 
go down the side of the cafton on the run, until I had joined 
Eoss, and taken up a position as close to the enemy as it was pos- 
sible for me to get without bringing on a fight ; meantime, he 
would gather up all the rest of the command, and follow me as 
fast as he could, and relieve me. There was no trouble at all in, 
getting down that can" on ; the difficulty was to hold on to the 
trail ; had any man lost his footing, he would not have stopped 
until he had struck the current of the Salado, hundreds of feet 
below. In spite of everything, we clambered down, and by great 


good luck broke no necks. As we turned a sudden angle in the 
wall, we saw the condition of affairs most completely. The pre- 
cipice forming that side of the cafion was hundreds of feet in 
height, but at a point some four or five hundred feet below the 
crest had fallen back in a shelf upon which was a cave of no great 
depth. In front of the caye great blocks of stone furnished a 
natural rampart behind which the garrison could bid defiance to 
the assaults of almost any enemy; in this eyrie, the band of 
" Nanni-chaddi " felt a security such as only the eagle or the vul- 
ture can feel in the seclusion of the ice-covered dizzy pinnacles of 
the Andes ; from the shelf upon which they lived these savages, 
who seem to me to have been the last of the cliff-dwellers within 
our borders, had on several occasions watched the commands of 
Sanford and Carr struggling to make their way up the stream in 
the canon below. The existence of one, or perhaps two, ranch- 
erias somewhere within this gloomy cafLon had long been sus- 
pected, but never demonstrated until the present moment. When 
we joined Eoss we heard his story told in few words : he and 
his small band of twelve had followed Felmer and Macintosh 
down the face of the cliff until they had reached the small open 
space in front of the cave ; there they saw within' a very few yards 
of them the party of raiders just returned from the Gila settle- 
ments, who had left at pasture the band of fifteen ponies which 
we had seen. These warriors were dancing, either to keep them- 
selves warm or as a portion of some religious ceremonial,, as is 
generally the case with the tribes in the southwest. Close by 
them crouched half a dozen squaws, aroused from slumber to pre- 
pare food for the hungry braves. The flames of the fire, small as 
it was, reflected back from the high walls, gave a weird illumina- 
tion to the features of the circle, and enabled the whites to take 
better aim upon their unsuspecting victims. Eoss and " Nantaje " 
consulted in whispers, and immediately it was decided that each 
man should with the least noise possible cock his piece and aim at 
one of the group without reference to what his next-door neighbor 
might be doing. Had not the Apaches been interested in their 
own singing, they might surely have heard the low whisper: ready ! 
aim ! fire I but it would have been too late ; the die was cast, and 
their hour had come. 

The fearful noise which we had heard, reverberating from peak 
to peak and from crag to crag, was the volley poured in by Eoss 


and his comrades, which had sent six souls to their last account, 
and sounded the death-knell of a powerful band. The surprise 
and terror of the savages were so complete that they thought only 
of the safety which the interior of the cave afforded, and as a con- 
sequence, when rny party arrived on the scene, although there were 
a number of arrows thrown at us as we descended the path and 
rounded the angle, yet no attempt was made at a counter-assault, 
and before the Apaches could recover from their astonishment 
the two parties united, numbering more than fifty, nearer sixty, 
men, had secured position within thirty yards of one flank of the 
cave, and within forty yards of the other, and each man posted 
behind rocks in such a manner that he might just as well be in 
a rifle pit. My instructions were not to make any fight, but to 
keep the Apaches occupied, in case they tried to break out of the 
trap, and to order all men to shelter themselves to the utmost. 
Major Brown was down with the remainder of the command 
almost before a shot could be exchanged with the enemy, although 
there were two more killed either a moment before his arrival or 
very soon after. One of these was a Pima, one of our own allies, 
who persisted in disregarding orders, and exposed himself to the 
enemy's fire, and was shot through the body and died before he 
ever knew what had struck him. The other was one of the 
Apaches who had sneaked down along our right flank, and was 
making his way out to try to open up communication with another 
village and get its people to attack us in rear. , He counted 
without his host, and died a victim to his own carelessness ; he 
had climbed to the top of a high rock some distance down the 
cafion, and there fancied himself safe from our shots, and turned 
to give a yell of defiance. His figure outlined against the sky 
was an excellent mark, and there was an excellent shot among 
us to take full advantage of it. Blacksmith John Cahill had his 
rifle in position like a flash, and shot the Indian through the 
body. At the time of the fight, we did not know that the savage 
had been killed, although Cahill insisted that he had shot him 
as described, and as those nearest him believed. The corpse could 
not be found in the rocks before we left, and therefore was not 
counted, but the squaws at San Carlos have long since told me 
that their relative was killed there, and that his remains were 
found after we had left the neighborhood. 

Brown's first work was to see that the whole line was impreg- 



liable to assault from the beleaguered garrison of the cave, and then 
lie directed his interpreters to summon all to an unconditional 
surrender. The only answer was a shriek of hatred and defiance, 
threats of what we had to expect, yells of exultation at the 
thought that not one of us should ever see the light of another 
day, but should furnish a banquet for the crows and buzzards, 
and some scattering shots fired in pure bravado. Brown again sum- 
moned all to surrender, and -when jeers were once more his sole re- 
sponse, he called upon the Apaches to allow their women and chil- 
dren to corne out, and assured them kind treatment. To this the 
answer was the same as before, the jeers and taunts of the garri- 
son assuring our people that they were in dead earnest in saying 
that they intended to fight till they died. For some moments 
the Apaches resorted to the old tactics of enticing some of our 
unwary soldiers to expose themselves above the wall of rocks 
behind which Major Brown ordered all to crouch ; a hat or a war 
bonnet would be set up on the end of a bow, and held in such a 
way as to make-believe that there was a warrior behind it, and 
induce some one proud of his marksmanship to " lay 5 ' for the red 
man and brother, who would, in his turn, be "laying" for the 
white man in some coign of vantage close to where his squaw 
was holding the head-gear. But such tricks were entirely too 
transparent to deceive many, and after a short time the Apaches 
themselves grew tired of them, and began to try new methods. 
They seemed to be abundantly provided with arrows and lances, 
and of the former they made no saving, but would send them 
flying high in air in the hope that upon coming back to earth 
they might hit those of our rearguard who were not taking such 
good care of themselves as were their brothers at the front on the 
skirmish line. 

There was a lull of a few minutes ; eacli side was measuring 
its own strength and that of its opponent. It was apparent 
that any attempt to escalade without ladders would result in 
the loss of more than half our command ; the great rock wall 
in front of the cave was not an incli less than ten feet in height 
at its lowest point, and smooth as the palm of the hand ; it 
would be madness to attempt to climb it, because the moment 
the assailants reached the top, the lances of the inyested force 
could push them back to the ground wounded to death. Three 
or four of our picked shots were posted in eligible positions oyer- 


looking the places where the Apaches had been seen to expose 
themselves ; this, in the hope that any recurrence of such fool- 
hardiness would afford an opportunity for the sharpshooters to 
show their skill. Of the main body, one-half was in reserve fifty 
yards behind the skirmish line to call it such where the whole 
business was a skirmish line with carbines loaded and cocked, 
and a handful of cartridges on the clean rocks in front, and every 
man on the lookout to prevent the escape of a single warrior, 
should any be fortunate enough to sneak or break through the 
first line. The men on the first line had orders to fire as rapidly 
as they chose, directing aim against the roof of the cave, with the 
view to having the bullets glance down among the Apache men, 
who had massed immediately back of the rock rampart. 

This plan worked admirably, and, so far as we could judge, our 
shots were telling upon the Apaches, and irritating them to that 
degree that they no longer sought shelter, but boldly faced our 
fire and returned it with energy, the weapons of the men being 
reloaded by the women, who shared their dangers. A wail from 
a squaw, and the feeble cry of a little babe, were proof that the 
missiles of death were not seeking men alone. Brown ordered 
our fire to cease, and for the last time summoned the Apaches to 
surrender, or to let their women and children come out unmo- 
lested. On their side, the Apaches also ceased all hostile demon- 
stration, and it seemed to some of us Americans that they must 
be making ready to yield, and were discussing the matter among 
themselves. Our Indian guides and interpreters raised the cry, 
" Look out ! There goes the death song ; they are going to 
charge ! " It was a weird chant, one not at all easy to describe, 
half wail and half exultation the frenzy of despair and the wild 
cry for revenge. Now the petulant, querulous treble of the 
squaws kept time with the shuffling feet, and again the deeper 
growl of the savage bull-dogs, who represented manhood in 
that cave, was flung back from the cold pitiless brown of the 

" Look out ! Here they come ! " Over the rampart, guided by 
one impulse, moving as if they were all part of the one body, 
jumped and ran twenty of the warriors superb-looking fellows 
all of them ; each carried upon his back a quiver filled with the 
long reed arrows of the tribe, each held in his hand a bow and a 
rifle, the latter at full cock. Half of the party stood upon the 


rampart, which gave them some chance to sight our men behind 
the smaller rocks in front, and blazed away for all they were 
worth they were trying to make a demonstration to engage our 
attention, while the other part suddenly slipped down and around 
our right flank, and out through the rocks which had so effect- 
ively sheltered the retreat of the one who had so nearly succeeded 
in getting away earlier in the morning. Their motives were 
divined, and the move was frustrated ; our men rushed to the 
attack like furies, each seeming to be anxious to engage the 
enemy at close quarters. Six or seven of the enemy were killed 
in a space not twenty-five feet square, and the rest driven tack 
within the cave, more or less wounded. 

Although there was a fearful din from the yells, groans, wails of 
the squaws within the fortress, and the re-echoing of volleys from 
the walls of the can" on, our command behaved admirably, and 
obeyed its orders to the letter. The second line never budged 
from its place, and well it was that it had stayed just there. One 
of the charging party, seeing that so much attention was converged 
upon our right, had slipped down unnoticed from the rampart, and 
made his way to the space between our two lines, and had sprung to 
the top of a huge boulder, and there had begun his war-whoop, as 
a token of encouragement to those still behind. I imagine that he 
was not aware of our second line, and thought that once in our 
rear, ensconced in a convenient nook in the rocks, he could keep 
us busy by picking us off at his leisure. His chant was never 
finished ; it was at once his song of glory and his death song ; he 
had broken through our line of fire only to meet a far more cruel 
death. Twenty carbines were gleaming in the sunlight jusfc 
flushing the clif s ; forty eyes were sighting along the barrels. 
The Apache looked into the eyes of his enemies, and in not one 
did he see the slightest sign of mercy ; he tried to say something ; 
what it was we never could tell. "No! No I soldados V 9 in 
broken Spanish, was all we could make out before the resounding 
volley had released another soul from its earthly casket, and let 
the bleeding corpse fall to the ground as limp as a wet moccasin. 
He was really a handsome warrior; tall, well-proportioned, 
finely muscled, and with a bold, manly countenance ; ft shot to 
death " was the verdict of all who paused to look upon him, but 
that didn't half express the state of the case ; I have never seen 
a man more thoroughly shot to pieces than was this one ; every 


bullet seemed to have struck, and not less than eight or ten had 
inflicted mortal wounds. 

The savages in the cave, with death now staring them in the 
face,, did not seem to lose their courage or, shall we say despair ? 
They resumed their chant, and s^ng with vigor and boldness, 
until Brown determined that the battle or siege must end. Our 
two lines were now massed in one, and every officer and man told 
to get ready a package of cartridges ; then as fast as the breech- 
block of the carbine could be opened and lowered, we were to fire 
into the mouth of the cave, hoping to inflict the greatest damage 
by glancing bullets, and then charge in by the entrance on our 
right flank, back of the rock rampart which had served as the 
means of exit for the hostiles when they made their attack. The 
din and tumult increased twenty-fold beyond the last time ; lead 
poured in by the bucketful, but, strangely enough, there was a 
lull for a moment or two, and without orders. A little Apache 
boy, not over four years old, if so old, ran out from within the 
cave, and stood, with thumb in mouth, looking in speechless 
wonder and indignation at the belching barrels. He was not in 
much danger, because all the carbines were aiming upwards at the 
roof, nevertheless a bullet whether from our lines direct, or 
hurled down from the rocky ceiling struck the youngster on the 
skull, and ploughed a path for itself around to the back of his 
neck, leaving a welt as big as one's finger. The youngster was 
knocked off his feet, and added the tribute of his howls to the roars 
and echoes of the conflict. "Nantaje" sprang like a deer to 
where the boy lay, and grasped him by one arm, and ran with 
him behind a great stone. Our men spontaneously ceased firing 
for one minute to cheer "ISTantaje" and the "kid;" the fight 
was then resumed with greater vigor. The Apaches did not relax 
their fire, but, from the increasing groans of the women, we 
knew that our shots r ere telling either upon the women in the 
cave, or upon their relatives among the men for whom they were 

It was exactly like fighting with wild animals in a trap : the 
Apaches had made up their minds to die if relief did not reach 
them from some of the other " rancherias " supposed to be close 
by. Ever since early morning nothing had been seen of Burns 
aud Thomas, and the men of Company GL With a detach- 
ment of Pima guides, they had been sent off to follow the trail of 


the fifteen ponies found at day-dawn ; Brown was under the im- 
pression that the raiding party "belonging to the cave might have 
split into two or three parties, and that some of the latter ones 
might be trapped and ambuscaded while ascending the mountain. 
This was before Eoss and "ISTantaje" and Felmer had discovered 
the cave and forced the fight. This part of our forces had 
marched a long distance down the mountain, and was returning 
to rejoin us, when the roar of the carbines apprised them that the 
worst kind of a fight was going on, and that their help would be 
needed badly; they came back on the double, and as soon as they 
reached the summit of the precipice were halted to let the men 
get their breath. It was a most fortunate thing that they did so, 
and at that particular spot. Burns and several others went to the 
crest and leaned over to see what all the frightful hubbub was 
about. They saw the conflict going on beneath them, and in 
spite of the smoke could make out that the Apaches were nes- 
tling up close to the rock rampart, so as to avoid as much as pos- 
sible the projectiles which were raining down from the roof of 
their eyrie home. 

It didn't take Burns five seconds to decide what should be 
done ; he had two of his men harnessed with the suspenders of their 
comrades, and made them lean well over the precipice, while the 
harness was used to hold them in place ; these men were to fire 
with their revolvers at the enemy beneath, and for a volley or so 
they did very effective work, but their Irish blood got the better 
of their reason, and in their excitement they began to throw their 
revolvers at the enemy ; this kind of ammunition was rather too 
costly, but it suggested a novel method of annihilating the enemy. 
Burns ordered his men to get together and roll several of the huge 
boulders, which covered the surface of the mountain, and drop 
them over on the unsuspecting foe. The noise was frightful ; 
the destruction sickening. Our volleys were still directed against 
the inner faces of the cave and the roof, and the Apaches seemed 
to realize that their only safety lay in crouching close to the great 
stone heap in front ; but even this precarious shelter was now 
taken away ; the air was filled with the bounding, plunging frag- 
ments of stone, breaking into thousands of pieces, with other 
thousands behind, crashing down with the momentum gained in 
a descent of hundreds of feet. No human voice could be heard 
in such a cyclone of wrath ; the volume of dust was so dense that 


no eye could pierce it, but over on our left it seemed that for some 
reason we could still discern several figures guarding that extrem- 
ity of the enemy's line the old " Medicine Man," who, decked 
in all the panoply of his office, with feathers on head, decorated 
shirt on back, and all the sacred insignia known to his people, 
had defied the approach of death, and kept his place, firing coolly 
at everything that moved on our side that he could see, his rifle 
reloaded and handed back by his assistants either squaws or 
young men it was impossible to tell which, as only the arms 
could be noted in the air. Major Brown signalled up to Burns 
to stop pouring down his boulders, and at the same time our men 
were directed to cease firing, and to make ready to charge ; the 
fire of the Apaches had ceased, and their chant of defiance was 
hushed. There was a feeling in the command as if we were 
about to rush through the gates of a cemetery, and that we 
should find a ghastly spectacle within, but, at the same time, it 
might be that the Apaches had retreated to some recesses in the 
innermost depths of the ca'vern, unknown to us, and be prepared to 
assail all who ventured to cross the wall in front. 

Precisely at noon we adyanced, Corporal Hanlon, of Company 
G, Fifth Cavalry, being the first man to surmount the para- 
pet. I hope that my readers will be satisfied with the meagrest 
description of the awful sight that met our eyes : there were men 
and women dead or writhing in the agonies of death, and with 
them several babies, killed by our glancing bullets, or by the 
storm of rocks and stones that had descended from aboye. While 
one portion of the command worked at extricating the bodies from 
beneath the pile of debris, another stood guard with cocked 
revolvers or carbines, ready to blow out the brains of the first 
wounded savage who might in his desperation attempt to kill one 
of our people. But this precaution was entirely useless. All 
idea of resistance had been completely knocked out of the heads 
of the survivors, of whom, to our astonishment, there were over 

How any of the garrison had ever escaped such a storm of mis- 
siles was at first a mystery to us, as the cave was scarcely a cave 
at all, but rather a cliff dwelling, and of no extended depth. 
However, there were many large slabs of flat thin stone within 
the enclosure, either left there by Nature or carried in by the 
squaws, to be employed in yarious domestic purposes. Behind 


and under these many of the squaws had crept, and others had piled 
up the dead to screen themselves and their children from the fury 
of our assault. Thirty-five, if I remember aright, were still living, 
but in the number are included all who were still breathing ; many 
were already dying, and nearly one-half were dead before we started 
out of that dreadful place. None of the warriors were conscious 
except one old man, who serenely awaited the last summons ; he 
had received five or six wounds, and was practically dead when 
we sprang over the entrance wall. There was a general sentiment 
of sorrow for the old " Medicine Man " who had stood up so 
fiercely on the left of the Apache line ; we found his still warm 
corpse, crushed out of all semblance to humanity, beneath a huge 
mass of rock, which had also extinguished at one fell stroke the 
light of the life of the squaw and the young man who had remained 
by his side. The amount of plunder and supplies of all kinds 
was extremely great, and the band inhabiting these cliffs must 
have lived with some comfort. There was a great amount of 
food roasted mescal, seeds of all kinds, jerked mule or pony 
meat, and all else that these savages were wont to store for tho 
winter ; bows and arrows in any quantity, lances, war clubs, guns of 
various kinds, with ammunition fixed and loose ; a perfect strong- 
hold well supplied. So much of the mescal and other food as 
our scouts wished to pack off on their own backs was allowed 
them, and everything else was given to the flames. !N"o attempt 
was made to bury the dead, who, with the exception of our own 
Pi ma, were left where they fell. 

Brown was anxious to get back out of the cafion, as the captive 
squaws told him that there was another "rancheria" in the 
Superstition Mountains on the south side of the cafion, and it was 
probable that the Indians belonging to it would come up just as 
soon as they heard the news of the fight, and attack our column 
in rear as it tried to make its way back to the top of the precipice. 
The men who were found dancing by Eoss had, just that moment, 
returned from a raid upon the Pima villages and the outskirts of 
Florence, in the Grila valley, where they had been successful in 
getting the ponies we recovered, as well as in killing some of the 
whites and friendly Indians living there. We had not wiped out 
all the band belonging to the cave ; there were six or seven of the 
young women who had escaped and made their way down to the 
foot of the precipice, andon into the current of the Salado ; they 



would be sure to push on to the other " rancheria," of which we 
had been told. Row they came to escape was this : at the very 
first streak of light, or perhaps a short time before, they had been 
sent six young girls and an old woman to examine a great 
" mescal pit *' down in the caflon, and determine whether the food 
was yet ready for use. The Apaches always preferred to let their 
mescal cook for three days, and at the end of that time would pull 
oat a plug made of the stalk of the plant, which should always be 
put into the " pit " or oven, and if the end of that plug is cooked, 
the whole mass is cooked. We had smelt the savory odors arising 
from the "pit " as we climbed down the face of the cliff, early in 
the day. John de Laet describes a mescal heap, or a furnace of 
earth covered with hot rocks, upon which the Chichimecs (the 
name by which the Spaniards in early times designated all the 
wild tribes in the northern part of their dominions in North 
America) placed their corn-paste or venison, then other hot 
rocks, and finally earth again. This mode of cooking, he says, 
was imitated by the Spaniards in New Mexico. (Lib. 7, cap. 3.) 
The Apache-Mojaye squaws at the San Carlos Agency still period- 
ically mourn for the death of seventy-six of their people in this 
cave, and when I was last among them, they told a strange story 
of how one man escaped from our scrutiny, after we had gained 
possession of the stronghold. 

He had been badly wounded by a bullet in the calf of the left 
leg, in the very beginning of the fight., and had lain down behind 
one of the great slabs of stone which were resting against the walls ; 
as the fight grew hotter and hotter, other wounded Indians sought 
shelter close to the same spot, and after a while the corpses of the 
slain were piled up there as a sort of a breastwork. When we 
removed the dead, it never occurred to any of us to look behind the 
stone slabs, and to this fact the Indian owed his salvation. He 
could hear the scouts talking, and he knew that we were going to 
make a rapid march to reunite with our pack-train and with other 
scouting parties. He waited until after we had started out on 
the trail, and then made for himself a support for his injured 
limb out of a broken lance-staff, and a pair of crutches out of two 
others. He crawled or climbed up the wall of the caflon, and 
then made his way along the trail to the Tonto Creek, to meet 
and to turn back a large band of his tribe who were coming down 
to join " Nanni-chaddi/' He saved them from Major Brown, 


but it was a case of jumping out of the frying-pan into the fire. 
They took refuge on the summit of " Turret Butte," a place 
deemed second only to the Salt River cave in impregnability, and 
supposed to be endowed with peculiar "medicine" qualities, 
which would prevent an enemy from gaming possession of it. 
But here they were surprised by the command of Major George 
M. Randall, Twenty-third Infantry, and completely wiped out, 
as will be told on another page. 

We got away from the canon with eighteen captives, women 
and children, some of them badly wounded ; we might have saved 
a larger percentage of the whole number found living in the 
cave at the moment of assault, but we were not provided with 
medical supplies, bandages, or anything for the care of the sick 
and wounded. This one item will show how thoroughly out of 
the world the Department of Arizona was at that time ; it was 
difficult to get medical officers out there, and the resulting con- 
dition of affairs was such an injustice to both officers and men 
that General Crook left no stone unturned until he had rectified 
it. The captives were seated upon the Pima ponies left back 
upon the top of the mountain ; these animals were almost played 
out ; their feet had been knocked to pieces coming up the rocky 
pathway, during the darkness of night ; and the cholla cactus still 
sticking in their legs, showed that they had been driven with 
such speed, and in such darkness, that they had been unable to 
pick their way. But they were better than nothing, and were 
kept in use for the rest of that day. Runners were despatched 
across the hills to the pack-train,, and were told to conduct it to 
a small spring, well known to our guides, high up on the nose of 
the Matitzal, where we were all to unite and go into camp. 

It was a rest and refreshment sorely needed, after the scram- 
bling, slipping, and sliding over and down loose rocks which had 
been dignified with the name of marching, during the preceding 
two days. Our captives were the recipients of every attention 
that we could give, and appeared to be improving rapidly, and 
to have regained the good spirits which are normally theirs. 
Mounted couriers were sent in advance to Camp MacDowell, to 
let it be known that we were coming in with wounded, and the 
next morning, early, we set out for that post, following down the 
course of what was known as Sycamore Creek to the Verde 
River, which latter we crossed in front of the post. 



wounded squaws were forwarded to old Camp Grant, 
just as soon as able to travel, and our command remained 
for several days in the camp, until joined by other detachments, 
when we returned to the Superstition range, this time in consid- 
erable strength, the whole force consisting of the companies of 
Adams, Montgomery, Hamilton, Taylor, Burns, and Almy all of 
the Fifth Cavalry, with the following additional officers : Lieu- 
tenants Rockwell, Schuyler, andKeyes, of the Fifth; Ross, of the 
Twenty-third Infantry ; Bourke, of the Third Cavalry ; and Mr. 
James Daily, General Crook's brother-in-law, as volunteer. The 
guides, as before, were Macintosh, Felmer, and Besias, with thirty 
Apache scouts, under the leadership of "Esquinosquizn." This 
march was simply a repetition of the former ; there was the same 
careful attention to details no fires allowed except when the 
light could not be discerned by the lynx-eyed enemy ; no shout- 
ing, singing, whistling, lighting of matches, or anything else 
which might attract attention. There was the same amount of 
night-marching, side scouting to either flank or in advance, the 
same careful scrutiny of the minutest sign on the trail. The 
presence of the Indian scouts saved the white soldiers a great 
deal of extra fatigue, for the performance of which the Apaches 
were better qualified. It was one of the fundamental principles 
upon which General Crook conducted all his operations, to enlist 
as many of the Indians as could be induced to serve as scouts, 


because by this means he not only subtracted a considerable el* 
ment from those in hostility and received hostages, as it wen 
for the better behavior of his scouts' kinsmen, but he remove 
from the shoulders of his men an immense amount of arduon 
and disagreeable work, and kept them fresh for any emergenc 
that might arise. The Apaches were kept constantly out on th 
flanks, under the white guides, and swept the country of a 
hostile bands. The white troops followed upon the heels of th 
Indians, but at a short distance in the rear, as the native scout 
were better acquainted with all the tricks of their calling, an< 
familiar with every square acre of the territory. The longer w 
knew the Apache scouts., the better we liked them. They wer 
wilder and more suspicious than the Pimas and Maricopas, bu 
far more reliable, and endowed with a greater amount of courag 
and daring. I have neyer known an officer whose experienc 
entitled his opinion to the slightest consideration, who did no 
believe as I do on this subject On this scout Captain Hamiltoi 
was compelled to send back his Maricopas as worthless ; this wa 
before he joined Brown at MacDowelL 

All savages have to undergo certain ceremonies of lustratioi 
after returning from the war-path where any of the enemy hav< 
been killed. With the Apaches these are baths in the sweat 
lodge, accompanied with singing and other rites. With the 
Pimas and Maricopas these ceremonies are more elaborate, and 
necessitate a seclusion from the rest of the tribe for many days, 
fasting, bathing, and singing. The Apache " bunches" all his 
religious duties at these times,, and defers his bathing until he 
gets home, but the Pima and Maricopa are more punctilious, and 
resort to the rites of religion the moment a single one, either of 
their own numbers or of the enemy, has been laid low. For this 
reason Brown started out from MacDowell with Apaches only. 

It was noticed with some concern by all his friends tt^t old Jack 
Long was beginning to break ; the fatigue and exertion which 
the more juvenile members of the expedition looked upon as 
normal to the occasion, the night marches, the exposure to the 
cold and wind and rain and snow, the climbing up and down 
steep precipices, the excitement, the going without food or water 
for long periods, were telling visibly upon the representative oi 
an older generation. Hank *n Yank, Chenoweth, Frank Monach, 


and Joe Felmer " 'lowed th' ole man was off his feed/' but it was, 
in truth, only the summons sent him by Dame Nature that he 
had overdrawn his account, and was to be in the future bankrupt 
in health and strength. There was an unaccountable irritability 
about Jack, a fretfulness at the end of each day's climbing, which 
spoke more than words could of enfeebled strength and nervous 
prostration. He found fault with his cook, formerly his pride 
and boast. " Be-gosh," he remarked one evening, "seems t ? me 
yer a-burnin' everything; next I know, ye '11 be a-burnin' water." 
There were sarcastic references to the lack of "horse sense" 
shown by certain unnamed "shave-tail lef tenants" in the com- 
mand shafts which rebounded unnoticed from the armor of 
Schuyler and myself, but which did not make us feel any too 
comfortable while the old veteran was around. Day by day,, meal 
after meal, his cook grew worse, or poor Jack grew no better. 
Nothing spread upon the canvas would tempt Jack's appetite ; 
he blamed it all on the culinary artist, never dreaming that he 
alone was at fault, and that his digestion was a thing of the 
past, and beyond the skill of cook or condiment to revive. 

"He ain't a pastry cook," growled Jack, "nor yet a hasty 
cook, nor a tasty cook, but fur a dog-goned nasty cook, Fll back 
'm agin th' hull Pacific Slope." "When he heard some of the 
packers inveighing against Tucson whiskey, Jack's rage rose 
beyond bounds. " Many a time ? n oft/' he said, " Arizona whis- 
key J s bin plenty good enough fur th' likes o' me ; it 's good "s a 
hoss liniment, 'n it '& good 's a beverage, 'n I've tried it both ways, 
'n I know ; 'n thet 's more 'n kin be said for this yere dude whiskey 
they gits in Dilmonico's." There wasn't a drop of stimulant as 
such, with the whole command, that I knew of, but in my own 
blankets there was a pint flask filled with rather better stuff than 
was ordinarily to be obtained, which I had been keeping in case 
of snake bites or other accidents. It occurred to me to present a 
good drink of this to Jack, but as I did not like to do this with 
so many standing around the fire, I approached the blankets 
upon which Jack was reclining, and asked: "See here, Jack, I 
want you to try this water; there's something very peculiar 
about it/' 

"Thet *s allers th' way with these yere shave-tail lef tenants 
they 's gittin* in th* army now-a-days ; allers complainin' about 
su'thin ; water ! Lor'! yer orter Mn with me when I was minin' up 


on th* Frazer. Then ye *d a 3 known what water was * * * Water, 
be-gosh ! why, Major, I '11 never forget yer *s long's I live" and 
in the exuberance of his gratitude, the old man bre vetted me two 
or three grades. 

Prom that on Jack and I were sworn friends ; he never levelled 
the shafts of his sarcasm either at me or my faithful mule, " Ma- 
laria/* " Malaria " had been born a first-class mule, but a fairy 
godmother, or some other mysterious cause, had carried the good 
mule away, and left in its place a lop-eared, mangy specimen, 
which enjoyed the proud distinction of being considered, without 
dissent, the meanest mule in the whole Department of Arizona. 
Not many weeks after that poor old Jack died ; he was in camp 
with one of the commands on the San Carlos, and broke down 
entirely ; in his delirium he saw the beautiful green pastures of 
the Other Side, shaded by branching oaks ; he heard the rippling 
of pellucid waters, and listened to the gladsome song of merry 
birds. " Fellers/* he said, "it is beautiful over thar ; the grass 
is so green, and the water so cool I am tired of marchin', 'n I 
reckon I *11 cross over *n go in camp " so poor old Jack crossed 
over to come back no more. 

All through the Superstition Mountains, we worked as care- 
fully as we had worked in the more northern portion on our trip 
to MacDowell, but we met with less success than we had anti- 
cipated ; on the morning of the 15th of January, after a toilsome 
night-climb over rough mesas and mountains, we succeeded in 
crawling upon a small rancheria ere the first rays of the sun had 
surmounted the eastern horizon - y but the occupants were too 
smart for us and escaped, leaving three dead in our hands and 
thirteen captives women and children ; we also captured the 
old chief of the band, who, like his people, seemed to be extremely 
poor. Three days later we heard loud shouting from a high 
mountain to the left of the trail we were following. Thinking 
at first that it was from some hostile parties, Major Brown sent 
out a detachment of the scouts to run them off. In about half 
an hour or less a young boy not more than eight years old came 
down to see the commanding officer, who had halted the column 
until he could learn what was wanted. The youngster was very 
much agitated, and trembled violently ; he said that he had been 
sent down to say that his people did not want any more war, but 
were desirous of making peace. He was given something to eat 


and tobacco to smoke, and afterwards one of the pack-mules was 
led up and its cargo " unloaded so that the cook might give 
the ambassador a good stomachful of beans always kept cooked 
in a train. The Apache was very grateful, and after talking with 
the scouts was much more at his ease. He was presented with 
an old blouse by one of the officers, and then Major Brown told 
him that he mis too young to represent anybody, but not too 
young to see for himself that we did not want to harm any peo- 
ple who were willing to behave themselves. He could return in 
safety to his own people up on the hill, and tell them that they 
need not be afraid to send in any one they wished to talk for 
them, but to send in some grown persons. The boy darted up 
the flanks of the mountain with the agility of a jack rabbit, and 
was soon lost to view in the undergrowth of scrub oak ; by the 
time we had ascended the next steep grade there was more 
shouting, and this time the boy returned with a wrinkled squaw, 
who was at once ordered back after the usual feed one of our 
people going with her to tell the men of the band that we were 
not women or babies, and that we could talk business with men 

This summons brought back a very decrepit antique, who sup- 
ported his palsied limbs upon one of the long walking-canes so 
much in use among the Apaches. He too was the recipient of 
every kindness, but was told firmly that the time for fooling had 
long since gone by, and that to-day was a much better time for 
surrendering than to-morrow ; our command would not harm 
them if they wanted to make peace, but the country was full of 
scouting parties and at any moment one of these was likely to 
run in upon them and kill a great many ; the best thing, the 
safest thing, for them to do was to surrender at once and come 
with us into Camp Grant. The old chief replied that it was not 
possible for him to surrender just then and there, because his 
band had scattered upon learning of our approach, but if we 
would march straight for Grant he would send out for all his 
people, gather them together, and catch up with us at the junc- 
tion of the Gila and San Pedro, and then accompany us to Clamp 
Grant or other point to be agreed upon. 

WQ moved slowly across the mountains, getting to the place of 
meeting on the day assigned, but there were no Indians, and we 
all felt that we had been outwitted. The scouts however said, 


" Wait and see ! " and sure enough,, that evening, the old chief and 
a small party of his men arrived and had another talk and smoke 
with Major Brown, who told them that the only thing to do was 
to see General Crook whose word would determine all questions. 
Every man in the column was anxious to get back, and long 
before reveille most of them were up and ready for the word for 
breakfast and for boots and saddles. There was a feeling that so 
far as the country south of the Salt River was concerned, the 
campaign was over ; and though we saw no men, women, or chil- 
dren other than those captured by us on the way, all felt that 
the surrender would surely take place as agreed upon. 

"When we started up the dusty valley of the San Pedro not one 
of the strangers had arrived, but as we drew nigh to the site of 
the post, it seemed as if from behind clusters of sage brush, 
giant cactus, palo verde or mesquite, along the trail, first one, 
then another, then a third Apache would silently join the col- 
umn with at most the greeting of <e Siquisn " (My brother). 
When we reported to Crook again at the post, whither he had 
returned from MacDowell, there were one hundred and ten 
people with us, and the whole business done so quietly that not 
one-half the command ever knew whether any Apaches had 
joined us or not. With these Indians General Crook had a long 
and satisfactory talk, and twenty-six of them enlisted as scouts. 
Prom this point I was' sent by General Crook to accompany 
Major Brown in a visit to the celebrated chief of the Chiricahua 
Apaches, " Cocheis/' of which visit I will speak at length later on. 

We rejoined the command at the foot of Mount Graham, where 
General Crook had established the new post of Camp Grant. It 
offered many inducements which could not well be disregarded 
in that arid section ; the Graham Mountain, or Sierra Bonita as 
known to the Mexicans, is well timbered with pine and cedar; 
has an abundance of pure and cold water, and succulent pastur- 
age ; there is excellent building-stone and adobe clay within 
reach, and nothing that could reasonably be expected is lacking. 
There were twelve or thirteen companies of cavalry concentrated 
at the new camp, and all or nearly all these were, within a few days, 
on the march for the Ton to Basin, to give it another overhauling. 

I do not wish to describe the remainder of the campaign in 
detail ; it offered few features not already presented to my 


readers ; it was rather more unpleasant than the first part, on 
account of being to a greater extent amid the higher elevations 
of the Sierra Ancha and the Matitzal and Mogollon, to which 
the hostiles had retreated for safety. There was deeper snow 
and much, more of it, more climbing and greater heights to attain, 
severer cold and more discomfort from, being unable to find dry 
fuel. There was still another source of discomfort which should 
not be overlooked. At that time the peculiar disease known as 
the epizootic made its appearance in the United States, and 
reached Arizona, crippling the resources of the Department in 
horses and mules ; we had to abandon our animals, and take our 
rations and blankets upon our own backs, and do the best we 
could. In a very few weeks the good results became manifest, 
and the enemy showed signs of weakening. The best element in 
this campaign was the fact that on so many different occasions 
the Apaches were caught in the very act of raiding, plundering, 
and killing, and followed up with such fearful retribution. 
Crook had his forces so disposed that no matter what the Apaches 
might do or not do, the troops were after them at once, and, 
guided as we were by scouts from among their own people, escape 
was impossible. For example, a large band struck the settle- 
ments near the town of Wickenburg, and there surprised a small 
party of young men, named Taylor, recently arrived from Eng- 
land or Wales. All in the party fell victims to the merciless aim 
of the assailants, who tied two of them to cactus, and proceeded 
deliberately to fill them with arrows. One of the poor wretches 
rolled and writhed in agony, breaking off the feathered ends of 
the arrows, but each time he turned his body, exposing a space 
n<5t yet Bounded, the Apaches shot in another barb. The 
Indians then robbed the ranches, stole or killed all tho cattle 
and horses, and struck out across the ragged edge of the great 
Bradshaw Mountain, then over into the Tonto Basin. Having 
twenty-four hours the start of the troops, they felt safe in their 
expedition, but they were followed by Wesendorf, of the First 
Cavalry ; by Kice, of the Twenty-third Infantry ; by Ahny, Watts, 
and myself ; by Woodson, of the Fifth ; and lastly by Kandall, of 
the Twenty-third, who was successful in running them to earth 
in the stronghold on the summit of Turret Butte, where they 
fancied that no enemy would dare follow. 
Eandall made his men crawl up the face of the mountain on 


hands and feet, to avoid all danger of making noise by the rat- 
tling of stones, and shortly after midnight had the satisfaction 
of seeing the glimmer of fires amid the rocks scattered about on 
the summit. He waited patiently until dawn, and then led the 
charge, the Apaches being so panic-stricken that numbers of the 
warriors jumped down the precipice and were dashed to death. 
This and the action in the cave in the Salt Biver Oafion were 
the two affairs which broke the spirit of the Apache nation ; they 
resembled each other in catching raiders just in from attacks 
upon the white settlements or those of friendly tribes, in surpris- 
ing bands in strongholds which for generations had been invested 
with the attribute of impregnability, and in inflicting great loss 
with comparatively small waste of blood to ourselves. 

In singling out these two incidents I, of course, do not wish 
in the slightest degree to seem to disparage the gallant work per- 
formed by the other officers engaged, each and all of whom are 
entitled to as much credit as either Eandall or Brown for earnest, 
intelligent service, gallantry in trying situations, and cheerful 
acceptance of the most annoying discomforts. No army in the 
world ever accomplished more with the same resources than did 
the little brigade which solved the Apache problem under Crook 
in the early seventies. There were no supplies of food beyond 
the simplest components of the ration and an occasional can of 
some such luxury as tomatoes or peaches ; no Pullman cars to 
transport officers in ease and comfort to the scene of hostilities ; no 
telegraph to herald to the world the achievements of each day. 
There was the satisfaction of duty well performed, and of knowing 
that a fierce, indomitable people who had been a scourge in the his- 
tory of two great nations had been humbled, made to sue for peace, 
and adopt to a very considerable extent the ways of civilization. 

The old settlers in both northern and southern Arizona still 
speak in terms of cordial appreciation of the services of officers 
like Hall, Taylor, Burns, Almy, Thomas, Eockwell, Price, Park- 
hurst, Michler, Adam, Woodson, Hamilton, Babcock, Schuyler, 
and Watts, all of the Fifth Cavalry ; Boss, Eeilley, Sherwood, 
Theller and Major Miles, of the Twenty-first Infantry ; Gar- 
vey, Bomus, Carr, Grant, Bernard, Brodie, Vail, Wessendorf, 
McGregor, Hein, Winters, Harris, Sanford, and others, of the 
First Cavalry ; Eandall, Manning, Eice, and others, of the 
Twenty-third Infantry ; Gerald Eussell, Morton, Crawford, 


ford, Gushing, Cradlebaugh, of the Third Cavalry ; Byrne, of the 
Twelfth Infantry, and many others who during this campaign, 
or immediately preceding it, had rendered themselves conspicu- 
ous by 'most efficient service. The army of the United States has 
no reason to he ashamed of the men tfho wore its uniform during 
the dark apd troubled period of Arizona's history ; they were 
grand men ; they had their faults as many other people have, 
but they never flinched from danger or privation. I do not mean 
to say that I have given a complete list ; it ite probable that many 
very distinguished names have been omitted, for which I apolo- 
gise now by saying that I am not writing a history, but rather 
a series of reminiscences of those old border days. I would not 
intentionally fail in paying tribute to any brave and deserving 
comrade, but find it beyond my power to enumerate all. 

There was one class of officers who were entitled to all the praise 
they received and much more besides, and that class was the sur- 
geons, who never flagged in their attentions to sick and wounded, 
whether soldier or officer, American, Mexican, or Apache cap- 
tive, by night or by day, Among these the names of Stirling, 
Porter, Matthews, Girard, O'Brien, Warren B. Day, Steiger, 
Charles Smart, and Calvin Dewitt will naturally present them- 
selves to the mind of any one familiar with the work then going on, 
and with them should be associated those of the guides, both red 
and white, to whose fidelity, courage, and skill we owed so much. 

The names of Mason McCoy, Edward Clark, Archie Macintosh, 
Al Spears, C. E. Cooley, Joe Felmer, Al Seiber, Dan O'Leary, 
Lew Elliott, Antonio Besias, Jose De Leon, Maria Jilda Gri- 
jalba, Victor Euiz, Manuel Duran, Frank Cahill, Willard Eice, 
Oscar Hutton, Bob Whitney, John B. Townsend, Tom Moore, 
Jim O'Neal, Jack Long, Hank *n Tank (Hewitt and Bartlett), 
Frank Monach, Harry Hawes, Charlie Hopkins, and many other 
scouts, guides, and packers of that onerous, dangerous, and 
crushing campaign, should be inscribed on the brightest page in 
the annals of Arizona, and locked up in her archives that future 
generations might do them honor. The great value of the ser- 
vices rendered by the Apache scouts "Alchesay," "Jim," "El- 
satsoosn," "Machol," "Blanquet," "Chiquito," "<Kelsay," 
"Kasoha," "Nantaje," "Nannasaddi," was fittingly acknowl- 
edged by General Crook in the orders issued at the time of the 
surrender of the Apaches, which took place soon after. 


Many enlisted men rendered service of a most important and 
efficient character, which was also acknowledged at the same time 
and by the same medium ; but, on account of lack of space, it is 
impossible for me to mention them all ; conspicuous in the list are 
the names of Buford, Turpin, Von Medern, Allen, Barrett, Heine- 
man, Stanley, Orr, Lanahan, Stauffer, Hyde,* and Hooker. 

In the first week of Apri], a deputation from the hostile bands 
reached Camp Verde, and expressed a desire to make peace ; they 
were told to return for the head chiefs, with whom General Crook 
would talk at that point. Signal fires were at once set on all the 
hills, scouts sent to all places where they would be likely to 
meet with any of the detachments in the Tonto Basin or the 
Mogollon, and all possible measures taken to prevent any further 
hostilities, until it should be seen whether or not the enemy 
were in earnest in professions of peace. 

Lieutenant Jacob Almy, Fifth Cavalry, with whose command 
I was on duty, scoured the northwest portion of the Tonto Basin, 
and met with about the same experiences as the other detach- 
ments ; but I wish to tell that at one of our camping-places, on 
the upper Verde, we found a ruined building of limestone, laid in 
adobe, which had once been of two or three stories in height, the 
corner still standing being not less than twenty-five feet above 
the ground, with portions of rafters of cottonwood, badly decayed, 
still in place. It was the opinion of both Almy and myself, after 
a careful examination, that it was of Spanish and not of Indian 
origin, and that it had served as a depot for some of the early 
expeditions entering this country ; it would have been in the line 
of advance of Coronado upon Cibola, and I then thought and 
still think that it was most probably connected with his great 
expedition which passed across Arizona in 1541. All this is 
conjecture, but not a very violent one ; Coronado is known to have 
gone to " Ghichilticale," supposed to have been the "Casa 
Grande " on the Gila ; if so, his safest, easiest, best supplied, and 
most natural line of march would have been up the valley of the 
Verde near the head of which this ruin stands. 

Another incident was the death of one of our packers, Presili- 
ano Monje, a very amiable man, who had made friends of all our 
party. He had caught a bad cold in the deep snows on the sum- 
mit of the Matitzal Range, and this developed into an attack of 


pneumonia ; there was no medical officer with our small command, 
and all we could do was based upon ignorance and inexperience, 
no matter how much we might desire to help him. Almy hoped 
that upon descending from the high lands into the warm valley 
of the Verde, the change would be beneficial to our patient ; but 
he was either too far gone or too weak to respond, and the only 
thing left for us to do was to go into bivouac and try the effect 
of rest and quiet. For two days we had carried Monje in a chair 
made of mescal stalks strapped to the saddle, but he was by this 
time entirely too weak to sit up, and we were all apprehensive of 
the worst. It was a trifle after midnight, on the morning of the 
23d of March, 1873, that e ' the change " came, and we saw that 
it was a matter of minutes only until we should have a death in 
our camp; he died before dawn and was buried immediately 
after sunrise, under the shadow of a graceful cottonwood, along- 
side of two pretty springs whose babbling waters flowed in unison 
with the music of the birds. In Monje's honor we named the 
caflon "Dead Man's Cafion/' and as such it is known to this 

At Camp Verde we found assembled nearly all of Crook's 
command, and a dirtier, greasier, more uncouth-looking set of 
officers and men it would be hard to encounter anywhere. Dust, 
soot, rain, and grime had made their impress upon the canvas 
suits which each had donned, and with hair uncut for months 
and beards growing with straggling growth all over the face, 
there was not one of the party who would venture to pose as an 
Adonis ; but all were happy, because the campaign had resulted 
in the unconditional surrender of the Apaches and we were now 
to see the reward of our hard work. On the 6th of April, 1873, 
the Apache-Mo jave chief " Cha-lipun " (called " Charley Pan " by 
the Americans), with over three hundred of his followers, made 
his unconditional submission to General Orook ; they represented 
twenty-three hundred of the hostiles. 

General Crook sat on the porch of Colonel Goppinger's quar- 
ters and told the interpreters that he was ready to hear what the 
Indians had to say, but he did not wish too much talk. " Cha- 
lipun" said that he had come in, as the representative of all the 
Apaches, to say tliat they wanted to surrender because General 
Crook had "too many cartridges of copper" (" demasiadas 
cartuchos de cobre "). They had never been afraid of the Amer- 


leans alone, but now that their own people were fighting against 
them they did nofc know what to do ; they could not go to sleep 
at night, because they feared to be surrounded before daybreak ; 
they could not hunt the noise of their guns would attract the 
troops ; they could not cook mescal or anything else, because the 
flame and smoke would draw down the soldiers ; they could not 
live in the valleys there were too many soldiers ; they had re- 
treated to the mountain tops, thinking to hide in the snow until 
the soldiers wenfc home, but the scouts found them out and the 
soldiers followed them. They wanted to make peace, and to be 
at terms of good- will with the whites. 

Crook took c ' Cha-lipun " by the hand, and told him that, if he 
would promise to live at peace and stop killing people, he would 
be the best friend he ever had. Not one of the Apaches had 
been killed except through his own folly ; they had refused to 
listen to the messengers sent out asking them to come in ; and 
consequently there had been nothing else to do but to go out 
and kill them until they changed their minds. It was of no use to 
talk about who began this war ; there were bad men among all 
peoples ; there were bad Mexicans, as there were bad Americans 
and bad Apaches ; our duty was to end wars and establish peace, 
and not to talk about what was past and gone. The Apaches must 
make this peace not for a day or a week, but for all time ; not 
with the Americans alone, but with the Mexicans as well ; and 
not alone with the Americans and Mexicans, but with all the 
other Indian tribes. They must not take upon themselves the 
redress of grievances, but report to the military officer upon their 
reservation, who would see that their wrongs were righted. They 
should remain upon the reservation, and not leave without writ- 
ten passes ; whenever thei commanding officer wished to ascertain 
the presence of themselves or any of the bands upon the reserva- 
tion, they should appear at the place appointed to be counted. 
So long as any bad Indians remained out in the mountains, the 
reservation Indians should wear tags attached to the neck, or in 
some other conspicuous place, upon which tags should be inscribed 
their number, letter of band, and other means of identification. 
They should not cut off the noses of their wives when they 
became jealous of them. They should not be told anything that 
was not exactly true. They should be fully protected in all re- 
spects while on the reservation. They should be treated exactly 


as white men were treated ; there should be no unjust punish- 
ments. They must work like white men ; a market would be 
found for all they could raise, and the money should be paid 
to themselves and not to middlemen. They should begin work 
immediately ; idleness was the source of all evils, and work was 
the only cure. They should preserve order among themselves ; 
for this purpose a number would be enlisted as scouts, and made 
to do duty in keeping the peace ; they should arrest and confine 
all drunkards, thieves, and other offenders. 



THERE was no time lost in putting the Apaches to work. As 
soon as the rest of the band had come in, which was in less 
than a week, the Apaches were compelled to begin getting out an 
irrigating ditch, under the superintendence of Colonel Julius W. 
Mason, Fifth Cavalry, an officer of much preyious experience in 
.engineering. Their reservation was established some miles above 
the post, and the immediate charge of the savages was intrusted 
to Lieutenant Walter S. Schuyler, Fifth Cavalry, who manifested 
a wonderful aptitude for the delicate duties of his extra-military 
position. There were absolutely no tools on hand belonging to 
the Indian Bureau, and for that matter no medicines, and only 
the scantiest supplies, but Crook was determined that work 
should be begun without the delay of a day. He wanted to get 
the savages interested in something else besides tales of the war- 
path, and to make them feel as soon as possible the pride of own- 
ership, in which he was a firm believer. 

According to his idea, the moment an Indian began to see the 
fruits of his industry rising above the ground, and knew that 
there was a ready cash market awaiting him for all he had to sell, 
he would see that " peace hath her victories no less renowned 
than war." He had been going on the war-path, killing and rob- 
bing the whites, not so much because his forefathers had been 
doing it before him, but because it was the road to wealth, to 
fame, to prominence and distinction in the tribe. Make the 


Apache or any other Indian see that the moment he went on the 
war-path two white men would go out also ; and make him see 
that patient industry produces wealth, fame, and distinction of 
a much more permanent and a securer kind than those derived 
from a state of war, and the Indian would acquiesce gladly in the 
change. But neither red man nor white would submit peaceably 
to any change in his mode of life which was not apparently to his 

The way the great irrigating ditch at Camp Verde was dug 
was this. All the Apaches were made to camp along the line of 
the proposed canal, each band under its own chiefs. Everything 
in the shape of a tool which could be found'at the military post 
of Camp Yerde or in those of Whipple and Hualpai was sent 
down to Mason. There were quantities of old and worn-out 
spades, shovels, picks, hatchets, axes, hammers, files, rasps, and 
camp kettles awaiting the action of an inspector prior to being 
thrown away and dropped from the returns as "worn out in ser- 
vice." With these and with sticks hardened in the fire, the 
Apaches dug a ditch five miles long, and of an average cross- 
section of four feet wide by three deep, although there were 
places where the width of the upper line was more than five feet, 
and that of the bottom four, with a depth of more than five. 
The men did the excavating ; the women carried off the earth in 
the conical baskets which they make of wicker-work. As soon 
as the ditch was ready, General Crook took some of the chiefs up 
to his headquarters at Fort Whipple, and there had them meet 
deputations from all the other tribes living within the territory 
of Arizona, with whom they had been at war the Pimas, Papa- 
goes, Maricopas, Yumas, Cocopahs, Hualpais, Mojaves, Chima- 
huevis and with them peace was also formally made. 

Mason and Schuyler labored assiduously with the Apaches, and 
soon had not less than fifty-seven acres of land planted with 
melons and other garden truck, of which the Indians are fond, 
and every preparation made for planting corn and barley on a 
large scale. A large water-wheel was constructed out of packing- 
boxes, and at a cost to the Government, including all labor 
and material, of not quite thirty-six dollars. The prospects of 
the Apaches looked especially bright, and there was hope that 
they might soon be self-sustaining ; but it was not to be. A 
"ring" of Federal officials, contractors, and others was formed 


in Tucson, which exerted great influence in the national capital, 
and succeeded in securing the issue of peremptory orders that the 
Apaches should leave at once for the mouth of the sickly San 
Carlos, there to be herded with the other tribes. It was an out- 
rageous proceeding, one for which I should still blush had I not 
long since gotten oyer blushing for anything that the United 
States Government did in Indian matters. The Apaches had 
been very happy at the Verde, and seemed perfectly satisfied with 
their new surroundings. There had been some sickness, occa- 
sioned by their using too freely the highly concentrated foods of 
civilization, to which they had never been accustomed ; but, aside 
from that, they themselves said that their general condition had 
never been so good. 

The move did not take place until the winter following, when 
the Indians flatly refused to follow the special agent sent out by 
the Indian Bureau, not being acquainted with him, but did con- 
sent to go with Lieutenant Q-eorge 0. Eaton, Fifth Cavalry, who 
has long since resigned from the army, and is now, I think, Sur- 
veyor-General of Montana. At Fort Apache the Indians were 
placed under the charge of Major George M, Randall, Twenty- 
third Infantry, assisted by Lieutenant Rice, of the same regiment. 
This portion of the Apache tribe is of unusual intelligence, and 
the progress made was exceptionally rapid. Another large body 
had been congregated at the mouth of the San Carlos, representing 
those formerly at old Camp Grant, to which, as we have seen, 
were added the Apache-Mo javes from the Verde. The Apache- 
Mojave and the Apache-Yuma belonged to one stock, and the 
Apache or Tinneh to another. They speak different languages, 
and although their habits of life are almost identical, there is 
sufficient divergence to admit of the entrance of the usual jeal- 
ousies and bickerings bound to arise when two strange, illiterate 
tribes are brought in enforced contact. 

The strong hand and patient will of Major J. B. Babcock 
ruled the situation at this point ; he was the man for the place, 
and performed his duties in a manner remarkable for its delicate 
appreciation of the nature of the Indians, tact in allaying their 
suspicions, gentle firmness in bringing them to see that the new 
way was the better, the only way. The path of the military 
officers was not strewn with roses ; the Apaches showed a will- 
ingness to conform to the new order of things, but at times 


failed to apprehend all that was required of them, at others 
showed an inclination to backslide. 

Crook's plan was laid down in one line in his instructions to 
officers in charge of reservations : " Treat them as children in 
ignorance, not in innocence." His great principle of life was, 
"The greatest of these is charity." He did not believe, and he 
did not teach, that an Indian could slough off the old skin in a 
week or a month ; he knew and he indicated that there might 
be expected a return of the desire for the old wild life, with its 
absolute freedom from all restraint, its old familiar food, and all 
its attendant joys, such as they were. To conquer this as much 
as possible, he wanted to let the Indians at times cut and roast 
mescal, gather grass seeds and other diet of that kind, and, where 
it could be done without risk, go out on hunts after antelope and 
deer. It could not be expected that all the tribe should wish to 
accept the manner -of life of the whites ; there would surely be 
many who would prefer the old order of things, and who would 
work covertly for its restitution. Such men were to be singled 
out, watched, and their schemes nipped in the bud. 

There were outbreaks, attempted outbreaks, and rumors of 
outbreaks at Verde, Apache, and at the San Carlos, with all the 
attendant excitement and worry. At or near the Verde, in the 
"Bed Rock country/' and in the difficult brakes of the "Hell " 
and " Eattlesnake " canons issuing out of the San Francisco 
Peak, some of the Apache-Mojaves who had slipped back from 
the party so peremptorily ordered to the San Carlos had secreted 
themselves and "begun to give trouble. They were taken in hand 
by Schuyler, Seiber, and, at a later date, by Captain Charles 
King, the last-named being dangerously wounded by them at 
the "Sunset Pass/' At the San Carlos Agency there were dis- 
putes of various kinds springing up among the tribes, and worse 
than that a very acrimonious condition of feeling between the 
two men who claimed to represent the Interior Department. As 
a sequel to this, my dear friend and former commanding officer, 
Lieutenant Jacob Almy, lost his life. 

Notwithstanding the chastisement inflicted upon the Apaches, 
some of the minor chiefs, who had still a record to make, preferred 
to seclude themselves in the cafions and cliffs, and defy the powers 
of the general government. It was a source of pride to know that 
they were talked about by the squaws and children upon the 


reserve, as men whom the whites had not been able to capture or 
reduce, Towards these men, Crook was patient to a wonderful 
degree, thinking that reason would assert itself after a time, and 
that, either of their own motion, or through the persuasion of 
friends, they would find their way into the agencies. 

The ostensible reason for the absence of these men was their 
objection to the system of 6: tagging " in use at the agencies, which 
General Crook had introduced for the better protection of the 
Indians, as well as to enable the commanding officers to tell at a 
moment's notice just where each and every one of the males 
capable of bearing arms was to be found. These tags were of 
various shapes, but all small and convenient in size ; there were 
crosses, crescents, circles, diamonds, squares, triangles, etc., each 
specifying a particular band, and each with the number of its 
owner punched upon it. If a scouting party found Apaches 
away from the vicinity of the agencies, they would make them 
give an account of themselves, and if the pass shown did not cor- 
respond with the tags worn, then there was room for suspicion 
that the tags had been obtained from some of the Agency Indians 
in gambling in the games of " Con Quien," " Tze-chis/' " Mush- 
ka" to which the Apaches were passionately addicted, and in 
which they would play away the clothes on- their backs when they 
had any. Word was sent to the Indians of whom I am writing to 
come in and avoid trouble, and influences of all kinds were brought 
to bear upon the squaws with them there were only a few to 
leave the mountains, and return, to their relatives afc the San Carlos. 
The principal chiefs were gradually made to see that they were 
responsible for this condition of affairs, and that they should com- 
pel these outlaws to obey the orders which had been issued for the 
control of the whole tribe. So long as they killed no one the 
troops and Apache scouts would not be sent out against them ; 
they should be given ample opportunity for deciding ; but it 
might be well for them, to decide quickly, as in case of trouble 
arising at San Carlos, the whole tribe would be held responsible 
for the acts of these few. One of them was named fc Chuntz," 
another " Chaundezi," and another " Olibioli ; " there were more 
in the party, but the other names have temporarily escaped my 
memory. The meaning of the first word I do not know ; the 
second means "Long Ear," and is the Apache term for mule; 
the third I do not know, but it has something to do with horse, 


the first syllable meaning horse, and the whole word, I believe, 
means " the horse that is tied." They lived in the cafion of the 
Gila, and would often slip in by night to see their relatives at 
the agency. 

One night there was an awful time at San Carlos ; a train of 
wagons laden with supplies for Camp Apache had halted there, 
and some of the teamsters let the Apaches, among whom were 
the bad lot under Chuntz, have a great deal of vile whiskey. All 
hands got gloriously drunk, and when the teamsters refused to 
let their red-skinned friends have anymore of the poisonous stuff 
the Apaches killed them. If it could only happen so that every 
man who sold whiskey to an Indian should be killed before sun- 
down, it would be one of the most glorious things for the far 
western country. In the present case, innocent people were hurt, 
as they always are ; and General Crook informed the chiefs that 
he looked to them to put a prompt termination to such excesses, 
and that if they did not he would take a hand himself. With 
that he returned to headquarters. The chiefs sent out spies, 
definitely placed the outlaws, who had been in the habit of chang- 
ing their lodging or hiding spots with great frequency, and then 
arranged for their capture and delivery to the military authorities. 
They were surprised, summoned to surrender, refused, and 
attempted to fight, but were all killed ; and as the Apaches knew 
no other mode of proving that they had killed them, and as they 
could not carry in the whole body of each one, they cut off the 
heads and brought them to San Carlos, in a sack, and dumped 
them out on the little parade in front of the commanding officer's 

The Apaches of Arizona were now a conquered tribe, and, as 
Crook well expressed the situation in a General Order, his troops 
had terminated a campaign which had lasted from the days of 
Cortes. The view entertained of the work performed in Arizona 
by those in authority may be summed up in the orders issued by 
General Schofield, at that date in command of the Military 
Division of the Pacific : 

[General Orders No. 7. ] 


SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., April 28, 1878, 

To Brevet Major-G-eneral George Crook, commanding the Department of 
Arizona, and to his gallant troops, for the extraordinary service they have 


rendered in the late campaign against the Apache Indians, the Division 
Commander extends his thanks and his congratulations upon their brilliant 
successes. They have merited the gratitude of the nation. 

(Signed) J, C, KELTON, 

Assistant Adjutant- General. 

Band all and Babcock persevered in their work, and soon a 
change had appeared in the demeanor of the wild Apaches ; at 
San Carlos there grew up a village of neatly made brush huts, 
arranged in rectilinear streets, carefully swept each morning, 
while the huts themselves were clean as pie-crust, the men and 
women no longer sleeping on the bare ground, but in bunks made 
of saplings, and elevated a foot or more above the floor ; on these, 
blankets were neatly piled. The scouts retained in service as a 
police force were quietly given to understand that they must be 
models of cleanliness and good order as well as of obedience to 
law. The squaws were encouraged to pay attention to dress, and 
especially to keep their hair clean and brushed. No abuse of a 
squaw was allowed, no matter what the excuse might be. One 
of the most prominent men of the Hualpai tribe (6 Qui-ua-than- 
yeva" was sentenced to a year's imprisonment because he per- 
sisted in cutting off the nose of one of his wives. This fearful 
custom finally yielded, and there are now many people in the 
Apache tribe itself who have never seen a poor woman thus dis- 
figured and humiliated. 

Crook's promise to provide a ready cash market for everything 
the Apaches could raise was nobly kept. To begin with, the en- 
listment of a force of scouts who were paid the same salary as 
white soldiers, and at the same periods with them, introduced 
among the Apaches a small, but efficient, working capital. Un- 
accustomed to money, the men, after receiving their first pay, 
spent much of it foolishly for candy and other trivial things. 
Nothing was said about that ; they were to be made to under- 
stand that the money paid them was their own to spend or to 
save as they pleased, and to supply as much enjoyment as they 
could extract from it. But, immediately after pay-day, General 
Crook went among the Apaches on the several reservations and 
made inquiries of each one of the principal chiefs what results had 
come to their wives and families from this new source of wealth. 
He explained that money could be made to grow just as an acorn 


would grow into the oak; that by spending it foolishly, the 
Apaches treated it just as they did the acorn which they trod 
under foot ; but by investing their money in California horses 
and sheep, they would be gaining more money all the time they 
slept, and by the time their children had attained maturity the 
hills would be dotted with herds of horses and flocks of sheep. 
Then they would be rich like the white men ; then they could 
travel about and see the world ; then they would not be depend- 
ent upon the Great Father for supplies, but would have for 
themselves and their families all the food they could eat, and 
would have much to sell. 

The Apaches did send into Southern California and bought 
horses and sheep as suggested, and they would now be self-sup- 
porting had the good management of General Crook not been 
ruthlessly sacrificed and destroyed. Why it is that the Apache, 
living as he does on a reservation offering all proper facilities for 
the purpose, is not raising his own meat, is one of the conundrums 
which cannot be answered by any one of common sense. The 
influences against it are too strong : once let the Indian be made 
self-supporting, and what will become of the gentle contractor ? 

Some slight advance has been made in this direction during 
the past twenty years, but it has been ridiculously slight in com- 
parison with what it should have been. In an examination which 
General Crook made into the matter in 1884 it was found that 
there were several herds of cattle among the Indians, one herd 
that I saw numbering 384 head. It was cared for and herded in 
proper manner; and surely if the Apaches can do that much 
in one, or two, or a dozen cases, they can do it in all with any- 
thing like proper encouragement. The proper encouragement of 
which I speak is "the ready cash market" promised by Gen- 
eral Crook, and by means of which he effected so much. 

In every band of aborigines, as in every community of whites, 
or of blacks, or of Chinese, there are to be found men and women 
who are desirous of improving the condition of themselves and 
families ; and alongside of them are others who care for nothing 
but their daily bread, and are not particularly careful how they 
get that so that they get it. There should be a weeding out of 
the progressive from the non-progressive element, and by no 
manner of means can it be done so effectually as by buying from 
the industrious all that they can sell to the Government for the 


support of their own people. There should be inserted in every 
appropriation bill for the support of the army or of the Indians 
the provision that anything and everything called for under a 
contract for supplies, which the Indians on a reservation or in the 
vicinity of a military post can supply, for the use of the troops or 
for the consumption of the tribe, under treaty stipulations, shall 
be bought of the individual Indians raising it and at a cash price 
not less than the price at which the contract has been awarded. 
For example, because it is necessary to elucidate the simplest prop- 
ositions in regard to the Indians, if the chief "A" has, by indus- 
try and thrift, gathered together a herd of one hundred cattle, 
all of the increase that he may wish to sell should be bought from 
him ; he will at once comprehend that work has its own reward, 
and a very prompt and satisfactory one. He has his original 
numbers, and he has a snug sum of money too ; he buys more 
cattle, he sees that he is becoming a person of increased impor- 
tance, not only in the eyes of his own people but in that of the 
white men too ; he encourages his sons and all his relatives to do 
the same as he has done,- confident that their toil will not go 

Our method has been somewhat different from that. Just as 
soon as a few of the more progressive people begin to accumulate 
a trifle of property, to raise sheep, to cultivate patches of soil and 
raise scanty crops, the agent sends in the usual glowing report of 
the occurrence, and to the mind of the average man and woman 
in the East it looks as if all the tribe were on the highway to 
prosperity, and the first thing that Congress does is to curtail the 
appropriations. Next, we hear of "disaffection," the tribe is 
reported as " surly and threatening/ 5 and we are told that the 
" Indians are killing their cattle." But, whether they go to war 
or quietly starve on the reservation effects no change in the sys- 
tem all supplies are bought of a contractor as before, and the red 
man is no better off, or scarcely any better off, after twenty years 
of peace, than he was when he surrendered. The amount of bee! 
contracted for daring the present year 1891 for the Apaches 
at Camp Apache and San Carlos, according to the Southwestern 
Stockman (Wilcox, Arizona), was not quite two million pounds, 
divided as follows : eight hundred thousand pounds for the Indi- 
ans at San Carlos, on the contract of John H. Norton, and an 
additional five hundred thousand pounds for the same people on 


the contract of the Chiricahua Cattle Company ; and five hun- 
dred thousand pounds for the Indians at Fort Apache, on the 
contract of John H. Norton. Both of the above contracting 
parties are known to me as reliable and trustworthy ; I am not 
finding fault with them for getting a good, fat contract; but I do 
find fault with a system which keeps the Indian a savage, and 
does not stimulate him to work for his own support. 

At one time an epidemic of scarlet fever broke out among 
the children on the Apache reservation, and numbers were car- 
ried off. Indians are prone to sacrifice property at the time of 
death of relations, and, under the advice of their " Medicine 
Men/' slaughtered altogether nearly two thousand sheep, which 
they had purchased with their own money or which represented 
the increase from the original flock. Crook bought from the 
Apaches all the hay they would cut, and had the Quartermaster 
pay cash for it ; every pound of hay, every stick of wood, and no 
small portion of the corn used by the military at Camp Apache 
and San Carlos were purchased from the Apaches as individuals, 
and not from contractors or from tribes. The contractors had 
been in the habit of employing the Apaches to do this work for 
them, paying a reduced scale of remuneration and often in store 
goods, so that by the Crook method the Indian received from 
two to three times as much as under the former system, and this 
to the great advantage of Arizona, because the Indian belongs 
to the Territory of Arizona, and will stay there and buy what 
he needs from her people, but the contractor has gone out to 
make money, remains until he accomplishes his object, and then 
returns to some congenial spot where his money will do most 
good for himself. Of the contractors who made money in 
Arizona twenty years ago not one remained there : all went into 
San Francisco or some other large city, there to enjoy their 
accumulations. I am introducing this subject now because it 
will save repetition, and will explain to the average reader why 
it was that the man who did so much to reduce to submission the 
worst tribes this country has ever known, and who thought of 
nothing but the performance of duty and the establishment of a 
permanent and honorable peace, based to quote his own lan- 
guage " upon an exact and even-handed justice to red men and 
to white alike," should have been made the target for the mal- 
evolence and the rancor of every man in the slightest degree 


interested in the perpetuation of the contract system and in 
keeping the aborigine in bondage. 

To sum up in one paragraph, General Crook believed that the 
American Indian was a human being, gifted with the same 
god-like apprehension as the white man, and like him inspired 
by noble impulses, ambition for progress and advancement, but 
subject to the same infirmities, beset with the same or even 
greater temptations, struggling under the disadvantages of an 
inherited ignorance, which had the' double effect of making him 
doubt his own powers in the struggle for the new life and sus- 
picious of the truthfulness and honesty of the advocates of all 
innovations. The American savage has grown up as a member 
of a tribe, or rather of a clan within a tribe ; all his actions 
have been made to conform to the opinions of his fellows as 
enunciated in the clan councils or in those of the tribe. 

It is idle to talk of de-tribalizing the Indian until we are 
ready to assure him that his new life is the better one. By the 
Crook method of dealing with the savage* he was, at the outset, 
de-tribalized without knowing it ; he was individualized and 
made the better able to enter into the civilization of the Cau- 
casian, which is an individualized civilization. As a scout, the 
Apache was enlisted as an individual ; he was made responsible 
individually for all that he did or did not. He was paid as an 
individual. If he cut grass, he, and not his tribe or clan, got 
the money ; if he split fuel, the same rule obtained ; and so 
with every grain of corn or barley which he planted. If he did 
wrong, he was hunted down as an individual until the scouts got 
him and put him in the guard-house. If his friends did wrong, 
the troops did not rush down upon him and his family and 
chastise them for the wrongs of others ; he was asked to aid in 
the work of ferreting out and apprehending the delinquent ; and 
after he had been brought in a jury of the Apaches themselves 
deliberated upon the case and never failed in judgment, except 
on the side of severity. 

There were two cases of chance-medley coming under my own 
observation, in both of which the punishment awarded by the 
Apache juries was much more severe than would have been 
given by a white jury. In the first case, the man supposed to 
have done the killing was sentenced to ten years' hard labor ; in 
the other, to three. A white culprit was at the same time sen- 


tenced in Tucson for almost the same offence to one year's 
confinement in jail. Indians take to trials by jury as natu- 
rally as ducks take to water. Trial by jury is not a system of 
civilized people ; it is the survival of the old trial by clan, 
the rudimentary justice known to all tribes in the most savage 

General Crook believed that the Indian should be made self- 
supporting, not by preaching at him the merits of labor and the 
grandeur of toiling in the sun, but by making him see that 
every drop of honest sweat meant a penny in his pocket. It 
was idle to expect that the Indian should understand how to 
work intelligently in the very beginning ; he represented cen- 
turies of one kind of life, and the Caucasian the slow evolution of 
centuries under different conditions and in directions diametri- 
cally opposite. The two races could not, naturally, understand 
each other perfectly, and therefore to prevent mistakes and the 
doing of very grievous injustice to the inferior, it was the duty 
and to the interest of the superior race to examine into and 
understand the mental workings of the inferior. 

The American Indian, born free as the eagle, would not 
tolerate restraint, would not brook injustice ; therefore, the re- 
straint imposed must be manifestly for his benefit, and the gov- 
ernment to which he was subjected must be eminently one of 
kindness, mercy, and absolute justice, without necessarily degen- 
erating into weakness. The American Indian despises a liar. 
The American Indian is the most generous of mortals : at all his 
dances and feasts the widow and the orphan are the first to be 
remembered. Therefore, when he meets with an agent who is " on 
the make," that agent's influence goes below zero at once ; and 
when he enters the trader's store and finds that he is charged 
three dollars and a half for a miserable wool hat, which, during 
his last trip to "Washington, Albuquerque, Omaha, or Santa Fe, 
as the case may be, he has seen offered for a quarter, he feels 
that there is something wrong, and he does not like it any too 
well. For that reason Crook believed that the Indians should 
be encouraged to do their own trading and to set up thejr own 
stores. lie was not shaken in this conviction when le found 
agents interested in the stores on the reservations, a fact well 
understood by the Apaches as well as by himself. It was a very 
touching matter at the San Carlos, a few years ago, to see the 


then agent counting the proceeds of the weekly sales made by his 
son-in-law the Indian trader. 

At the date of the reduction of the Apaches, the success of the 
Government schools was not clearly established, so that the sub- 
ject of Indian instruction was not then discussed except theoret- 
ically. General Crook was always a firm heliever in the education 
of the American Indian ; not in the education of a handful of 
boys and girls sent to remote localities, and there inoculated with 
new ideas and deprived of the old ones upon which they would 
have to depend for getting a livelihood ; but in the education 
of the younger generation as a generation. Had the people of 
the United States taken the young generation of Sioux and 
Cheyennes in 1866, and educated them in accordance with the 
terms of the treaty, there would not have been any trouble since. 
The children should not be torn away from the parents to whom 
they are a joy and a consolation, just as truly as they are to 
white parents ; they should be educated within the limits of the 
reservation so that the old folks from time to time could get to 
see them and note their progress. As they advanced in years, 
the better qualified could be sent on to Carlisle and Hampton, 
and places of that grade. The training of the Indian boy or 
girl should be largely industrial, but as much as possible in the 
line of previous acquirement and future application. Thus, the 
Navajos, who have made such advances as weavers and knitters, 
might well be instructed in that line of progress, as might the 
Zunis, Moquis, and other Pueblos. 

After the Indian had returned to his reservation, it was the 
duty of the Government to provide him with work in his trade, 
whatever it might be, to the exclusion of the agency hanger-on. 
"Why should boys be trained as carpenters and painters, and then 
see such work done by white men at the agency, while they were 
forced to remain idle ? This complaint was made by one of the 
boys at San Carlos. "Why should Apache, Sioux, or Cheyenne 
children who have exerted themselves to learn our language, 
be left unemployed, while the work of interpretation is done, and 
never done any too well, at the agencies by white men ? Does it 
not seem a matter of justice and common sense to fill all such 
positions, as fast as the same can be done without injustice to 
faithful incumbents under the present system, by young men 
trained in our ideas and affiliated to our ways ? Let all watchmen 


and guardians of public stores all the policemen on the reserves 
be natives ; let all hauling of supplies be done by the Indians 
themselves, and let them be paid the full contract rate if they 
are able to haul no more than a portion of the supplies intended 
for their use. 

Some of these ideas have already been adopted, in part, by the 
Indian Bureau, and with such success that there is more than 
a reasonable expectancy that the full series might be considered 
and adopted with the best results. Instruct the young women 
in the rudiments of housekeeping, as already outlined. Provide 
the reservations with saw-mills and grist-mills, and let the Indi- 
ans saw their own planks and grind their own meal and flour. 
This plan has been urged by the Apaches so persistently during 
recent years that it would seem not unreasonable to make the 
experiment on some of the reservations. Encourage them to 
raise chickens and to sell eggs ; it is an industry for which they 
are well fitted, and the profits though small would still be profits, 
and one drop more in the rivulet of gain to wean them from 
idleness, ignorance, and the war-path. Let any man who desires 
to leave his reservation and hunt for work, do so ; give him a 
pass ; if he abuses the privilege by getting drunk or begging, do 
not give him another. I have known many Indians who have 
worked away from their own people and always with the most 
decided benefit. They did not always return, but when they 
did they did not believe in the prophecies of the " Medicine 
Men," or listen to the boasts of those who still long for the war- 

The notion that the American Indian will not work is a falla- 
cious one ; he will work just as the white man will when it is 
to his advantage to do so. The adobes in the military post of 
Fort Wingate, New Mexico, were all made by JSTavajo Indians, 
the brothers of the Apaches. The same tribe did no small 
amount of work on the grading of the Atlantic and Pacific Rail- 
road where it passes across their country. The American Indian 
is a slave to drink where he can get it, and he is rarely without a 
supply from white sources ; he is a slave to the passion of gaming ; 
and he is a slave to his superstitions, which make the "Medi- 
cine Men " the power they are in tribal affairs as well as in those 
relating more strictly to the clan and family. These are the three 
stumbling-blocks in the pathway of the Indian's advancement ; 


how to remove them is a most serious problem. The Indian is 
not the only one in our country who stumbles from the same 
cause ; we must learn to be patient with him, but merciless 
toward all malefactors caught selling intoxicating liquors to red 
men living in the tribal relation. Gambling and superstition 
will be eradicated in time by the same modifying influences 
which have wrought changes among the Caucasian nations ; 
education will afford additional modes of killing time, and be 
the means of exposing the puerility of the pretensions of the 



rthe fall and winter of 1874, General Crook made a final 
tour of examination of his department and the Indian tribes 
therein. He found a most satisfactory condition of affairs on 
the Apache reservation, with the Indians working and in the 
best of spirits. On this trip he included the villages of the 
Moquis living in houses of rock on perpendicular mesas of sand- 
stone, surrounded by dunes or "medanos" of sand, on the 
northern side of the Colorado Chiquito. The Apaches who had 
come in from the war-path had admitted that a gr'eat part of 
the arms and ammunition coming into their hands had been 
obtained in trade with the Moquis, who in turn had purchased 
from the Mormons or Utes. Crook passed some eight or ten 
days among the Moquis during the season when the peaches 
were lusciously ripe and being gathered by the squaws and chil- 
dren. These peach orchards, with their flocks of sheep and 
goats, are evidences of the earnest work among these Moquis 
of the Franciscan friars during the last years of the sixteenth 
and the earlier ones of the seventeenth centuries. Crook let 
the Moquis know that he did not intend to punish them for 
what might have been the fault of their ignorance, but he 
wished to impress upon them that in future they must in no 
manner aid or abet tribes in hostility to the Government of the 
United States. This advice the chiefs accepted in very good 


part, and I do not believe that they have since been guilty of any 
misdemeanor of the same nature. 

Of this trip among the Moquis, and of the Moquis themselves, 
volumes might be "written. There is no tribe of aborigines on 
the face of the earth, there is no region in the world, better de- 
serving of examination and description than the Moquis and the 
country they inhabit. It is unaccountable to me that so many 
of our own countrymen seem desirous of taking a flying trip to 
Europe when at their feet, as it were, lies a land as full of won- 
ders as any depicted in the fairy tales of childhood. Here, at 
the village of Hualpi, on the middle mesa, is where I saw the 
repulsive rite of the Snake Dance, in which the chief "Medicine 
Men" prance about among women and children, holding live 
and venomous rattlesnakes in their mouths. Here, one sees the 
"Painted Desert," with its fantastic coloring of all varieties of 
marls and ochreous earths, equalling the tints so lavishly scat- 
tered about in the Cation of the Yellowstone. Here, one begins 
his journey through the petrified forests, wherein are to be seen 
the trunks of giant trees, over one hundred feet long, turned 
into precious jasper, carnelian, and banded agate. Here, one is 
within stone's throw of the Grand Gallon of the Colorado and 
the equally deep lateral canons of the Cataract and the Colorado 
Chiquito, on whose edge he may stand in perfect security and 
gaze upon the rushing torrent of the mighty Colorado, over a 
mile beneath. Here is the great Cohonino Forest, through 
which one may ride for five days without finding a drop of 
water except during the rainy season. Truly, it is a wonder- 
land, and in the Grand Cation one can think of nothing but the 
Abomination of Desolation. 

There is a trail descending the Cataract Cation so narrow and 
dangerous that pack trains rarely get to the bottom without 
accidents. When I went down there with General Crook, we 
could hear the tinkling of the pack-train bell far up in the 
cliffs above us, while the mules looked like mice, then like 
rats, then like jack-rabbits, and finally like dogs in size. One 
of our mules was pushed off the trail by another mule crowd- 
ing up against it, and was hurled over the precipice and dashed 
into a pulp on the rocks a thousand feet below. There is 
no place in the world at present so accessible, and at the same 
time so full of the most romantic interest, as are the territories 


of Arizona and New Mexico : the railroad companies have been 
derelict in presenting their attractions to the travelling public, 
else I am sure that numbers of tourists would long since have 
made explorations and written narratives of the wonders to be 

General Crook did not limit his attentions to the improvement 
of the Indians alone. There was a wide field of usefulness open 
to him in other directions, and he occupied it and made it his 
own. He broke up every one of the old sickly posts, which had 
, been hotbeds of fever and pestilence, and transferred the garri- 
sons to elevated situations like Camp Grant, whose beautiful 
situation has been alluded to in a previous chapter. He con- 
nected every post in the department with every other post by 
first-class roads over which wagons and ambulances of all kinds 
could journey without being dashed to pieces. In several cases, 
roads were already in existence, but he devoted so much care to 
reducing the length and to perfecting the carriage-way that they 
became entirely new pathways, as in the case of the new road 
between Camps Whipple and Verde. The quarters occupied by 
officers and men were made habitable by repairs or replaced by 
new and convenient houses. The best possible attention was 
given to the important matter of providing good, pure, cool 
water at every camp. The military telegraph line was built from 
San Diego, California, to Fort Yuma, California, thence to 
Maricopa Wells, Arizona, where it bifurcated, one line going on 
to Prescott and Port Whipple, the other continuing eastward to 
Tucson, and thence to San Carlos and Camp Apache, or rather to 
the crossing of the Gila River, fifteen miles from San Carlos. 

Eor this work, the most important ever undertaken in Arizona 
np to that time, Congress appropriated something like the sum 
of fifty-seven thousand dollars, upon motion of Hon. Richard C. 
McCormick, then Delegate ; the work of construction was super- 
intended by General James J. Dana, Chief Quartermaster of the 
Department of Arizona, who managed the matter with such care 
and economy that the cost was some ten or eleven thousand dol- 
lars less than the appropriation. The citizens of Arizona living 
nearest the line supplied all the poles required at the lowest 
possible charge. When it is understood that the total length of 
wire stretched was over seven hundred miles, the price paid (less 
than forty-seven thousand dollars) will show that there was very 


little room for excessive profit for anybody in a country where 
all transportation was by wagon or on the backs of mules across 
burning deserts and over lofty mountains. The great task of 
building this line was carried out successfully by Major George 
F. Price, Fifth Cavalry, since dead, and by Lieutenant John F. 
Trout, Twenty-third Infantry. 

One of the first messages transmitted over the wire from Pres- 
cott to Camp Apache was sent by an Apache Indian, to apprise 
his family that he and the rest of the detachment with him would 
reach home on a certain day. To use a Hibernicism, the wire to 
Apache did not go to Apache, but stopped at Grant, at the time 
of which I am writing. General Crook sent a message to the 
commanding officer at Camp Grant, directing him to nse every 
endeavor to have the message sent by the Apache reach its des- 
tination, carrying it with the official dispatches forwarded by 
courier to Camp Apache. The family and friends of the scout 
were surprised and bewildered at receiving a communication sent 
over the white man's talking wire (Pesh-bi-yalti), of which they 
had lately been hearing so much ; but on the day appointed they 
all put on their thickest coats of face paint, and donned their best 
bibs and tuckers, and sallied out on foot and horseback to meet 
the incoming party, who were soon descried descending the flank 
of an adjacent steep mountain. That was a great day for Arizona ; 
it impressed upon the minds of the savages the fact that the 
white man's arts w,ere superior to those which their own " Medi- 
cine Men" pretended to possess, and made them see that it would 
be a good thing for their own interests to remain our friends. 

The Apaches made frequent use of the wire. A most amusing 
thing occurred at Crook's headquarters, when the Apache chief 
(( Pitone," who had just come up from a mission of peace to 
the Yumas, on the Colorado, and who had a grievance against 
" Pascual," the chief of the latter tribe, had the operator, Mr. 
Strauchon, inform "Pascual" that if he did not do a certain 
thing which he had promised to do, the Apaches would go on the 
war-path, and fairly wipe the ground with the Yumas. There 
couldn't have been a quainter antithesis of the elements of sav- 
agery and enlightenment than the presence of that chief in the 
telegraph office on such a mission. The Apaches learned after a, 
while how to stop the communication by telegraph, which they 
did very adroitly by pulling down the wire, cutting it in two, and 


tying the ends together with a rubber band, completely breaking 
the circuit. The linemen would have to keep their eyes open to 
detect just where such breaks existed. 

General Crook held that it was the height of folly for the troops 
of the United States to attempt to carry on an offensive campaign 
against an enemy whose habits and usages were a mystery to them, 
and whose territory was a sealed book. Therefore, he directed 
that each scouting party should map out its own trail, and send 
the result on to the headquarters, to be incorporated in the gen- 
eral map of the territory which was to be made by the engineer 
officers in San Francisco. Arizona was previously unknown, and 
much of its area had never been mapped. He encouraged his 
officers by every means in his power to acquire a knowledge of 
the rites and ceremonies, the ideas and feelings, of the Indians 
under their charge ; he believed, as did the late General P. H. 
Sheridan, that the greater part of our troubles with the aborigi- 
nes arose from our ignorance of their character and wants, their 
aspirations, doubts, and fears. It was much easier and very much 
cheaper to stifle and prevent an outbreak than it was to suppress 
one which had gained complete headway. These opinions would 
not be worthy of note had not Crook and his friend and superior, 
Sheridan, been officers of the American army ; the English in 
Canada, in New Zealand, in Australia, in India have found out 
the truth of this statement ; the French have been led to perceive 
it in their relations with the nomadic tribes of Algeria ; and the 
Spaniards, to a less extent perhaps, have practised the same thing 
in America. But to Americans generally, the aborigine is a 
nonentity except when lie is upon the war-path. The moment he 
concludes to live at peace with the whites, that moment all his 
troubles begin. Never was there a truer remark than that made 
by Crook : " The American Indian commands respect for his 
rights only so long as he inspires terror for his rifle." Finally 
Crook was anxious to obtain for Arizona, and set out in the 
different military posts, such fruits and vines as might be best 
adapted to the climate. This project was never carried out, 
as the orders transferring the General to another department 
arrived, and prevented, but it is worth while to know that sev- 
eral of the springs in northern Arizona were planted with water- 
cress by Mrs. Crook, the General's wife, who had followed him 
to Arizona, and remained there until his transfer to another field. 


Only two clouds, neither bigger than a man's hand, bat each 
fraught with mischief to the territory and the whole country, 
appeared above Arizona's horizon the Indian ring and the 
Chiricahuas. The Indian ring was getting in its work, and had 
already been remarkably successful in some of its manipula- 
tions of contracts. The Indian Agent, Dr. Williams, in charge 
of the Apache- Yumas and Apache-Mo jayes, had refused to re- 
ceive certain sugar on account of the presence of great boulders in 
each sack. Peremptory orders for the immediate receipt of the 
sugar were received in due time from Washington. Williams 
placed one of these immense lumps of stone on a table in his 
office, labelled " Sample of sugar received at this agency under 

contract of ." Williams was a very honest, high-minded 

gentleman, and deserved something better than to be hounded 
into an insane asylum, which fate he suffered. I will concede, to 
save argument, that an official who really desires to treat Indians 
fairly and honestly must be out of his head, but this form of 
lunacy is harmless, and does not call for such rigorous measures. 

The case of the Chiricahua Apaches was a peculiar one : they 
had been specially exempted from General Crook's jurisdiction, 
and in his pfians for the reduction of the other bands in hostility 
they had not been considered. General 0. 0. Howard had gone 
out on a special mission to see the great chief e( Oocheis," and, 
at great personal discomfort and no little personal risk, had 
effected his purpose. They were congregated at the " Strong- 
hold/' in the Dragoon Mountains, at the same spot where they had 
had a fight with Gerald Eussell a few months previously. Their 
chief, " Cocheis/' was no doubt sincere in his determination to 
leave the war-path for good, and to eat the bread of peace. 
Such, at least, was the opinion I formed when I went in to see 
him, as a member of Major Brown's party, in the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1873. 

" Oocheis " was a tall, stately, finely built Indian, who seemed 
to be rather past middle life, but still full of power and vigor, 
both physical and mental. He received us urbanely, and showed 
us every attention possible. I remember, and it shows what a 
deep impression trivial circumstances will sometimes make, that 
his right hand was badly burned in two circular holes, and that 
he explained to me that they had been made by his younger wife, 
who was jealous of the older and had bitten him, and that the 


wounds had been burned out with a kind of " moxa " with which 
the savages of this continent are familiar. Trouble arose on 
account of this treaty from a combination of causes of no conse- 
quence when taken singly, but of great importance in the aggre- 
gate. The separation of the tribe into two sections., and giving 
one kind of treatment to one and another to another, had a very 
bad effect : some of the Chiricahuas called their brethren at the 
San Carlos " squaws/^ because they had to work ; on their side, 
a great many of the Apaches at the San Carlos and Camp Apache, 
feeling that the Chiricahuas deserved a whipping fully as much 
as they did, were extremely rancorous towards them, and never 
tired of inventing stories to the disparagement of their rivals or 
an exaggeration of what was truth. There were no troops sta- 
tioned on the Chiricahua reservation to keep the unruly young 
bucks in order, or protect the honest and well-meaning savages 
from the rapacity of the white vultures who flocked around them, 
selling vile whiskey in open day. All the troubles of the Chirica- 
huas can be traced to this sale of intoxicating fluids to them by 
worthless white men. 

Complaints came up without cease from the people of Sonora, 
of raids alleged to have been made upon their exposed hamlets 
nearest the Sierra Madre ; Governor Pesquiera and General Crook 
were in correspondence upon this subject, but nothing could be 
done by the latter because the Chiricahuas were not under liis 
jurisdiction. How much of this raiding was fairly attributable 
to the Chiricahuas who had come in upon the reservation assigned 
them in the Dragoon Mountains, and how much was chargeable 
to the account of small parties which still clung to the old fast- 
nesses in the main range of the Sierra Madre will never be 
known ; but the fact that the Chiricahuas were not under mili- 
tary surveillance while all the other bands were, gave point to 
the insinuations and emphasis to the stories circulated to their 

Shortly after the Apaches had been put upon the various reser- 
vations assigned them, it occurred to the people of Tucson that 
they were spending a great deal of money for the trials, re-trials, 
and maintenance of murderers who killed whom they pleased, 
passed their days pleasantly enough in jail, were defended by 
shrewd " Jack lawyers," as they were called, and under one pre- 


text or another escaped scot free. There had never been a judi- 
cial execution in the territory, and, under the technicalities of 
law, there did not appear much chance of any being recorded for 
at least a generation. It needed no argument to make plain to the 
dullest comprehension that that sort of thing would do good to no 
one ; that it would end in perpetuating a bad name for the town ; 
and destroy all hope of its becoming prosperous and populous 
with the advent of the railroads of which mention was now fre- 
quently made. The more the matter was talked over, the more 
did it seem that something must be done to free Tucson from the 
stigma of being the refuge of murderers of every degree. 

One of the best citizens of the place, a Mexican gentleman 
named Fernandez, I think, who kept a monte pio, or pawn- 
broker's shop, in the centre of the town not a block from the 
post-office, was found dead in his bed one morning, and along- 
side of him his wife and baby, all three with skulls crushed by 
the blow of bludgeons or some heavy instrument. All persons 
Mexicans and Americans joined in the hunt for the assassins, 
who were at last run to the ground, and proved to be three Mex- 
icans, members of a gang of bandits who had terrorized the 
northern portions of Sonora for many years. They were tracked 
by a most curious chain of circumstances, the clue being given 
by a very intelligent Mexican, and after being run down one of 
their number confessed the whole affair, and showed where the 
stolen jewellery had been buried under a mesquite bush, in plain 
sight of, and close to, the house of the Governor. I have already 
written a description of this incident, and do not care to repro- 
duce it here, on account of lack of space, but may say that the 
determination to lynch them was at once formed and carried into 
effect, under the superintendence of the most prominent citizens, 
on the " Plaza " in front of the cathedral. There was another 
murderer confined in the jail for killing a Mexican " to see him 
wriggle." This wretch, an American tramp, was led out to his 
death along with the others, and in less than ten minutes four 
human forms were writhing on the hastily constructed gallows. 
Whatever censure might be levelled against this high-handed 
proceeding on the score of illegality was rebutted by the citizens 
on the ground of necessity and the evident improvement of the 
public morals which followed, apparently as a sequence of these 
drastic methods. 


Greater authority was conferred upon the worthy Teutonic 
apothecary who had been acting as probate judge, or rather much 
of the authority which he had been exercising was confirmed, 
and the day of evil-doers began to be a hard and dismal one. 
The old judge was ordinarily a pharmacist, and did not pretend 
to know anything of law, but his character for probity and hon- 
esty was so well established that the people, who were tired of 
lawyers, voted to put in place a man who would deal out justice, 
regardless of personal consequences. The blind goddess had no 
worthier representative than this frontier Hippocrates, in whose 
august presence the most hardened delinquents trembled. Black- 
stone and Coke and Littleton and Kent were not often quoted in 
the dingy halls of justice where the " Jedge" sat, flanked and 
backed by shelves of bottles bearing the cabalistic legends, " Syr. 
Zarzse Oomp./' "Tine. Op. Camphor/' "Syr. Sirnpl./'and others 
equally inspiring, and faced by the small row of books, frequently 
consulted in the knottier and more important cases, which bore 
the titles " Materia Medica," " Household Medicine," and others 
of the same tenor. Testimony was never required unless it would 
serve to convict, and then only a small quantity was needed, be- 
cause the man who entered within the portals of this abode of 
Esculapius and of Justice left all hope behind. Every criminal 
arraigned before this tribunal was already convicted ; there re- 
mained only the formality of passing sentence, and of determining 
just how many weeks to affix as the punishment in the " shane 
gang/ 5 An adjustment of his spectacles, an examination of the 
" Materia Medica/' and the Judge was ready for business. Point- 
ing his long finger at the criminal, he would thunder : " Tu eres 
vagabundo " (thou art a tramp), and then proceed to sentence the 
delinquent on his face to the chain-gang for one week, or two, or 
three, as the conditions of his physiognomy demanded. 

" Jedge, isn't thet a r-a-a-ther tough dose to give t' a poor 
fellow what knowed your grandfadder ? " asked one American 
prisoner who had received an especially gratifying assurance of 
the Judge's opinion of his moral turpitude. 

" Ha ! you knowed my grand faddy ; vere abonts, mine frient, 
you know him ? " queried the legal functionary. 

" Wa'al, Jedge, it's jest like this. Th* las' time I seed the ole 
gent was on th* Isthmus o' Panama ; he war a-swingm' by his tail 
from th' limbs of a cocoanut tree, a-gatherin' o' cocoanuts, 'n " 


" Dare ; dat vill do, mine frient, dat vill do. I gifs you an- 
odder two viks mit der shane-gang fur gontembt oy goort ; how 
you like dat ? " 

Many sly jokes were cracked at the old judge's expense, and 
many side-splitting stories narrated of his eccentricities and curi- 
ous legal interpretations ; but it was noticed that the supply of 
tramps was steadily diminishing, and the town improying in 
every essential. If the Judge ever made a mistake on the side of 
mercy I never happened to hear of it, although I do not attempt to 
say that he may not, at some time in his legal career, have shown 
tenderness unrecorded. He certainly did heroic work for the 
advancement of the best interests of Tucson and a good part of 
southern Arizona. 

The orders of the War Department transferring General Crook 
to the command of the Department of the Platte arrived in the 
middle of March, and by the 25th of that month, 1875, he, with 
his personal staff, had started for the new post of duty. A ban- 
quet and reception were tendered by the citizens of Prescott and 
northern Arizona, which were attended by the best people of that 
section. The names of the Butlers, Bashfords, Marions, Heads, 
Brooks, Marks, Bowers, Buffums, Hendersons, Bigelows, Eich- 
ards, and others having charge of the ceremonies, showed how 
thoroughly Americanized that part of Arizona had become. 
Hundreds walked or rode oat to the " Burnt Eanch " to say the 
last farewell, or listen to the few heartfelt words of kindness 
with which General Kautz, the new commander, wished Crook 
godspeed and good luck in his new field of labor. Crook bade 
farewell to the people for whom he had done so much, and whom 
he always held so warmly in his heart ; he looked for the last 
time, it might be, upon the snowy peak of the San Francisco, 
and then headed westward, leaving behind him the Wonderland 
of the Southwest, with its fathomless caflons, its dfzzy crags, its 
snow-mantled sierras, its vast deserts, its blooming oases its 
vast array of all the contradictions possible in topography. The 
self -lacerating Mexican penitente, and the self -asserting American 
prospector, were to fade from the sight, perhaps from the memory ; 
but the acts of kindness received and exchanged between man 
and man of whatever rank and whatever condition of life were to 
last until memory itself should depart. 

The journey from Whipple or Prescott to Los Angeles was in 


those days over five hundred miles in length, and took at least 
eleven days under the most favorable conditions ; it obliged one 
to pass through the territory of the Hualpais and the Mojaves, 
to cross the Colorado River at the fort of the same name, and 
drive across the extreme southern point of Nevada, and then into 
California in the country of the Chimahuevis ; to drag along 
over the weary expanse of the "Soda Lake/' where for seven 
miles the wheels of the wagons cut their way into the purest 
baking soda, and the eyes grew weak with gazing out upon a 
snowy area of dazzling whiteness, the extreme end of the cele- 
brated "Death Valley." After reaching San Bernardino, the 
aspect changed completely : the country became a fairyland, 
filled with grapes and figs and oranges, merry with the music of 
birds, bright with the bloom of flowers. Lowing herds and buz- 
zing bees attested that this was indeed a land of milk and honey, 
beautiful to the eye, gladsome to every sense. The railroad had 
not yet reached Los Angeles, so that to get to San Francisco, 
travellers who did not care to wait for the weekly steamer were 
obliged to secure seats in the " Telegraph " stage line. This 
ran to Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley, the then terminus 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad, and through some of the coun- 
try where the Franciscans had wrought such wonderful results 
among the savages whom they had induced to live in the 
"Missions." In due course of time Crook arrived at Omaha, 
Nebraska, his new headquarters, where the citizens tendered him 
a banquet and reception, as had those of the California metropo- 
lis Sau Francisco. 







THE new command stretched from the Missouri River to the 
western shores of the Great Salt Lake, and included the 
growing State of Nebraska and the promising territories of 
Wyoming, Utah, and part of Idaho. The Indian tribes with 
which more or less trouble was to be expected were : the Bannocks 
and Shoshones, in Idaho and western Wyoming; the TJtes, in 
Utah and western Wyoming ; the Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapa- 
hoes, in Dakota and Nebraska ; the Otoes, Poncas, Omahas, Win- 
nebagoes, and Pawnees, in various sections of Nebraska. The 
last five bands were perfectly peaceful, and the only trouble they 
would occasion would be on account of the raids made upon, 
them by the hostiles and their counter-raids to steal ponies. 
The Pawnees had formerly been the active and daring foe of the 
white men, but were now disposed to go out, whenever needed, 
to attack the Sioux or Dakotas. The Utes, Bannocks, and Sho- 
shones claimed to be friendly, as did the Arapahoes, but the 
hostile feelings of the Oheyennes and Sioux were scarcely con- 
cealed, and on several occasions manifested in no equivocal man- 
ner. The Utes, Bannocks, and Shoshones were fe mountain" 
Indians, but were well supplied with stock ; they often made 
incursions into the territory of the "plains" tribes, their ene- 
mies, of whom the most powerful were the Sioux and Cheyennes, 
whose numbers ran into the thousands. 

There was much smouldering discontent among the Sioux and 
Cheyennes, based upon our failure to observe the stipulations of 
the treaty made in 1867, which guaranteed to them an immense 


strip of country, extending, either as a reservation or a hunting 
ground, clear to the Big Horn Mountains. By that treaty they 
had been promised one school for every thirty children, but no 
schools had yet been established under it. Eeports of the fabu- 
lous richness of the gold mines in the Black Hills had excited 
the cupidity of the whites and the distrust of the red men. The 
latter knew only too well, that the moment any mineral should be 
found, no matter of what character, their reservation would be cut 
down ; and they were resolved to prevent this, unless a most liberal 
price should be paid for the property. Th$ Sioux had insisted 
upon the abandonment of the chain of posts situated along the 
line of the Big Horn, and had carried their point ; but, in 1874, 
after the murder of Lieutenant Robertson, or Eobinson, of the 
Fourteenth Infantry, while in charge of a wood-chopping party 
on Laramie Peak, and their subsequent refusal to let their agent 
fly the American flag over the agency, General John E. Smith, 
Fourteenth Infantry, at the head of a strong force, marched over 
to the White Earth country and established what have since been 
designated as Camps Sheridan and Robinson at the agencies of 
the great chiefs "Spotted Tail" and "Red Cloud " respectively. 
In 1874, General Ouster made an examination of the Black Hills, 
and reported finding gold " from the grass roots down/ 7 In the 
winter of that year a large party of miners, without waiting for 
the consent of the Indians to be obtained, settled on the waters of 
Frenchman, or French, Creek, built a stockade, and began to work 
with rockers* These miners were driven about from point to 
point by detachments of troops, but succeeded in maintaining a 
foothold until the next year. One of the commands sent to look 
them up and drive them out was the company of the Third Cavalry 
commanded by Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Guy V. Henry, which 
was caught in a blizzard and nearly destroyed. In the early 
months of 1875, a large expedition, well equipped, was sent to 
explore and map the Black Hills and the adjacent country. The 
main object was the determination of the auriferous character of 
the ledges and the value of the country as a mining district ; the 
duty of examination into these features devolved upon the geolo- 
gists and engineers sent out by the Department of the Interior, 
namely, Messrs. Janney, McGillicuddy, Newton, Brown, and Tut- 
tie. The military escort, consisting of six full companies of the 
Second and Third Cavalry, two pieces of artillery, and several 


companies of the Ninth and Fourteenth Infantry to guard supply 
trains, was employed in furnishing the requisite protection to the 
geologists, and in obtaining such additional information in re- 
gard to the topography of the country, the best lines for wagon 
roads, and sites for such posts as might be necessary in the future. 
This was under the command of Colonel E. I. Dodge, of the 
Twenty-third Infantry, and made a very complete search over 
the whole of the hills, mapping the streams and the trend of the 
ranges, and opening up one of the most picturesque regions on 
the face of the globe. 

It was never a matter of surprise to me that the Cheyennes, 
whose corn-fields were once upon the Belle Fourche, the stream 
which runs around the hills on the north side, should have become 
frenzied by the report that these lovely valleys were to be taken 
from them whether they would or no. In the summer of 1876 
the Government sent a commission, of which Senator William B. 
Allison, of Iowa, was chairman, and the late Major-General 
Alfred H. Terry, a member, to negotiate with the Sioux for the 
cession of the Black Hills, but neither Sioux nor Cheyennes were 
in the humor to negotiate. There appeared to be a very large 
element among the Indians which would sooner have war than 
peace ; all sorts of failures to observe previous agreements were 
brought up, and the advocates of peace were outnumbered. One 
day it looked very much as if a general melee was about to be 
precipitated. The hostile element, led by " Little Big Man/' 
shrieked for war, and ef Little Big Man " himself was haranguing 
his followers that that was as good a moment as any to begin 
shooting. The courage and coolness of two excellent officers, 
Egan and Crawford, the former of the Second, the latter of the 
Third Cavalry, kept the savages from getting too near the Com- 
missioners : their commands formed line, and with carbines at 
an " advance " remained perfectly motionless, ready to charge 
in upon the Indians should the latter begin an attack. Egan has 
often told me that he was apprehensive lest the accidental dis- 
charge of a carbine or a rifle on one side or the other should 
precipitate a conflict in which much blood would surely be shed. 
Egan has been many years dead worn out in service and poor 
Crawford was killed by Mexican irregular troops at the moment 
that he had surprised and destroyed the village of the Chiricahua 
Apache chief "Geronimo/ 5 in the depths of the Sierra Madre, 


Mexico. Much of our trouble with these tribes could have been 
averted^ had we shown what would appear to them as a spirit 
of justice and fair dealing in this negotiation. It is hard to make 
the average savage comprehend why it is that as soon as his 
reservation is found to amount to anything he must leave and 
give up to the white man. Why should not Indians be per- 
mitted to hold mining or any other kind of land ? The whites 
could mine on shares or on a royalty, and the Indians would soon 
become workers in the bowels of the earth. The right to own 
and work mines was conceded to the Indians by the Crown of 
Spain, and the result was beneficial to both races. In 1551, the 
Spanish Crown directed that "Nadie los impidiese que pudiesem 
tomar minas de Oro, i Plata i beneficiarlas como hacian los Cas- 
tellanos." Herrera, Decade, VIII. , lib. 8, cap. 12, p. 159. The 
policy of the American people has been to vagabondize the 
Indian, and throttle every ambition he may have for his own 
elevation; and we need not hug the delusion that the savage 
has been any too anxious for work, unless stimulated, encour- 
aged, and made to see that it meant his immediate benefit and 

During the closing hours of the year 1875 the miners kept 
going into the Black Hills, and the Indians kept annoying 
all wagon-trains and small parties found on the roads. There 
were some killed and others wounded and a number of wagons 
destroyed, but hostilities did not reach a dangerous state, and 
were confined almost entirely to the country claimed by fche In- 
dians as their own. It was evident, however, to the most obtuse 
that a very serious state of affairs would develop with the com- 
ing of grass in the spring. The Indians were buying all the 
arms, ammunition, knives, and other munitions of war from the 
traders and every one else who would sell to them. On our side 
the posts were filled with supplies, garrisons changed to admit 
of the concentration of the largest possible numbers on most 
threatened localities, and the efficient pack-trains which had 
rendered so valuable a service during the campaign in Arizona 
were brought up from the south and congregated at Cheyenne, 
Wyoming. The policy of the Government must have seemed to 
the Indians extremely vacillating. During the summer of 1876 
instructions of a positive character were sent to General Crook, 
directing the expulsion from the Black Hills of all unauthorized 


persons there assembled. General Crook went across country 
to the stockade erected on French Creek, Dakota, and there had 
an interview with the miners, who promised to leave the country, 
first having properly recorded their claims, and await the action 
of Congress in regard to the opening of that region to settle- 
ment. As winter approached another tone was assumed in our 
dealings with the Sioux and Cheyennes : word was sent to the 
different bands living at a distance from the agencies that they 
must come in to be enrolled or inspected ; some obeyed the sum- 
mons, some quietly disregarded it, and one band a small one, 
under "Sitting Bull" flatly refused compliance. The Indians 
did not seem to understand that any one had a right to control 
their movements so long as they remained within the metes and 
bounds assigned them by treaty. 

Neither " Crazy Horse" nor "Sitting Bull" paid any atten- 
tion to the summons; and when early in the summer (1875) 
a message reached them, directing them to come in to Red 
Cloud Agency to confer with the Black Hills Commission, 
this is the reply which Louis Richaud, the half-breed mes- 
senger, received: "Are you the Great God that made me, or 
was it the Great God that made me who sent you ? If He 
asks me to come see him, I will go,, but the Big Chief of the 
white men must come see me. I will not go to the reserva- 
tion. I have no land to sell. There is plenty of game here for 
us. We have enough ammunition. We don't want any white 
men here." "Sitting Bull" delivered the above in his haughti- 
est manner, but "Crazy Horse" had nothing to say. "Crazy 
Horse" was the general, the fighter; "Sitting Bull" was a 
" Medicine Man" and a fine talker, and rarely let pass an oppor- 
tunity for saying something. He was, in that one respect, 
very much like old " Shunca luta," at Red Cloud, who was 
always on his feet in council or conference. 

Upon the recommendation of Inspector Watkins of the In- 
dian Bureau, made in the winter of 1875, the War Department 
was instructed to take in hand the small band of five hundred 
Sioux supposed to be lurking in the country bounded by the Big 
Horn Mountains, the Tongue and the Yellowstone rivers. The 
inspector expressed the opinion that a regiment of cavalry was 
all that was needed to make a quick winter campaign and strike 
a heavy and decisive blow. This opinion was not, however, 


borne out by the facts. The number of Indians out in that 
country was absolutely unknown to our people, and all guesses as 
to their strength were wildly conjectural. The country in which 
the coming operations were to be carried on was as different 
as different could be from the rugged ranges, the broken mesas, 
and the arid deserts of Arizona. Topographically, it might be 
styled a great undulating plain, rolling like the waves of ocean 
a sea of grass, over which still roamed great herds of buffalo, 
and antelope by the hundred. It is far better watered than 
either New Mexico or Arizona, and has a vegetation of an entirely 
different type. There is considerable cactus of the plate variety 
in certain places, but the general rule is that the face of nature 
is covered with bunch and buffalo grass, with a straggling growth 
of timber along the water courses cottonwood, ash, willow, and 
now and then a little oak. On the summits of the buttes there 
is pine timber in some quantity, and upon the higher elevations 
of the ranges like the Big Horn the pine, fir, and other conifers 
grow very dense ; but at the height of eleven thousand feet all 
timber ceases and the peaks project perfectly bald and tower up- 
wards toward the sky, enveloped in clouds and nearly all the 
year round wrapped in snow. Coal is to be found in wonderful 
abundance and of excellent quality, and it is now asserted that 
the State of Wyoming is better supplied with carbon than is the 
State of Pennsylvania. Coal oil is also found in the Battle- 
snake basin, but has not yet been made commercially profitable. 
Montana, situated to the north of Wyoming, is perhaps a trifle 
colder in winter, but both are cold enough ; although, strange to 
say, few if any of the settlers suffer from the effects of the severe 
reduction of temperature at least few of those whose business 
does not compel them to face the blizzards. Stage-drivers, stock- 
men, settlers living on isolated ranches, were the principal suf- 
ferers. Both Wyoming and Montana were fortunate in securing 
a fine class of population at the outset, men and women who 
would stand by the new country until after all the scapegraces, 
scoundrels, and cutthroats who had flocked in with the advent of 
the railroads had died off, most of them with their boots on. 
The Union Pacific Railroad crossed the Territory from east to 
west, making the transportation of supplies a matter of compara- 
tive ease, and keeping the various posts within touch of civiliza- 
tion. South of the North Platte Eiver the country was held by 


the troops of the United States, and was pretty well understood 
and fairly well mapped ; north of that stream was a terra incog- 
nita, of which no accurate charts existed, and of which extremely 
little information could be obtained. Every half-breed at Red 
Cloud or Spotted Tail Agency who could be secured was em- 
ployed as a scout, and placed under the command of Colonel 
Thaddeus H. Stanton, of the Pay Department, who was an- 
nounced as Chief of Scouts. 

The Sioux and Cheyennes whom we were soon to face were 
" horse " Indians, who marched and fought on horseback ; they 
kept together in large bodies, and attacked by charging and at- 
tempting to stampede the herds of the troops. They were well 
armed with the newest patterns of magazine arms, and were re- 
ported to be possessed of an abundance of metallic cartridges. 
Their formidable numbers, estimated by many authorities at as 
many as fifty thousand for the entire nation, had giyen them an 
overweening confidence in themselves and a contempt for the 
small bodies of troops that could be thrown out against them, and 
it was generally believed by those pretending to know that we 
should have all the fighting we wanted. These were the points 
upon which the pessimists most strongly insisted. The cloud 
certainly looked black enough to satisfy any one, but there was 
a silver lining to it which was not perceptible at first inspection. 
If a single one of these large villages could be surprised and de- 
stroyed in the depth of winter, the resulting loss of property 
would be so great that the enemy would suffer for years ; their 
exposure to the bitter cold of the blizzards would break down 
any spirit, no matter how brave ; their ponies would be so weak 
that they could not escape from an energetic pursuit, and the 
advantages would seem to be on the side of the troops. 

Crook took up his quarters in Cheyenne for a few days to push 
forward the preparations for the departure of the column of 
cavalry which was to compose the major part of the contemplated 
expedition. Cheyenne was then wild with excitement concern- 
ing the Indian war, which all the old frontiersmen felt was ap- 
proachiDg, and the settlement of the Black Hills, in which gold 
in unheard-of sums was alleged to be hidden. No story was too 
wild, too absurd, to be swallowed with eagerness and published 
as a fact in the papers of the town. Along the streets were 
camped long trains of wagons loading for the Black Hills ; every 


store advertised a supply of goods suited to the Black Hills' 
trade ; the hotels were crowded with men on their way to the 
new El Dorado ; even the stage-drivers, boot-blacks, and bell- 
boys could talk nothing but Black Hills Black Hills. So great 
was the demand for teams to haul goods to the Black Hills that 
it was difficult to obtain the necessary number to carry the rations 
and ammunition needed for Crook's column. Due north of 
Cheyenne, and ninety miles from it, lay old Fort Laramie, since 
abandoned ; ninety-five miles to the northwest of Laramie lay 
Fort Fetterman, the point of departure for the expedition. To 
reach Fort Laramie we had to cross several small but useful 
streamlets the Lodge Pole, Horse, and Chug which course 
down from the higher elevations and are lost in the current of 
the North Platte and Laramie rivers. 

The country was well adapted for the grazing of cattle, and 
several good ranches were already established ; at " Portuguese " 
Phillip's, at the head of the Chug, and at F. M. Phillips's, at the 
mouth of the same picturesque stream, the traveller was always 
sure of hospitable, kind treatment. The march of improvement 
has caused these ranches to disappear, and their owners, for all 
I know to the contrary, have been dead for many years, but their 
memory will be cherished by numbers of belated wayfarers, in 
the army and out of it, who were the recipients of their kind 
attentions. The road leading out of Cheyenne through Fort 
Laramie to the Black Hills was thronged with pedestrians and 
mounted men, with wagons and without all en route to the 
hills which their fancy pictured as stuffed with the precious 
metals. Not all were intent upon mining or other hard work : 
there was more than a fair contingent of gamblers and people of 
that kind, who relieved Cheyenne and Denver and Omaha of 
much uneasiness by their departure from those older cities to 
grow up with the newer settlements in the Indian Pactolus. 
There were other roads leading to the Black Hills from points on 
the Missouri Kiver, and from Sidney and North Platte, Nebraska, 
but they offered no such inducements as the one from Cheyenne, 
because it crossed the North Platte Kiver by a free Government 
bridge, constructed under the superintendence of Captain Wil- 
liam S. Stanton, of the Corps of Engineers. By taking, this route 
all dangers and delays by ferry were eliminated. 

Much might be written about old Fort Laramie. It would 


require a volume of itself to describe all that could be learned 
regarding it from the days when the hardy French traders from 
Saint Louis, under Jules La Ramie, began trading with the Sioux 
and Cheyennes and Arapahoes, until the Government of the 
United States determined to establish one of its most important 
garrisons to protect the overland travel to the gold-fields of Cali- 
fornia. Many an old and decrepit officer, now on the retired 
list, will revert in fancy to the days when he was young and 
athletic, and Fort Laramie was the centre of al] the business, and 
fashion, and gossip, and mentality of the North Platte country ; 
the cynic may say that there wasn't much, and he may be right, 
but it represented the best that there was to be had. 

Beyond Fort Laramie, separated by ninety-five miles of most 
unpromising country, lies the post of Fort Fetterman, on the 
right bank of the North Platte. Boulders of gneiss, greenstone, 
porphyry, and other rocks from the Laramie Peak lined the bot- 
toms and sides of the different dry arroyos passed on the march. 
Not all the ravines were dry ; in a few there was a good supply 
of water, and the whole distance out from Fort Laramie presented 
no serious objections on that score. In the " Twin Springs/' 
"Horse-shoe" Creek, "Cave" Springs, "Elk Horn" Creek, 
"Lake Bont6," "Wagon Hound/' " Bed-tick," and "Whiskey 
Gulch" a supply, greater or less in quantity, dependent upon sea- 
son, could generally be found. Much of the soil was a gypsif erous 
red clay ; in all the gulches and ravines were to be seen stunted 
pine and cedar. The scenery was extremely monotonous, destitute 
of herbage, except buffalo grass and sage brush. An occasional 
buffalo head, bleaching in the sun, gave a still more ghastly tone 
to the landscape. Every few minutes a prairie dog projected his 
head above the entrance of his domicile and barked at our cortege 
passing by. Among the officers and soldiers of the garrison at 
Fort Fetterman, as well as among those who were reporting for 
duty with the expedition, the topics of conversation were invari- 
ably the probable strength and position of the enemy, the ability 
of horses and men to bear the extreme cold to which they were 
sure to be subjected, and other matters of a kindred nature which 
were certain to suggest themselves. 

There, for example, was the story, accepted without question, 
that the Sioux had originally shown a very friendly spirit toward 
the Americans passing across their country to California, until 


on one occasion a man offered grievous wrong to one of the young 
squaws, and that same evening the wagon-train with which he 
was travelling was surrounded by a band of determined warriors, 
who quietly expressed a desire to have an interview with the 
criminal. The Americans gave him up, and the Sioux skinned 
him alive; hence the name of "Kaw Hide Creek, " the place 
where this incident occurred. 

Another interesting story was that of the escape of one of the 
corporals of Teddy Egan's company of the Second Cavalry 
from the hands of a party of Sioux raiders on Laramie Peak ; 
several of the corporal's comrades were killed in their blankets, 
as the attack was made in the early hours of morning, but the 
corporal sprang out in his bare feet and escaped down to the 
ranches on the La Bonte, but his feet were so filled with fine 
cactrus thorns and cut up with sharp stones that he was for 
months unable to walk. 

" Black Coal/* one of the chiefs of the Arapahoes, came in to 
see General Crook while at Fetterman, and told him that his 
tribe had information that the hostiles were encamped on the 
lower Powder, below old Fort Eeno, some one hundred and fifty 
miles from Fetterman. Telegraphic advices were received from 
Fort Laramie to the effect that three hundred lodges of northern 
Sioux had just come in at Eed Cloud Agency ; and the additional 
information that the supplies of the Indian Bureau at that agency 
were running short, and that no replenishment was possible until 
Congress should make another appropriation. 

This news was both good and bad, bitter and sweet ; we should 
have a smaller number of Sioux to drive back to the reservation ; 
but, on the other hand, if supplies were not soon provided, all 
the Indians would surely take to the Black Hills and Big Horn 
country, where an abundance of game of all kinds was still to be 
found. The mercury still remained down in the bottom of the 
bulb, and the ground was covered deep with snow. In Wyoming 
the air is so dry that a thermometer marking zero, or even ten' 
degrees below that point on the Fahrenheit scale, does not indi- 
cate any serious discomfort ; the air is bracing, and the cold win- 
ters seem to have a beneficial effect upon the general health of 
the inhabitants. We have no sturdier, healthier people in our 
country than the settlers in Wyoming and Montana, 

Winter campaigning was an entirely different matter; even 


the savages hibernated during the cold months, and sought the 
shelter of friendly cliffs and buttes, at whose feet they could pitch 
their tepees of buffalo or elk skin, and watch their ponies grazing 
upon the pasturage. The ponies of the Indians, the mares and 
foals especially, fare poorly during this season ; they have no 
protection from the keen northern blasts, but must huddle to- 
gether in ravines and " draws," or "coulees," as the French 
half-breeds call them, until the worst is over. They become very 
thin and weak, and can hardly haul the " travois " upon which, 
the family supplies must be packed. Then is assuredly the time 
to strike, provided always that the soldiers be not caught and 
frozen to death by some furious storm while on the march, or 
after being wounded. Crook wanted to have our animals kept 
in the best condition, at least in a condition somewhat better than 
that of the Indian ponies. He knew that the amount of grass to 
be depended upon would be very limited : much of the country 
would be burned over by the Indians to prepare for the new 
growth ; much would lie under deep snow, and not be accessible 
to our horses ; much would be deadened by wind and storm ; so 
that the most prudent course would be to move out from Fetter- 
man with a wagon-train loaded with grain, which could be fed in 
small quantities to supplement the pasturage that might be found, 
and would keep our mules and horses in strength and health. A 
depot would be established at some convenient point, and from 
that scouts and explorations into all sections of the surrounding 
country could be made by light, swift-moving columns. Officers 
and men were informed that so long as with the wagon-train 
they would be allowed plenty of warm bedding and a minimum 
supply of i( A" and "dog " tents, but upon starting out for any 
movement across country they would have to do without any- 
thing but the clothing upon their backs. Particular attention 
was bestowed upon this subject of clothing ; and when I say that 
the mercury frequently congeals in the bulb, and that the spirit 
thermometers at Fort Fred Steele, Wyoming, that winter regis- 
tered as low as 61 below, Fahrenheit, the necessity of precaution 
will be apparent. The most elastic interpretation was given to 
the word " uniform/' so as to permit individual taste and experi- 
ence to have full play in the selection of the garments which were 
to protect from bitter cold and fierce wind. 

Thinking that such particulars may be of interest to a portion 


of my readers, I will say a few words in regard to the clothing 
worn by different members of the expedition. For cavalry, 
great care was demanded to protect' feet, knees, wrists, and ears ; 
the foot soldier can stamp his feet or slap his hands and ears, 
but the mounted man must hold his reins and sit up straight in 
the saddle. Commencing with the feet, first a pair of close- 
fitting lamb's- wool socks was put on, then one of the same size 
as those worn by women, so as to come over the knees. Indian 
moccasins of buckskin, reaching well up the leg, were generally 
preferred to boots, being warmer and lighter ; cork soles were 
used with them, and an overboot of buffalo hide, made with the 
hairy side inward and extending up nearly the whole length of 
the leg, and opening down the side and fastened by buckles 
something after the style of the breeches worn by Mexican 
"vaqueros." These overboots were soled, heeled, and boxed 
with leather, well tanned. Some officers preferred to wear the 
leggings separate, and to use the overshoe supplied by the 
Quartermaster's Department. By this method, one could dis- 
robe more readily after reaching camp and be free to move about 
in the performance of duty while the sun might be shining ; but 
it was open to the objection that, on account of the clumsy make 
of the shoes, it was almost impossible to get into the stirrups 
with them. 

All people of experience concurred in denouncing as pernicious 
the practice of wearing tight shoes, or the use of any article of 
raiment which would induce too copious a flow of perspiration, 
the great danger being that there would be more likelihood of 
having the feet, or any other part of the body in which the circu- 
lation might be impeded, frozen during spells of intense cold ; or 
of having the same sad experience where there would be a sudden 
checking of the perspiration, which would almost certainly result 
in acute pneumonia. For underwear, individual preferences 
were consulted, the general idea being to have at least two kinds 
of material used, principally merino and perforated buckskin ; 
over these was placed a heavy blue flannel shirt, made double- 
breasted, and then a blouse, made also double-breasted, of Mis- 
sion or Minnesota blanket, with large buttons, or a coat of 
Norway kid lined with heavy flanneL When the blizzards blew 
nothing in the world would keep out the cold but an overcoat of 
buffalo or bearskin or beaver, although for many the overcoats 


made in Saint Paul of canvas, lined with the heaviest blanket, 
and strapped and belted tight about the waist, were pronounced 
sufficient. The head was protected by a cap of cloth, with fur 
border to pull down over the ears ; a fur collar enclosed the 
neck and screened the month and nose from the keen blasts ; and 
the hands were covered by woollen gloves and over-gauntlets of 
beaver or musk-rat fur. For rainy or snowy weather most of 
the command had two india-rubber ponchos sewed together, 
which covered both rider and horse. This was found very cum- 
bersome and was generally discarded, but at night it was decid- 
edly valuable for the exclusion of dampness from either ground 
or sky. Our bedding while with the wagon-trains was ample, 
and there was no complaint from either officers or men. Every- 
body adhered to the one style ; buffalo robes were conceded to 
be the most suitable covering. First, there would be spread down 
upon the ground the strip of canvas in which the blankets or 
robes were to be rolled for the march ; then the india-rubber 
ponchos spoken of; then, for those who had them, a mattress 
made of chopped cork, of a total thickness of one inch, sewed in 
transverse layers so as to admit of being rolled more compactly; 
lastly, the buffalo robes and the blankets or cotton comforters, 
according to preference. The old wise-heads provided them- 
selves with bags of buffalo robe, in which to insert the feet, and 
with small canvas cylinders, extending across the bed and not 
more than eight inches in diameter, which became a safe recep- 
tacle for extra underwear, socks, handkerchiefs, and any papers 
that it might be necessary to carry along. In all cases, where 
a man has the choice of making a winter campaign or staying at 
home, I would advise him to remember Punch's advice to those 
who were thinking of getting married. 

General Crook had had much previous experience in his 
campaign against the Pi-Utes and Snakes of Idaho and north- 
ern Nevada in 1866-7, during which time his pack-trains had 
been obliged to break their way through snow girth deep, and 
his whole command had been able to make but thirty-three 
miles in twelve days a campaign of which little has been writ- 
ten, but which deserves a glorious page in American history as 
resulting in the complete subjugation of a fierce and crafty 
tribe, and in being the means of securing safety to the miners 
of Nevada while they developed ledges which soon afterwards 


poured into the national treasury four hundred millions of dol- 
lars in dividends and wages. 

On the 1st of March, 1876, after a heavy fall of snow the pre- 
vious night, and in the face of a cold wind, but with the sun 
shining brightly down upon us, we left Fetterman for the Powder 
Kiver and Big Horn. Officers and men were in the best of spirits, 
and horses champed eagerly upon the bit as if pleased with the 
idea of a journey. "We had ten full companies of cavalry, equally 
divided between the Second and Third Regiments, and two com- 
panies of the Fourth Infantry. The troops were under the im- 
mediate command of Colonel Joseph J. Eeynolds, of the Third 
Cavalry, Brevet Major-General. His staff officers were Lieuten- 
ants Morton and Drew, both of the Third Cavalry, acting as 
adjutant and quartermaster, respectively. 

General Reynolds divided his forces into battalions of two 
companies each, one pack-train being attached to each of the 
mounted battalions, the infantry remaining with the wagons. 

These battalions were composed as follows : "M" and "E," 
Third Cavalry, under Captain Anson Mills; "A" and "D," 
Third Cavalry, under Captain William Hawley ; "I" and "K," 
Second Cavalry, under Major H. E. Noyes ; "A" and "B, J> 
Second, under Major T. B. Dewees; " F," Third Cavalry, and 
" E/' Second, under Colonel Alex. Moore, of the Third Cavalry ; 
"0" and " I/' Fourth Infantry, under Major E. M. Coates, of 
the same regiment. Assistant Surgeon C. E. Munn was medi- 
cal officer, assisted by A. A. Surgeon Ridgeley and by Hospital 
Steward Bryan. The subordinate officers in command of com- 
panies, or attached to them, were Captains Egan and Peale, of 
the Second Cavalry, and Ferris, of the Fourth Infantry Lieu- 
tenants Robinson, Rawolle, Pearson, Sibley, Hall, of the Second 
Cavalry, and Paul, J. B. Johnson, Lawson, Eobinson, and Rey- 
nolds, of the Third Cavalry ; Mason, of the Fourth Infantry. 

There were eighty-six mule-wagons loaded with forage, and 
three or four ambulances carrying as much as they safely could of 
the same. The pack-train, in five divisions of eighty mules each, 
was under the supervision of Mr. Thomas Moore, Chief of Trans- 
portation, and was assigned as follows : MacAuliffe, to the 1st 
Battalion ; Closter, to the 2d ; Foster, to the 3d ; Young, to the 
4th ; De Laney, to the 5th. 

The advance of the column was led by Colonel Thaddeus H. 


Stanton and the band of half-breed scouts recruited at the Red 
Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies. General Crook marched with 
these nearly all the time, and I was so much interested in learn- 
ing all that was possible about the northwest country, and the 
Indians and the half-breeds inhabiting it, that I devoted all the 
time I could to conversing with them. Frank Gruard, a native 
of the Sandwich Islands, was for some years a mail-rider in 
northern Montana, and was there captured by the forces of 
" Crazy Horse " ; his dark skin and general appearance gave his 
captors the impression that Prank was a native Indian whom 
they had recaptured from the whites ; consequently, they did not 
kill him, but kept him a prisoner until he could recover what 
they believed to be his native language the Sioux. Prank 
remained several years in the household of the great chief 
"Crazy Horse/' whom he knew very well, as well as his medi- 
cine man the since renowned " Sitting Bull." Gruard was one 
of the most remarkable woodsmen I have ever met ; no Indian 
could surpass him in his intimate acquaintance with all that per- 
tained to the topography, animal life, and other particulars of 
the great region between the head of the Piney, the first affluent 
of the Powder on the west, up to and beyond the Yellowstone on 
the north ; no question could be asked him that he could not 
answer at once and correctly. His bravery and fidelity were 
never questioned; he never flinched under fire, and never 
growled at privation. Louis Eichaud, Baptiste Pourrier ("Big 
Bat"), Baptiste Gamier ("Little Bat"), Louis Changrau, Speed 
Stagner, Ben Clarke, and others were men of excellent record 
as scouts, and all rendered efficient service during the entire 
expedition. There was one representative of the public press- 
Mr. Eobert E. Strahorn, of the Rocky Mountain News, who 
remained throughout the entire campaign, winter and summer, 
until the last of the hostiles had surrendered. 




HB march from Fort Fetterman to old Port Reno, a dis- 
tance of ninety miles, led us through a country of which 
the less said the better ; it is suited for grazing and may ap- 
peal to the eyes of a cow-boy, but for the ordinary observer, es- 
pecially during the winter season, it presents nothing to charm 
any sense ; the landscape is monotonous and uninviting, and the 
vision is bounded by swell after swell of rolling prairie, yellow 
with a thick growth of winter-killed buffalo or bunch grass, with 
a liberal sprinkling of that most uninteresting of all vegetation 

the sage-brush. The water is uniformly and consistently bad 

being both brackish and alkaline, and when it freezes into ice 
the ice is nearly always rotten and dangerous, for a passage at 
least by mounted troops or wagons. Wood is not to be had for 
the first fifty miles, and has to be carried along in wagons for 
commands of any size. Across this charming expanse the wind 
howled and did its best to freeze us all to death, but we were 
too well prepared, 

The first night out from Petterman the presence of hostile 
Indians was indicated by the wounding of our herder, shot 
in the lungs, and by the stampeding of our herd of cattle forty- 
five head which were not, however, run off by the attacking 
party, but headed for the post and could not be turned and 
brought back. There was very little to record of this part of 
the march : a night attack or two, the firing by our pickets at 
anything and everything which looked like a man, the killing of 


several buffaloes by the guides in front old bulls which, would 
pull all the teeth out of one's head were they to be chewed ; better 
success with antelope, whose meat was tender and palatable ; the 
sight of a column of dust in the remote distance, occasioned, 
probably, by the movement of an Indian village, and the flashing 
of looking-glass signals by hostiles on our right flank, made the 
sum total of events worthy of insertion in the journals kept 
at the time. Lodge-pole trails and pony tracks increased in 
numbers, and a signal smoke curled upwards from one of the 
distant buttes in our front. On our left, the snow-clad masses 
of the "Big Horn" range rose slowly above the horizon, and 
on the right the sullen, inhospitable outline of the ee Pumpkin 
Buttes." General Crook ordered that the greatest care should 
be taken in the manner of posting sentinels, and in enjoining vigil- 
ance upon them ; he directed that no attempt should be made to 
catch any of the small parties of the enemy's videttes, which 
began to show themselves and to retreat when followed ; he ex- 
plained that all they wanted was to entice us into a pursuit 
which could have no effect beyond breaking down twenty or 
thirty of our horses each time. 

We were out of camp, and following the old Montana road by 
daylight of the 5th of March, 1876, going down the "Dry Fork" 
of the Powder. There was no delay on any account, and affairs 
began to move like clock-work. The scenery was dreary ; the 
weather bitter cold ; the bluffs on either side bare and sombre 
prominences of yellow clay, slate, and sandstone. The leaden 
sky overhead promised no respite from the storm of cold snow 
and wind beating into our faces from the northwest. A stranger 
would not have suspected at first glance that the command pass- 
ing along the defile of this miserable little sand-bed had any 
connection with the military organization of the United States ; 
shrouded from head to foot in huge wrappings of wool and fur, 
what small amount of uniform officers or men wore was almost 
entirely concealed from sight; but a keener inspection would 
have convinced the observer that it was an expedition of soldiers, 
and good ones at that. The promptness, ease, and lack of noise 
with which all evolutions were performed, the compactness of the 
columns, the good condition of arms and horses, and the care 
displayed in looking after the trains, betokened the discipline of 
veteran soldiery. 


That evening a party of picked scouts, under Frank Gruard, 
was sent to scour the country in our front and on our right flank ; 
there was no need of examining the country on the left, as the 
Big Horn range was so close, and there was no likelihood of 
the savages going up on its cold flanks to live during winter 
while such better and more comfortable localities were at hand 
in the river and creek bottoms. The sun was just descending 
behind the summits of the Big Horn, having emerged from 
behind a bank of leaden clouds long enough to assure us that he 
was still in existence, and Major Coates was putting his pickets 
in position and giving them their final instructions, when a bold 
attack was made by a small detachment of the Sioux ; their 
advance was detected as they were creeping upon us through a 
grove of cottonwoods close to camp, and although there was 
a brisk interchange of leaden compliments, no damage was done 
to our people beyond the wounding slightly of Corporal Slavey, 
of Coates's company. Crook ordered a large force to march 
promptly to the other side of camp, thinking that the enemy was 
merely making a " bluff " on one extremity, but would select a 
few bold warriors to rush through at the other end, and, by 
waving blankets, shrieking, firing guns, and all other tricks of 
that sort, stampede our stock and set us afoot. The entire com- 
mand kept underarms for half an hour and was then withdrawn. 
Prom this on we had the companies formed each morning at 
daybreak, ready for the attack which might come at any moment. 
The early hour set for breaking camp no doubt operated to frus- 
trate plans of doing damage to the column entertained by wan- 
dering bodies of the Sioux and Cheyennes. 

Colonel Stanton was accompanied by a colored cook, Mr. 
Jefferson Clark, a faithful henchman who had followed the 
fortunes of his chief for many years. Jeff wasn't a bad cook, 
and he was, according to his own story, one of the most blood- 
thirsty enemies the Sioux ever had ; it was a matter of difficulty 
to restrain him from leaving the command and wandering out 
alone in quest of aboriginal blood. This night-attack seemed to 
freeze all the fight out of Jeff, and he never again expressed 
the remotest desire to shoot anything, not even a jack-rabbit. 
But the soldiers had no end of fun with him, and many and 
many a trick was played, and many and many a lie told, to make 
his hair stiffen, and his eyes to glaze in terror. 


When we reached the " Crazy "Woman's Fork '' of the Powder 
River, camp was established, with an abundance of excellent 
water and any amount of dry cottonwood fuel ; but grass was not 
very plentiful, although there had been a steady improvement in 
that respect ever since leaving the South Cheyenne. We had 
that day passed through the ruins of old Fort Keno, one of the 
military cantonments abandoned by the Government at the 
demand of the Sioux in 1867. Nothing remained except a few 
chimneys, a part of the bake-house, and some fragments of the 
adobe walls of the quarters or offices. The grave-yard had a half 
dozen or a dozen of broken, dilapidated head-boards to mark the 
last resting-places of brave soldiers who had fallen in desperate 
wars with savage tribes that civilization might extend her boun- 
daries. Our wagon-train was sent back under escort of the infan- 
try to Fort Eeno, there to await our return. 

All the officers were summoned to hear from General Crook's 
own lips what he wanted them to do. He said that we should 
now leave our wagons behind and strike out with the pack-trains ; 
all superfluous baggage must be left in camp ; every officer and 
every soldier should be allowed the clothes on his back and no 
more ; for bedding each soldier could carry along one buffalo 
robe or two blankets ; to economize transportation, company 
officers should mess with their men, and staff officers or those 
"unattached" with the pack-trains; officers to have the same 
amount of bedding as the men ; each man could take one piece of 
shelter tent, and each officer one piece of canvas, or every two 
officers one tent fly. We were to start out on a trip to last fifteen 
days unless the enemy should be sooner found, and were to take 
along half rations of bacon, hard tack, coffee, and sugar. 

About seven o'clock on the night of March 7, 1876,, by the 
light of a three-quarters moon, we began our march to the north 
and west, and made thirty-five miles. At first the .country had 
the undulating contour of that near old Fort Reno, but the 
prairie "swells" were soon superseded by bluffs of bolder and 
bolder outline until, as we approached the summit of the 
"divide" where "Clear Fork" heads, we found ourselves in a 
region deserving the title mountainous. In the bright light of 
the moon and stars, our column of cavalry wound up the steep 
hill-sides like an enormous snake, whose scales were glittering 
revolvers and carbines. The view was certainly very exhilarating, 


backed as it was by the majestic landscape of moonlight on the 
Big Horn Mountains. Cynthia's silvery beams never lit up a 
mass of mountain crests more worthy of delineation upon an 
artist's canvas. Above the frozen apex of " Cloud Peak " the 
evening star cast its declining rays. Other prominences rivalling 
this one in altitude thrust themselves out against the midnight 
sky. Exclamations of admiration and surprise were extorted 
from the most stolid as the horses rapidly passed from bluff to 
bluff, pausing at times to give every one an opportunity to study 
some of Nature's noble handiwork. 

But at last even the gorgeous vista failed to alleviate the cold and 
pain in benumbed limbs, or to dispel the drowsiness which Mor- 
pheus was placing upon exhausted eyelids. With no small degree 
of satisfaction we noticed the signal which at five o'clock in the 
morning of March 8th bade us make camp on the Clear Fork of 
the Powder. The site was dreary enough ; scarcely any timber in 
sight, plenty of water, but frozen solid, and only a bare picking 
of grass for our tired animals. However, what we most needed 
was sleep, and that we sought as soon as horses had been unsad- 
dled and mules unpacked. Wrapped up in our heavy overcoats 
and furs we threw ourselves on the bleak and frozen ground, and 
were soon deep in slumber. After lying down in the bright, 
calm, and cheerful moonlight, we were awakened about eight 
o'clock by a bitter, pelting storm of snow which blew in our 
teeth whichever way we turned, and almost extinguished the 
petty fires near which the cooks were trying to arrange break- 
fast, if we may dignify by such a lofty title the frozen bacon, 
frozen beans, and frozen coffee which constituted the repast. It 
is no part of a soldier's business to repine, but if there are cir- 
cumstances to justify complaint they are the absence of warmth 
and good food after a wearisome night march and during the 
prevalence of a cold winter storm. After coffee had been swal- 
lowed General Crook moved the command down the (( Clear 
Fork " five miles, to a pleasant cove where we remained all the 
rest of that day. Our situation was not enviable. It is true we 
experienced nothing we could call privation or hardship, but we 
had to endure much positive discomfort. The storm continued 
all day, the wind blowing with keenness and at intervals with 
much power. Being without tents, there was nothing to do but 
grin and bear it. Some of our people stretched blankets to the 


branches of trees, others found a questionable shelter under the 
bluffs, one or two constructed nondescript habitations of twigs 
and grass, while General Crook and Colonel Stanton seized upon 
the abandoned den of a family of beavers which a sudden change 
in the bed of the stream had depriyed of their home. To obtain 
water for men and animals holes were cut in the ice, which 
was by actual measurement eighteen inches thick, clear in color 
and vitreous in texture. We hugged the fires as closely as we 
dared, ashes and cinders being casfc into our faces with every 
turn in the hurricane. The narrow thread of the stream, with 
its opaque and glassy surface of ice, covered with snow, here 
drifted into petty hillocks, here again carried away before the 
gale, looked the picture of all that could be imagined cheerless 
and drear. We tried hard to find pleasure in watching the 
trouble of our fellow-soldiers obliged for any reason to attempt a 
crossing of the treacherous surface. Commencing with an air of 
boldness and confidence with some, even of indifference a few 
steps forward would serve to intimidate the unfortunate wight, 
doubly timid now that he saw himself the butt of all gibes and 
jeers. JSTow one foot slips, now another, but still he struggles 
manfully on, and has almost gained the opposite bank, when 
slap ! bang ! both feet go from under him, and a dint in the 
solid ice commemorates his inglorious fall. In watching such 
episodes we tried to dispel the wearisomeness of the day. Every 
one welcomed the advent of night, which enabled us to seek such 
rest as could be found, and, clad as we were last night, in the 
garments of the day, officers and men huddled close together to 
keep from freezing to death. Each officer and man had placed 
one of his blankets upon his horse, and, seeing that there was a 
grave necessity of doing something to prevent loss of life, Gen- 
eral Crook ordered that as many blankets as could be spared 
from the pack-trains should be spread over the sleepers. 

It snowed fiercely all night, and was still snowing and blus- 
tering savagely when we were aroused in the morning ; but we 
pushed out over a high ridge which we took to be part of the 
chain laid down on the map as the "Wolf or "Panther" 
mountains. The storm continued all day, and the fierce north 
wind still blew in our teeth, making us imagine old Boreas to 
be in league with the Indians to prevent our occupancy of the 
country. Mustaches and beards coated with pendent icicles 



several inches long and bodies swathed in raiment of furs and 
hides made this expedition of cavalry resemble a long column of 
Santa Clauses on their way to the polar regions to lay in a new- 
supply of Christmas gifts. We saw some very fresh buffalo 
manure and also some new Indian sign. Scouts were pushed 
ahead to scour the country while the command went into bivouac 
in a secluded ravine which afforded a sufficiency of water, cot- 
tonwood fuel, and good grass, and sheltered us from the obser- 
vation of roving Indians, although the prevailing inclement 
weather rendered it highly improbable that many hunters or 
spies would be far away from their villages. The temperature 
became lower and lower, and the regular indications upon our 
thermometer after sundown were 6 and 10 of the Fah- 
renheit scale. Men and animals had not yet suffered owing to 
the good fortune in always finding ravines in which to bivouac, 
and where the vertical clay banks screened from the howling 
winds. The snow continued all through the night of the 9th 
and the day of the 10th of March, but we succeeded in making 
pretty good marches, following down the course of Prairie Dog 
Creek for twenty-two miles in the teeth of a blast which was 
laden with minute crystals of snow frozen to the sharpness of 
razors and cutting the skin wherever it touched. Prairie Dog 
Creek at first flows through a narrow gorge, but this widens into 
a flat valley filled with the burrows of the dainty little animals 
which give the stream its name and which could be seen in 
numbers during every lull in the storm running around in the 
snow to and from their holes and making tracks in every direc- 
tion. Before seeing this I had been under the impression that 
the prairie dog hibernated. 

While the severity of the weather had had but slight effect 
upon the command directly, the slippery trail, frozen like glass, 
imposed au unusual amount of hard labor upon both human and 
equine members, and it was only by the greatest exertion that 
serious accidents were averted in the crossing of the little ravines 
which intersected the trail every two or three hundred yards. 
One of the corporals of " D " Company, Third Cavalry, was in- 
ternally injured, to what extent could not be told at the moment, 
by his horse falling upon him while walking by his side. A " tra- 
vois" was made of two long saplings and a blanket, in which the 
sufferer was dragged along behind a mule. The detachment of 


guides, sent out several nights previously, returned this evening, 
reporting having found a recently abandoned village of sixty 
" tepis," and every indication of long habitancy. The Indians 
belonging thereto had plenty of meat buffalo, deer, and elk 
some of which was left behind upon departure. A young puppy, 
strangled to death, was found hanging to a tree. This is one of 
the greatest delicacies of every well-regulated Sioux feast choked 
pup. It also figures in their sacrifices, especially all those in any 
manner connected with war. The guides had brought back with 
them a supply of venison, which was roasted on the embers and 
pronounced delicious by hungry palates. The storm abated dur- 
ing the night, and there were glimpses of the moon behind fleeting 
clouds, but the cold became much more intense, and we began to 
suffer. The next morning our thermometer failed to register. 
It did not mark below 22 Fahrenheit, and the mercury bad 
passed down into the bulb and congealed into a solid button, 
showing that at least 39 had been reached. The wind, how- 
ever, had gone down, for which we were all thankful. The sun 
shone out bright and clear, the frost on the grass glistened like 
diamonds, and our poor horses were coated with ice and snow. 

We marched north eight or nine miles down the Tongue Eiver, 
which had to be crossed six times on the ice. This was a fine 
stream, between thirty and forty yards wide, its banks thickly 
fringed with box-elder, cottonwood, and willow. Grama grass 
was abundant in the foot-hills close by, and in all respects ex- 
cept cold this was the finest camp yet made. The main com- 
mand halted and bivouacked at this point, to enable the guides 
to explore to the west, to the Bosebud, and beyond. On the 
night of March llth we had a lovely moonlight, but the cold was 
still hard to bear, and the mercury was again congealed. Fortu- 
nately no one was frozen, for which fact some credit is due to the 
precautions taken in the matter of clothing, and to the great 
care manifested by our medical officer, Surgeon Munn. The 
exemption of the command from frost-bite was not more re- 
markable than the total absence of all ailments of a pneumo- 
nitic type ; thus far, there had not been a single instance of 
pneumonia, influenza, or even simple cold. I have no hesitancy 
in saying that the climate of Wyoming or Montana is better suited 
for invalids suffering from lung disorders, not of an aggravated 
nature, than is that of Florida ; I have some personal acquaint- 


ance with the two sections., and the above is my deliberate con- 

Despite the hyperborean temperature, the genial good-humor 
and cheerfulness of the whole command was remarkable and 
deserving of honorable mention. Nothing tries the spirit and 
temper of the old veteran, not to mention the young recruit, 
as does campaigning under unusual climatic vicissitudes, at a 
time when no trace of the enemy is to be seen. To march into 
battle with banners flying, drums beating, and the pulse throb- 
bing high with the promptings of honorable ambition and enthu- 
siasm, in unison with the roar of artillery,, does not call for half 
the nerve and determination that must be daily exercised to pur- 
sue mile after mile in such terrible weather, over rugged moun- 
tains and through unknown cafions, a foe whose habits of warfare 
are repugnant to every principle of humanity, and whose presence 
can be determined solely by the flash of the rifle which lays some 
poor sentry low, or the whoop and yell which stampede our stock 
from the grazing-grounds. The life of a soldier, in time of war, 
has scarcely a compensating feature ; but he ordinarily expects 
palatable food whenever obtainable, and good warm quarters dur- 
ing the winter season. In campaigning against Indians, if anx- 
ious to gain success, he must lay aside every idea of good food 
and comfortable lodgings, and make up his mind to undergo with 
cheerfulness privations from which other soldiers would shrink 
back dismayed. His sole object should be to strike the enemy 
and to strike him hard, and this accomplished should be full 
compensation for all privations undergone. With all its disad- 
vantages this system of Indian warfare is a grand school for 
the cavalrymen of the future, teaching them fortitude, vigilance, 
self-reliance, and dexterity, besides that instruction in handling, 
marching, feeding, and fighting troops which no school can im- 
part in text-books. 

This manner of theorizing upon the subject answered excel- 
lently well, except at breakfast, when it strained the nervous sys- 
tem immensely to admit that soldiers should under any circum- 
stances be sent out on winter campaigns in this latitude. Our 
cook had first to chop with an axe the bacon which over night had 
frozen hard as marble ; frequently the hatchet or axe was broken 
in the contest. Then if he had made any k( soft bread/ 3 that is, 
bread made of flour and baked in a frying-pan, he had to place 


that before a strong fire for several minutes to thaw it so it could 
be eaten, and all the forks, spoons, and knives had to be run 
through hot water or hot ashes to prevent them from taking the 
skm off the tongue. The same rule had to be observed with the 
bits when our horses were bridled. I have seen loaves of bread 
divided into two zones the one nearer the blazing fire soft and 
eatable, the other still frozen hard as flint and cold as charity. 
The same thing was to be noticed in the paos of beans and other 
food served up for consumption. 

For several days we had similar experiences which need not be 
repeated. Our line of march still continued northward, going 
down the Tongue Biver, whose valley for a long distance narrowed 
to a little gorge bordered by bluffs of red and yellow sandstone, 
between one hundred and fifty and two hundred feet high in 
some places much higher well fringed with scrub pine and juni- 
per. Coal measures of a quality not definitely determined cropped 
out in all parts of the country. By this time we were pretty far 
advanced across the borders of the Territory of Montana, and in 
a region well grassed with grama and the " black sage/ 3 a plant 
almost as nutritious as oats. The land in the stream bottoms 
seemed to be adapted for cultivation. Again the scouts crossed 
over to the Rosebud, finding no signs of the hostiles, but bringing 
back the meat of two buffalo bulls which they had killed. This 
was a welcome addition to the food of men without fresh meat 
of any kind ; our efforts to coas some of the fish in the stream 
to bite did not meet with success ; the weather was too cold for 
them to come out of the deep pools in which they were passing 
the winter. The ice was not far from two feet in thickness, and 
the trout were torpid. The scouts could not explain why they 
had not been able to place the villages of the hostiles, and some 
of our people were beginning to believe that there were none out 
from the reservations, and that all had gone in upon hearing that 
the troops had moved out after them ; in this view neither Frank 
Gruard, "Big Bat/' nor the others of the older heads concurred. 

" We j ll find them pretty soon " was all that Frank would say. 
As we approached the Yellowstone we came upon abandoned 
villages, with the frame-work of branches upon which the squaws 
had been drying meat ; one or two, or it may have been three, 
of these villages had been palisaded as a protection against the 
incursions of the Absaroka or Crows of Montana, who raided upon 


the villages of the Sioux when the latter were not raiding upon 
theirs. Oottonwood by the hundreds of cords lay scattered about 
the villages, felled by the Sioux as a food for their ponies, which 
derive a small amount of nourishment from the inner bark. 
There were Indian graves in numbers : the corpse, wrapped in its 
best blankets and buffalo robes, was placed upon a scaffold in the 
branches of trees, and there allowed to dry and to decay. The 
cottonwood trees here attained a great size : four, five, and six 
feet m diameter ; and all the conditions for making good camps 
were satisfied : the water was excellent, after the ice had been 
broken ; a great sufficiency of succulent grass was to be found in 
the nooks sheltered from the wind ; and as for wood, there was 
more than we could properly use in a generation. One of the 
cooks, by mistake, made a fire at the foot of a great hollow cot- 
tonwood stump ; in a few moments the combustible interior was 
a mass of flame, which hissed and roared through that strange 
chimney until it had reached an apparent height of a hundred feet 
above the astonished packers seated at its base. Buffalo could 
be seen every day, and the meat appeared at every meal to the 
satisfaction of all, notwithstanding its stringiness and exceeding 
toughness, because we could hit nothing but the old bulls. A 
party of scouts was sent on in front to examine the country as far 
as the valley of the Yellowstone, the bluffs on whose northern 
bank were in plain sight. 

There was a great and unexpected mildness of temperature 
for one or two days, and the thermometer indicated for several 
hours as high as 20 above zero, very warm in comparison with 
what we had had. General Crook and the half-breeds adopted 
a plan of making themselves comfortable which was generally 
imitated by their comrades. As soon as possible after coming 
into camp, they would sweep clear of snow the piece of ground 
upon which they intended making down their blankets for the 
night ; a fire would next be built and allowed to burn fiercely for 
an hour, or as much longer as possible. When the embers had 
been brushed away and the canvas and blankets spread out, the 
warmth under the sleeper was astonishingly comfortable. Our 
pack-mules, too, showed an amazing amount of intelligence. I 
have alluded to the great trouble and danger experienced in getting 
them and our horses across the different " draws " or "coulees" 
impeding the march. The pack-mules, of their own motion, 


decided that they would get down without being a source of 
solicitude to those in charge of them ; nothing was more amusing 
than to see some old patriarch of the train approach the glassy 
ramp leading to the bottom of the ravine, adjust his hind feet 
close together and slide in triumph with his load secure on his 
back. This came near raising a terrible row among the packers, 
who, in the absence of other topics of conversation, began to dis- 
pute concerning the amount of sense or "savey " exhibited by 
their respective pets. One cold afternoon it looked as if the 
enthusiastic champions of the respective claims of " Pinto Jim" 
and " Keno " would draw their knives on each other, but the 
affair quieted down without bloodshed. Only one mule had been 
injured during this kind of marching and sliding one broke its 
back while descending an icy ravine leading to the e( Clear Fork" 
of the Powder. 

N"ot many moments were lost after getting into bivouac before 
all would be in what sailors call "ship shape." Companies 
would take the positions assigned them, mounted vedettes would 
be at once thrown out on the nearest commanding hills, horses 
unsaddled and led to the grazing-grounds, mules unpacked and 
driven after, and wood and water collected in quantities for the 
cooks, whose enormous pots of beans and coffee would exhale a 
most tempting aroma. After eating dinner or supper, as you 
please, soldiers, packers, and officers would gather around the 
fires, and in groups discuss the happenings of the day and the 
probabilities of the future. The Spaniards have a proverb which 
may be translated " A man with a good dinner inside of him 
looks upon the world through rosy spectacles " : 

" Barriga llena, 
Corazon contento." 

There was less doubt expressed of our catching Indians ; the 
evidences of their presence were too tangible to admit of any am- 
biguity, and all felt now that we should run in upon a party of 
considerable size unless they had all withdrawn to the north of 
the Yellowstone. These opinions were confirmed by the return 
of Frank Gruard with a fine young mule which had been left be- 
hind by the Sioux in one of the many villages occupied by them 
along this stream-bed ; the animal was in fine condition, and its 
abandonment was very good proof of the abundance of stock 
with which the savages must be blessed. 


This is how General Crook appeared on this occasion, as I find 
recorded in my notes : boots, of Government pattern, number 
7 ; trousers, of brown corduroy, badly burned at the ends ; shirt, 
of brown, heavy woollen ; blouse, of the old army style ; hat, a 
brown Kossuth of felt, ventilated at top. An old army over- 
coat, lined with red flannel, and provided with a high collar 
made of the skin of a wolf shot by the general himself, completed 
his costume, excepting a leather belt with forty or fifty copper 
cartridges, held to the shoulders by two leather straps. His horse 
and saddle were alike good, and with his rifle were well cared for. 

The General in height was about six feet even, perhaps, a trifle 
taller ; weight, one hundred and seventy pounds ; build, spare 
and straight ; limbs, long and sinewy ; complexion, nervo-san- 
guine ; hair, light-brown ; cheeks, ruddy, without being florid ; 
features, delicately and firmly chiselled ; eyes^ blue-gray ; nose, 
a pronounced Eoman and quite large ; mouth, mild but firm, 
and showing with the chin much resolution and tenacity of 

As we halted for the night, a small covey of pin-tailed grouse 
flew across the trail. Crook, with seven shots of his rifle, laid six 
of them low, all but one hit in neck or head. This shooting was 
very good, considering the rapidity with which it had to be done, 
and also the fact that the shooter's hands were numb from a long 
march in the saddle and in the cold. These birds figured in an 
appetizing stew at our next breakfast. We remained in bivouac 
for a day at the mouth of a little stream which we took to be 
Pumpkin Creek, but were not certain, the maps being unreli- 
able ; here was another abandoned village of the Sioux in which 
we came across a ghastly token of human habitancy, in the half- 
decomposed arm of an Indian, amputated at the elbow-joint, two 
fingers missing, and five buckshot fired into it. The guides con- 
jectured that it was part of the anatomy of a Crow warrior who 
had been caught by the Sioux in some raid upon their herds and 
cut limb from limb. 

The forest of cottonwoods at this place was very dense, and 
the trees of enormous size. Upon the inner bark of a number, 
the Sioux had delineated in colors many scenes which were not 
comprehensible to us. There were acres of fuel lying around us, 
and we made liberal use of the cottonwood ashes to boil a pot of 
hominy with corn from the pack train. Half a dozen old birf- 


laloes were seen close to camp daring the day, one of which ani- 
mals was shot by General Crook, When our guides returned 
from the Yellowstone, they brought with them the carcasses of six 
deer, five white-tailed and one black-tailed, which were most ac- 
ceptable to the soldiers. All the trails seen by this reconnoitring 
party had led over towards the Powder River, none being found 
in the open valley of the Yellowstone. The Sioux and Chey- 
ennes would naturally prefer to make their winter habitations in 
the deeper and therefore warmer cations of the Rosebud, Tongue, 
and Powder, where the winds could not reach them and their 
stock. The country hereabouts was extremely rough, and the 
bluffs were in many places not less than seven hundred and fifty 
feet in height above the surface of the stream. It had again be- 
come cold and stormy, and snow was falling, with gusts of wind 
from the north. The mercury during the night indicated 10 
below zero, but the sky with the coquetry of a witch had resumed 
its toilet of blue pinned with golden stars. Our course led 
north and east to look for some of the trails of recent date ; the 
valleys of the creeks seemed to be adapted for agriculture, and 
our horses did very well on the rich herbage of the lower foot- 
hills. The mountains between the Tongue and the Powder, and 
those between the Tongue and the Rosebud as well, are covered 
with forests of pine and juniper, and the country resembles in 
not a little the beautiful Black Hills of Dakota. 

This was the 16th of March, and we had not proceeded many 
miles before our advance, under Colonel Stanton, had sighted and 
pursued two young bucks who had been out hunting for game, 
and, seeing our column advancing, had stationed themselves 
upon the summit of a ridge, and were watching our movements. 
Crook ordered the command to halt and bivouac at that point on 
the creek which we had reached. Coffee was made for all hands, 
and then the purposes of the general commanding made them- 
selves known. He wanted the young Indians to think that we 
were a column making its way down towards the Yellowstone with 
no intention of following their trail ; then, with the setting of the 
sun, or a trifle sooner, we were to start out and march all night in 
the hope of striking the band to which the young men belonged, 
and which must be over on the Powder as there was no water 
nearer in quantity sufficient for ponies and families. The day had 
been very blustering and chilly, with snow clouds lowering over us. 



ENERAL CROOK directed General J. J. Reynolds, Third 
" Cavalry, to take six companies of cavalry, and, with the 
half-breed scouts, make a forced march along the trail of the 
hunters, and see just what he could find. If the trail led to a 
village, Reynolds should attack ; if not, the two portions of the 
command were to unite on the Powder at or near a point desig- 
nated. Crook was very kindly disposed towards General Rey- 
nolds, and wanted to give him every chance to make a brilliant 
reputation for himself and retrieve the past. Reynolds had been 
in some kind of trouble in the Department of Texas, of which he 
had been the commander, and as a consequence of this trouble, 
whatever it was, had been relieved of the command and ordered 
to rejoin his regiment. We were out on the trail by half-past 
five in the afternoon, and marched rapidly up a steep ravine, 
which must have been either Otter or Pumpkin Creek, and about 
half-past two in the morning of March 17, 1876, were able to 
discern through the darkness the bluffs on the eastern side of 
the Big Powder ; the night was very cold, the wind blew keenly 
and without intermission, and there were flurries of snow which 
searched out the tender spots left in our faces. 

It was of course impossible to learn much of the configuration 
and character of the country in such darkness and under such 
circumstances, but we could see that it was largely of the kind 
called in Arizona "rolling mesa/ 3 and that the northern exposure 
of the hills was plentifully covered with pine and juniper, while 
grass was in ample quantity, and generally of the best quality of 


grama. Stan ton led the advance, having Frank Gruard and one 
or two assistants trailing in the front. The work was excellently 
well done, quite as good as the best I had eyer seen done by the 
Apaches. Stanton, Mr. Robert E. Strahorn, Hospital Steward 
Bryan, and myself made a small party and kept together ; we 
were the only white men along not connected with the reserva- 

This march bore grievously upon the horses ; there were so 
many little ravines and gullies, dozens of them not more than 
three or four feet in depth, which gashed the face of nature and 
intersected the course we were pursuing in so many and such un- 
expected places, that we were constantly halting to allow of an 
examination being made to determine the most suitable places 
for crossing, without running the risk of breaking our own or 
our horses' necks. The ground was just as slippery as glass, and 
so uneven that when on foot we were continually falling, and 
when on horseback were in dread of being thrown and of having 
our horses fall upon us, as had already happened in one case on 
the trip. To stagger and slip, wrenching fetlocks and pasterns, 
was a strain to which no animals could he subjected for much 
time without receiving grave injuries. Our horses seemed to 
enter into the spirit of the occasion, and when the trail was at all 
decent would press forward on the bit without touch of spur. 
When Frank Gruard had sighted the bluffs of the Powder, the 
command halted in a deep ravine, while Frank and a picked 
detail went out in front some distance to reconnoitre. The 
intense cold had made the horses impatient, and they were 
champing on the bits and pawing the ground with their hoofs in 
a manner calculated to arouse the attention of an enemy, should 
one happen to be in the vicinity. They were suffering greatly 
for water; the ice king had set his seal upon all the streams 
during the past week, and the thickness of the covering seen was 
from two and a half to three feet. This thirst made them all the 
more restless and nervous. While we halted in this ravine, many 
of the men lay down to sleep, much to the alarm of the officers, 
who, in fear that they would not awaken again, began to shake 
and kick them back to wakefulness. 

By looking up at the "Dipper" we could see that we were 
travelling almost due east, and when our scouts returned they 
brought the important information that the two Indians whom 


we had been following had been members of a hunting party of 
forty, mounted, whose trail we were now upon. Frank led off at 
a smart pace, and we moved as fast as we could in rear ; the mists 
and clouds of night were breaking, and a faint sign in the east 
told the glad news that dawn was coming. Directly in front of 
us and at a very short distance away, a dense column of smoke 
betrayed the existence of a village of considerable size, and we 
were making all due preparations to attack it when, for the sec- 
ond time, Frank returned with the information that the smoke 
came from one of the burning coal-measures of which Montana 
and Wyoming were full. Our disappointment was merely tem- 
porary ; we had not begun fairly to growl at our luck before 
Frank returned in a most gleeful mood, announcing that the Til- 
lage had been sighted, and that it was a big one at the base of the 
high cliffs upon which we were standing. 

The plan of battle was after this manner : Reynolds had three 
battalions, commanded respectively by Moore, Mills, and Noyes. 
Noyes's battalion was to make the first move, Egan's company, 
with its revolvers, charging in upon the village, and Noyes cut- 
ting out and driving off the enemy's herd of ponies. Mills was 
to move in rear of Noyes, and, after the village had been charged, 
move into and take possession of it, occupy the plum thicket 
surrounding it, and destroy all the "tepis" and plunder of all 
kinds. These battalions were to descend into the valley of the 
Powder through a ravine on our right flank, while Moore with 
his two companies was to move to the left and take up a position 
upon the hills overlooking the village, and receive the flying In- 
dians with a shower of lead when they started to flee from their 
lodges, and attempted to get positions in the brakes or bluffs to 
annoy Egan. 

ISFoyes led off with his own and Egan's companies, and Frank 
Gruard, "Big Bat," and others of the scouts showing the path 
down the ravine ; the descent was a work of herculean difficulty 
for some of the party, as the horses slipped and stumbled over the 
icy ground, or pressed through the underbrush and fallen rocks 
and timber. At length we reached the narrow yalley of the Pow- 
der, and all hands were impatient to begin the charge at once. 
This, Major JSToyes would not allow ; he sent Gruard, "Big Bat/' 
and (i Little Bat" to the front to look at the ground and report 
whether or not it was gashed by any ravines which would render 


the advance of cavalry difficult. Their report; was favorable, 
nothing being seen to occasion fear that a mounted force could 
not approach quite close to the lodges. It was a critical moment, 
as Frank indicated where the Indian boys were getting ready to 
drive the herds of ponies down to water, which meant that the 
village would soon be fully aroused. At last we were of, a small 
band of forty-seven all told, including the brave " Teddy " Egan 
himself, Mr. Strahorn, the representative of the Rocky Moun- 
tain News, a man who displayed plenty of pluck during the 
entire campaign, Hospital Steward Bryan, and myself. We moved 
out from the gulch in column of twos, Egan at the head; but 
upon entering the main valley the command " Left front into 
line " was given, and the little company formed a beautiful line 
in less time than it takes to narrate It. We moved at a fast 
walk, and as soon as the command " Charge " should be given, 
we were to quicken the gait to a trot, but not move faster on 
account of the weak condition of our stock. When the end of 
the village was reached we were to charge at full gallop down 
through the lines of "tepis," firing our revolvers at everything 
in sight ; but if unable to storm the village, we were to wheel 
about arfd charge back. Just as we approached the edge of the 
village we came upon a ravine some ten feet in depth and of a vary- 
ing width, the average being not less than fifty. We got down this 
deliberately, and at the bottom and behind a stump saw a young 
boy about fifteen years old driving his ponies. He was not ten 
feet off. The youngster wrapped his blanket about him and stood 
like a statue of bronze, waiting for the fatal bullet ; his features 
were as immobile as if cut in stone. The American Indian 
knows how to die with as much stoicism as the East Indian. I 
levelled my pistol. " Don't shoot/' said Egan, "we must make 
no noise/' We were up on the bench upon which the village 
stood, and the war-whoop of the youngster was ringing wildly in 
the winter air, awakening the echoes of the bald-faced bluffs. 
The lodges were not arranged in any order, but placed where 
each could secure the greatest amount of protection from the con- 
figuration of the coves and nooks amid the rocks. The ponies 
close to the village trotted off slowly to the right and left as we 
drew near ; the dogs barked and howled and scurried out of sight ; 
a squaw raised the door of her lodge, and seeing the enemy yelled 
with all her strength, but as yet there had been not one shot fired. 


We had emerged from the clump of cottonwoods and the thick 
undergrowth of plum bushes immediately alongside of the nearest 
e ' tepis," when the report of the first "Winchester and the zipp of 
the first bullet notified us that the fun had begun. 

The enemy started out from their lodges, running for the 
rocky bluffs overlooking the valley, there to take position, but 
turning to let us have the benefit of a shot every moment or so. 
We could not see much at which to fire, the "tepis" interven- 
ing, but we kept on our way through the village, satisfied that 
the flight of the hostiles would be intercepted by Moore from his 
place upon the hills. The Indians did not shoot at our men, 
they knew a trick worth two of that : they fired deliberately at 
our horses,, with the intention of wounding some of them and 
rendering the whole line unmanageable. The first shot struck 
the horse of the troop blacksmith in the intestines, and made him 
rear and plunge and fall over backwards. That meant that both 
horse and man were hors du combat until the latter could extri- 
cate himself, or be extricated from under the dying, terrified 
animal. The second bullet struck the horse of Steward Bryan in 
the head, and knocked out both his eyes ; as his steed stiffened in 
death, Bryan, who was riding next to me, called out, "*There is 
something the matter with my horse 1 " The third missile was 
aimed at " Teddy" Egan, but missed him and cut the bridle of 
my old plug as clean as if it had been a piece of tissue paper. 
From that on the fire became a volley, although the people of the 
village were retreating to a place of safety for their women and 

The herd of ponies had been "cut out/* and they were now 
afoot unless they could manage to recapture them. Two or 
three boys made an attempt to sneak around on our right flank 
and run the herd back up among the high blufe, where they 
would be practically safe from our hands. This was frustrated 
by Egan, whp covered the line of approach with his fire, and had 
the herd driven slightly to our rear. The advantages, however, 
were altogether on the side of the Sioux and Cheyennes, as our 
promised support did not arrive as soon as expected, and the fire 
had begun to tell upon us ; we had had three men wounded, one 
in the lower part of the lungs, one in the elbow-joint, and one in 
the collar-bone or upper part of the chest ; six horses had been 
killed and three wounded, one of the latter being Egan's own,, 


which had been hit in the neck. The men wounded were not 
the men on the wounded horses, so that at this early stage of the 
skirmish we had one-fourth of our strength disabled. We held 
on to the village as far as the centre, but the Indians, seeing how 
feeble was our force, rallied, and made a bold attempt to surround 
and cut us off. At this moment private Schneider was killed. 
Egan was obliged to dismount the company and take shelter in 
the plum copse along the border of the ice-locked channel of the 
Powder, and there defend himself to the best of his ability until 
the arrival of the promised reinforcements. 

Noyes had moved up promptly in our rear and driven off the 
herd of ponies, which was afterwards found to number over seven 
hundred ; had he charged in echelon on our left, he would have 
swept the village, and affairs would have had a Tery different 
ending, but he complied with his instructions, and did his part 
as directed by his commander. In the work of securing the herd 
of ponies, he was assisted by the half-breed scouts. 

Colonel Stanton and Lieutenant Sibley, hearing the constant 
and heavy firing in front, moved up without orders, leading a 
small party of the scouts, and opened an effective fire on our left. 
Half an hour had passed, and Moore had not been heard from ; 
the Indians under the fire from Stanton and Sibley on our left, 
and Egan's own fire, had retired to the rocks on the other side of 
the " tepis," whence they kept plugging away at any one who 
made himself visible. They were in the very place where it was 
expected that Moore was to catch them, but not a shot was heard 
for many minutes ; and when they were it was no help to us, but a 
detriment and a danger, as the battalion upon which we relied so 
much had occupied an entirely different place one from which 
the fight could not be seen at all, and from which the bullets 
dropped into Egan's lines. 

Mills advanced on foot, passing by Egan's left, but not joining 
him, pushed out from among the lodges the scattering parties 
still lurking there, and held the undergrowth on the far side ; 
after posting his men advantageously, he detailed a strong party 
to burn and destroy the village. Egan established his men on 
the right, and sent a party to aid in the work of demolition and 
destruction. It was then found that a great many of our people 
had been severely hurt by the intense cold. In order to make 
the charge as effective as possible, we had disrobed and thrown 


to one side, upon entering the village, all the heavy or cumbrous 
wraps with which we could dispense. The disagreeable conse- 
quence was that many men had feet and fingers, ears and noses 
frozen, among them being Lieutenant Hall and myself. Hall 
had had much previous experience in the polar climate of these 
northwestern mountains, and showed me how to treat myself to 
prevent permanent disability. 

He found an air-hole in the ice, into which we thrust feet and 
hands, after which we rubbed them with an old piece of gunny- 
sack, the roughest thing we could find, to restore circulation. 
Steward Bryan, who seemed to be full of resources and forethought, 
had carried along with him a bottle of tincture of iodine for 
just such emergencies ; this he applied liberally to our feet and 
to all the other frozen limbs, and thus averted several cases of 
amputation. While Steward Bryan was engaged in his work of 
mercy, attending to the wounded and the frozen, Mills's and 
Egan's detachments were busy setting fire to the lodges, of elk 
and buf alo hide and canvas, which numbered over one hundred. 

For the information of readers who may never have seen such 
lodges or "tepis," as they are called in the language of the 
frontier, I will say that they are large tents, supported upon a 
conical frame-work of fir or ash poles about twenty feet long, 
spread out at the bottom so as to give an interior space with a 
diameter of from eighteen to twenty-five feet. This is the aver- 
age size, but in each large village, like the present one, was to be 
found one or more very commodious lodges intended for the use 
of the es council" or for the ceremonies of the " medicine " 
bands ; there were likewise smaller ones appropriated to the use 
of the sick or of women living in seclusion. In the present case, 
the lodges would not burn, or, to speak more explicitly, they 
exploded as soon as the flames and heat had a chance to act upon 
the great quantities of powder in kegs and canisters with which 
they were all supplied. When these loose kegs exploded the 
lodge-poles, as thick as a man's wrist and not less than eighteen 
feet long, would go sailing like sky-rockets up into the air and 
descend to smash all obstacles in their way. It was a great won- 
der to me that some of our party did not receive serious injuries 
from this cause. 

In one of the lodges was found a wounded squaw, who stated 
that she had been struck in the thigh in the very beginning of 


the fight as her husband was firing out from the entrance to the 
lodge. She stated that this was the band of " Crazy Horse/' 
who had with him a force of the Minneconjou Sioux, but that 
the forty new canvas lodges clustered together at the extremity 
by which we had entered belonged to some Cheyennes who had 
recently arrived from the " Bed Cloud " Agency. Two lodges 
of Sioux had arrived from the same agency two days previously 
with the intention of trading with the Minneconjoux. 

What with the cold threatening to freeze us, the explosions of 
the lodges sending the poles whirling through the air, and the 
leaden attentions which the enemy was once more sending in 
with deadly aim, our situation was by no means agreeable, and I 
may claim that the notes jotted down in ray journal from which 
this narrative is condensed were taken under peculiar embarrass- 
ments. " Crazy Horse's " village was bountifully provided with 
all that a savage could desire, and much besides that a white 
man would not disdain to class among the comforts of life. 

There was no great quantity of baled furs, which, no doubt, 
had been sent in to some of the posts or agencies to be traded 
off for the ammunition on hand, but there were many loose 
robes of buffalo, elk, bear, and beaver; many of these skins 
were of extra fine quality. Some of the buffalo robes were won- 
drously embroidered with porcupine quills and elaborately dec- 
orated with painted symbolism. One immense elk skin was 
found as large as two and a half army blankets ; it -was nicely 
tanned and elaborately ornamented. The couches in all the 
lodges were made of these valuable furs and peltries. Every 
squaw and every buck was provided with a good-sized valise of 
tanned buffalo, deer, elk, or pony hide, gaudily painted, and 
filled with fine clothes, those of the squaws being heavily em- 
broidered with bead-work. Each family had similar trunks for 
carrying kitchen utensils and the various kinds of herbs that the 
plains' tribes prized so highly. There were war-bonnets, strik- 
ingly beautiful in appearance, formed of a head-band of red 
cloth or of beaver fur, from which depended another piece of 
red cloth which reached to the ground when the wearer was 
mounted, and covered him and the pony he rode. There was 
a crown of eagle feathers, and similar plumage was affixed to 
the tail-piece. Bells, ribbons, and other gew-gaws were also 
attached and occasionally I have noticed a pair of buffalo 


horns, shaved down fine, surmounting the head. Altogether, 
these feather head-dresses of the tribes in the Missouri drainage 
were the most impressive and elegant thing to be seen on the 
border. They represented an investment of considerable money, 
and were highly treasured by the proud possessors. They were 
not only the indicia of wealth, but from the manner in which 
the feathers were placed and nicked, the style of the ornamen- 
tation, and other minute points readily recognizable by the other 
members of the tribe, all the achievements of the wearer were 
recorded. One could tell at a glance whether he had ever 
stolen ponies, killed men, women, or children, been wounded^ 
counted " coup," or in any other manner demonstrated that his 
deeds of heroism were worthy of being chanted in the dances 
and around the camp-fires. In each lodge there were knives 
and forks, spoons, tin cups, platters, mess-pans, frying-pans, 
pots and kettles of divers shapes, axes, hatchets, hunting- 
knives, water-kegs, blankets, pillows, and every conceivable kind 
of truck in great profusion. Of the weight of dried and fresh 
buffalo meat and venison no adequate idea can be given ; in 
three or four lodges I estimated that there were not less than 
one thousand pounds. As for ammunition, there was enough 
for a regiment ; besides powder, there was pig-lead with the 
moulds for casting, metallic cartridges, and percussion caps. 
One hundred and fifty saddles were given to the flames. 

Mills and Egan were doing excellent work in the village 
itself; the herd of ponies was in Noyes's hands, and why we 
should not have held our place there, and if necessary fortified 
and sent word to Crook to come across the trail and join, us, is 
one of those things that no man can explain. "We had lost three 
killed, and had another man wounded mortally. General Rey- 
nolds concluded suddenly to withdraw from the village, and the 
movement was carried out so precipitately that we practically 
abandoned the victory to the savages. There were over seven 
hundred ponies, over one hundred and fifty saddles, tons upon 
tons of meat, hundreds of blankets and robes, and a very appreci- 
able addition to our own stock of ammunition in our hands, and 
the enemy driven into the hills, while we had Crook and his four 
companies to depend upon as a reserve, and yet we fell back at 
such a rate that our dead were left in the hands of the Indians, 
and, as was whispered among the men, one of our poor soldiers 


fell alive into the enemy's hands and was eat limb from limb. I 
do not state this fact of my own knowledge, and I can only say 
that I believe it to be true. We pushed up the Powder as fast 
as our weary horses could be made to move, and never halted 
until after we had reached the mouth of Lodge Pole Greek, 
where we awaited the arrival of General Crook. 

The bivouac at the mouth of the Lodge Pole was especially 
dreary and forlorn ; the men nicknamed it " Camp Inhospital- 
ity " : there was a sufficiency of water or ice enough wood, but 
very little grass for the animals. There was nothing to eat ; not 
even for the wounded men, of whom we had six, who received 
from Surgeon Munn and his valuable assistant, Steward Bryan, 
and Doctor Ridgeley all the care which it was possible to give. 
Here and there would be found a soldier, or officer, or scout who 
had carried a handful of cracker-crumbs in his saddle-hags, 
another who had had the good sense to pick up a piece of buffalo 
meat in the village, or a third who could produce a spoonful of 
coffee. With these a miserable apology was made for supper, 
which was not ready until very late ; because the rear-guard of 
scouts and a handful of soldiers which, under Colonel Stanton, 
Prank Gruard, "Big Bat/' and others, had rounded up and 
driven off the herd of ponies did not join until some time after 
sundown. A small slice of buffalo meat, roasted in the ashes, 
went around among five or six ; and a -cup of coffee would be 
sipped like the pipe of peace at an Indian council. 

The men, being very tired with the long marching, climbing, 
and fighting of the past two days, were put on a " running guard " 
to give each the smallest amount possible of work and the great- 
est of sleep. No guard was set over the herd, and no attempt was 
made to protect it, and in consequence of this great neglect the 
Indians, who followed us during the night, had not the slight- 
est trouble in recovering nearly all that originally belonged to 
them. Even when the loss was discovered and the fact re- 
ported that the raiders were still in sight, going over a low bluff 
down the valley, no attention was paid, and no attempt made to 
pursue and regain the mainstay of Indian hostility. The cold 
and exposure had begun to wear out both horses and men, and 
Doctor Munn had now all he could do in looking after the nu- 
merous cases of frost-bite reported in the command ; my recollec- 
tion is that there were sixty-six men whose noses, feet, or fingers 


were more or less imperilled by the effects of the cold. Added 
to these were two cases of inflammatory rheumatism, which were 
almost as serious as those of the wounded men. 

Crook reached camp about noon of the 18th of March, and it 
goes without saying that his presence was equal to that of a thou- 
sand men. He expressed his gratification upon hearing of our 
successful finding of "Crazy Horse's" village, as that chief was 
justly regarded as the boldest, bravest, and most skilful warrior 
in the whole Sioux nation ; but he could not conceal his disap- 
pointment and chagrin when he learned that our dead and wounded 
had been needlessly abandoned to the enemy, and that with such 
ample supplies of meat and furs at hand our men had been made 
to suffer from hunger and cold, with the additional fatigue of a 
long march which could have been avoided by sending word to 
him. Crook, with a detachment from the four companies left 
with him, had come on a short distance in advance of Hawley's 
and Dewees's battalions, and run in upon the rear-guard of the 
Cheyennes and Sioux who had stampeded so many of the ponies 
from Eeynolds's bivouac ; the General took sight at one of the 
Indians wearing a war-bonnet and dropped him out of the sad- 
dle ; the Indian's comrades seized him and took off through the 
broken country, but the pony, saddle, buffalo robe, blanket, and 
bonnet of the dead man fell into our hands, together with nearly 
a hundred of the ponies ; which were driven along to our forlorn 
camp at the confluence of the Lodge Pole and the Powder. 

There was nothing for Crook to do but abandon the expedition, 
and return to the forts, and reorganize for a summer campaign. 
We had no beef, as our herd had been run off on account of the 
failure to guard it ; we were out of supplies, although we had 
destroyed enough to last a regiment for a couple of months ; we 
were encumbered with sick, wounded, and cripples with frozen 
limbs, because we had not had sense enough to save the furs and 
robes in the village ; and the enemy was thoroughly aroused, and 
would be on the qui vive for all that we did. To old Fort Reno, 
by way of the valley of the Powder, was not quite ninety miles. 
The march was uneventful, and there was nothing to note beyond 
the storms of snow and wind, which lasted, with some spasmodic 
intermissions, throughout the journey. The wind blew from the 
south, and there was a softening of the ground, which aggravated 
the disagreeable features by adding mud to our other troubles. 


The Indians hung round our camps every night, occasionally 
firing a shot at our fires, but more anxious to steal back their 
ponies than to fight. To remove all excuse for their presence 
Crook ordered that the throats of the captured ponies be cut, 
and this was done on two different nights : first, some fifty being 
knocked in the head with axes, or having their throats cut with 
'the sharp knives of the scouts, and again, another " bunch " 
of fifty being shot before sun-down. The throat-cutting was 
determined upon when the enemy began firing in upon camp, 
and was the only means of killing the ponies without danger to 
our own people. It was pathetic to hear the dismal trumpeting 
(I can find no other word to express my meaning) of the dying 
creatures, as the breath of life rushed through severed wind- 
pipes. The Indians in the bluffs recognized the cry, and were 
aware of what we were doing, because with one yell of defiance 
and a parting volley, they left us alone for the rest of the night. 

Steaks were cut from the slaughtered ponies and broiled in the 
ashes by the scouts ; many of the officers and soldiers imitated 
their example. Prejudice to one side, the meat is sweet and 
nourishing, not inferior to much of the stringy beef that used 
to find its way to our markets. 

Doctor Munn, Doctor Ridgeley, and Steward Bryan were kept 
fully occupied in tending to the patients under their charge, 
and were more than pleased when the wagon-train was reached, 
and "travois" and saddles could be exchanged for ambulances 
and wagons. 

Our reception, by our comrades back at the wagon-train 
Coates, Ferris, and Mason was most cordial and soldier-like. 
The most gratifying proof of their joy at our return was found in 
the good warm supper of coffee, bacon, and beans prepared for 
every one of our columns, commissioned and enlisted. The ice 
in the Powder proved very treacherous, as all "alkali" ice will ; 
it was not half so thick as it had been found on the Tongue, 
where it had ranged from two to three feet. General Crook dis- 
tributed the troops to the various military posts, and returned 
to his headquarters in Omaha. The conduct of certain officers 
was the subject of an investigation by a general court-martial, 
but it is not my purpose to overcrow4 my pages with such mat- 
ters, which can be readily looked up by readers interested in 
them. On our way down to Cheyenne, we encountered squads 


upon squads of adventurers, trudging on foot or riding in wagons 
to the Black Hills. At " Portuguese Phillip's" ranche, sixty- 
eight of these travellers had sat down to supper in one day; 
while at Fagan's, nearer Cheyenne, during the snow-storm of 
March 26th and 27th, two hundred and fifty had slept in the 
kitchens, stables, and out-houses. 



THE lack of cooperation by the troops in the Department of 
Dakota had been severely felt ; such cooperation had been 
promised and confidently expected. It needed no profoundly 
technical military mind to see that with two or three strong col- 
umns in the field seeking out the hostiles, each column able to 
hold its own against the enemy, the chances of escape for the 
Sioux and Oheyennes would be materially lessened, and those of 
success for the operations of either column, or both, perceptibly 
increased. But, with the exception of a telegram from General 
Ouster, then at Port Lincoln, dated February 27th, making in- 
quiry as to the time fixed for the departure of the column under 
Reynolds which question was answered by wire the same day- 
nothing had been heard of any column from the Missouri Eiver 
camps going out after the Indians whom the authorities wished 
to have driven in to the reservations. 

With the opening of spring the phases of the problem pre- 
sented greater complexity. The recalcitrant Indians were satis- 
fied of their ability not only to elude pursuit but to present a bold 
front to the troops, and to whip them on the field of their choice. 
They had whipped us so at least it seemed to them on the 17th 
of March ; why could they not do the same on any other day the 
17th of May, or the 17th of August ? Crook determined to wait 
for the new grass, without which it would be impossible to cam- 
paign far away from the line of supplies, and to let the ground 


become thoroughly dry from the early thaws, before he re- 
sumed the offensive. This would give to such columns as might 
be designated in the north as cooperating forces opportun- 
ity to get into the field ; as it would also afford the restless 
young element on the several reservations chance to deliberate 
between the policy of peace and war, between remaining quiet 
at the agencies, or starting out on a career of depredation and 

Each day came news, stoutly denied by the agents, that there 
were parties slipping away to recruit the forces of the hostiles ; 
it was only prudent to know in advance exactly how many there 
would be in our front, and have them in our front instead of 
imperilling our rear by starting out with a leaven of discontent 
which might do grievous harm to the ranches and settlements 
near the Union Pacific Eailroad. That the main body of the 
Sioux and Oheyennes was "ugly" no longer admitted of doubt. 
Hostilities were not limited to grumbling and growling, to surly 
looks and ungracious acts, to mere threats against the agents or 
some isolated ranchos ; they became active and venomous, espe- 
cially along the lines of travel leading to the disputed territory 
the " Black Hills. 1 " Attacks upon trains were a daily an hourly 
occurrence. In one of these the son-in-law of " Red Cloud " 
was killed. To defend these travellers there was no better method 
than by carrying the war into Africa, and, by means of swift- 
moving columns, come upon the villages of the hostiles and 
destroy them, giving no time to the young men for amusements. 

Three of the infantry companies from Fort Omaha and Fort 
Bridger were detailed to guard the road between Fort Laramie 
and Ouster City ; each company went into an entrenched camp 
with rifle-pits dug, and all preparations made for withstanding 
a siege until help should arrive. Trains could make their way 
from one to the other of these fortified camps with much less dan- 
ger than before their establishment, while there were two com- 
panies of cavalry, under officers of great experience, to patrol from 
Buffalo Gap, at the entrance to the hills, and the North Platte. 
These officers were Captain Russell, who had seen much service in 
Arizona and New Mexico against the Apaches, and " Teddy" 
Egan, of the Second Cavalry, who had led the charge into the 
village of " Crazy Horse" on St, Patrick's Day. Both of these 
officers and their troops did all that Crook expected of them, and 


that was a great deal. The same praise belongs to the little de- 
tachments of infantry, who rendered yeoman service. Egan was 
fortunate enough to come up just in the nick of time, as a train 
was surrounded and fired upon by six hundred warriors ; he led 
the charge, and the Indians took to flight. 

There were attacks all along the line : eastward in JSTebraska, 
the Sioux became very hold, and raided the horse and cattle 
ranchos in the Loup Valley ; they were pursued by Lieutenant 
Charles Heyl, Twenty-third Infantry, with a small detail of men 
mounted upon mules from the quartermaster's corral, and com- 
pelled to stand and fight, dropping their plunder, having one of 
their number killed, but killing one of our best men Corporal 
Dougherty. In Wyoming, they raided the Chug, and there 
killed one of the old settlers Huntoon and ran off thirty-two 
horses. Lieutenant Allison, Second Cavalry, took the trail, and 
would have run his prey down had it not been for a blinding 
snow-storm which suddenly arose and obliterated the tracks of 
the marauders ; sufficient was learned, however, to satisfy Alli- 
son that the raiders were straight from the Red Cloud Agency. 
When the body of Huntoon was found, it had eleven wounds 
three from arrows. The same or similar tales came in from all 
points of the compass from the villages of the friendly Sho- 
shones and Bannocks in the Wind River Mountains to the scat- 
tered homes on the Lodge Pole and the Frenchman. 

A large number of the enlisted men belonging to the compa- 
nies at Fort D. A. Russell (near Cheyenne, Wyoming) deserted, 
alleging as a reason that they did not care to serve under officers 
who would abandon their dead and dying to the foe. Every avail- 
able man of the mounted service in the Department of the Platte 
was called into requisition for this campaign ; the posts which 
had been garrisoned by them were occupied by infantry compa- 
nies sent from Omaha, Salt Lake, and elsewhere. The point of 
concentration was Fort Fetterman, and the date set as early as 
practicable after the first day of May. Two other strong columns 
were also to take the field one under General John Gibbon, con- 
sisting of the troops from the Montana camps ; the other, under 
General Alfred H. Terry, to start from Fort Lincoln, and to com- 
prise every man available from the posts in the eastern portion of 
the Department of Dakota. While the different detachments 
were marching to the point of rendezvous, Crook hurried to Fort 


Laramie, and thence eastward to the Bed Cloud Agency to hold 
a conference with the chiefs. 

It was during trips like this while rolling over the endless 
plains of Wyoming, now rivalling the emerald in their vernal 

splendors that General Crook was at his best : a clear-headed 

thinker, a fluent conversationalist, and a most pleasant compan- 
ion. He expressed himself freely in regard to the coming cam- 
paign, but said that while the Sioux and Cheyennes were a 
brave and bold people, from the very nature of the case they 
would never stand punishment as the Apaches had done. The 
tribes of the plains had accumulated much property in ponies 
and other things, and the loss of that would be felt most deeply. 
Crook hoped to sound the chiefs at the Red Cloud Agency, 
and learn about where each stood on the question of peace or 
hostility ; he also hoped to be able to enlist a small contingent of 
scouts for service with the troops. General Crook was unable to 
find the agent who was absent, but in his place he explained to 
the agency clerk what he wanted. The latter did all he could 
to prevent any of the chiefs from coming to see General Crook ; 
nevertheless, "Sitting Bull of the South/' "Rocky Bear," and 
" Three Bears/' prominent in the tribe, came over to the office of 
the military commander, Major Jordan, of the Ninth Infantry, 
and there met Crook, who had with him Colonel Stanton, Colo- 
nel Jordan, Frank Gruard, and myself. These men, spoke in 
most favorable terms of the propositions laid down by General 
Crook, and old "Sitting Bull " (who, although bearing the same 
name, was as good as the " Sitting Bull" was bad) assured Gen- 
eral Crook that even if no other chief in the tribe assisted, he 
would gather together thirty-five or forty of his young men and 
go with the soldiers to help drive the hostiles back to their 

Although frustrated by the machinations of underlings of the 
Indian Bureau at that particular time, all these men kept the 
word then given, and appeared in the campaign undertaken later 
on in the fall. " Sitting Bull" was too feeble to go out in person, 
but sent some of his best young men ; and " Three Bears " and 
" Rocky Bear " went as they promised they would, and were 
among the bravest and most active of all the command, red or 
white. When Agent Hastings returned there seemed to be a 
great change in the feelings of the Indians, and it was evident 


that he had done his best to set them against the idea of helping 
in the campaign. He expressed himself to the effect that while 
he would not forbid any Indian from going, he would not recom- 
mend any such movement. General Crook said that at the 
council where General Grant had decided that the northern Sioux 
should go upon their reservations or be whipped, there were pres- 
ent, Secretary Chandler, Assistant Secretary Cowan, Commis- 
sioner Smith, and Secretary Belknap. The chiefs were, "Red 
Cloud/' "Old Mau afraid of his Horses/' " Blue Horse/' "Amer- 
ican Horse/' "Little Wound/' "Sitting Bull of the South/' and 
" Eocky Bear." "With Agent Hastings were, Inspector Vandever, 
and one of the contractors for Indian supplies, and Mr. R. E. 
Strahorn. The contractor to whom reference is here made was 
afterwards in the month of November, 1878 convicted by a 
Wyoming court, for frauds at this time, at this Red Cloud 
Agency, and sent to the penitentiary for two years. Nothing 
came of this part of the conference ; the Indians, acting under 
bad advice, as we learned afterwards, declined to "entertain any 
proposition of enlisting their people as scouts, and were then 
told by General Crook that if they were not willing to do their 
part in maintaining order among their own people and in their 
own country, he would telegraph for the Crows, and Bannocks, 
and Shoshones to send down the bands they had asked permis- 
sion to send. 

The Sioux appeared very much better off than any of the tribes 
I had seen until that time. All of the men wore loose trousers 
of dark blue cloth ; moccasins of buck or buffalo skin covered 
with bead work ; and were wrapped in Mackinaw blankets, dark 
blue or black in color, closely enveloping the frame ; some of 
these blankets were variegated by a transyerse band of bright 
red cloth worked over with beads, while underneath appeared 
dark woollen shirts. Strings of beads, shells, and brass rings en- 
circled each neck. The hair was worn long but plain, the median 
line painted with vermilion or red ochre. Their faces were not 
marked with paint of any kind, an unusual thing with Indians 
in those days. 

Smoking was done with beautiful pipes of the reddish ochreous 
stone called " Catlmite," brought from the quarries on the Mis- 
souri. The bowls were prolonged to allow the nicotine to flow 
downwards, and were decorated with inlaid silver, speaking highly 


of the industrial capabilities of our aborigines. The stem was a 
long reed or handle of ash, perforated and beautifully ornamented 
with feathers and porcupine quills. Each smoker would take 
three or four whiffs, and then pass the pipe to the neighbor on his 

General Crook was grievously disappointed at the turn affairs 
had taken, but he said nothing and kept his own counsel Had 
he obtained three or four hundred warriors from Eed Cloud and 
Spotted Tail the hostile element would have been reduced to 
that extent, and the danger to the feeblfi and poorly protected 
settlements along the Union Pacific lessened in the same ratio, 
leaving out of consideration any possible value these young men 
might be as scouts and trailers, familiar with all the haunts and 
devices of thehostiles. Be it remembered that while these efforts 
were going on, the hay scales at the Red Cloud Agency had been 
burned, and the government herds run off from both Red Cloud 
and Spotted Tail Agencies. 

We left the Red Cloud Agency at four o'clock in the morning, 
and began the ascent of the Valley of the "White Earth " creek. 
After going several miles, on looking back we saw a great cloud 
of signal smoke puff up from the bluffs back of the Indian 
villages, but just what sort of a signal it was no one in our party 
knew. As it happened, we had a strong force, and instead of 
the usual escort of ten men or less, with which General Crook 
travelled from one post or agency to another, we had no less than 
sixty-five men all told, made up of Crook's own escort, the escort 
of Paymaster Stanton, returning from the pay trip. Colonel 
Ludington, Inspector General of the Department of the Platte, 
was also present with his escort, returning from a tour of inspec- 
tion of the troops and camps along the northern border. A 
dozen or more of the ranchers and others living in the country 
had improved the opportunity to get to the railroad with perfect 
safety, and thus we were a formidable body. At the head of the 
White Earth we halted alongside of a pretty spring to eat some 
lunch, and there were passed by the mail-rider, a man named 
Clark, who exchanged the compliments of the day, and then 
drove on toward the post which he was never to reach. He was 
ambuscaded and killed by the band of Sioux who had planned to 
assassinate Crook but were deterred by our unexpectedly large 
force, and, rather than go without killing something, slaughtered 


the poor mail-rider, and drove off his horses. That was the 
meaning of the smoke puff at Eed Cloud ; it was, as we learned 
long afterwards, the signal to the conspirators that Crook and his 
party were leaving the post. 

"We passed through Laramie and on to Fetterman as fast as 
horses and mules could draw us. Not all the troops had yet 
reached Fetterman, the condition of the road from Medicine 
Bow being fearfully bad. Crook, after some difficulty, had a 
cable ferry established, in working order. The first day sixty 
thousand pounds of stores were carried across the river ; the 
second, one hundred thousand pounds, besides soldiers by solid 
companies. Every wagon and nearly every mule and horse had 
to be carried over in the same manner, because the animals 
would not approach the swift current of the swollen Platte ; 
here they showed more sense than the men in charge of them, 
and seemed to know instinctively that the current of the river 
was too strong to be breasted by man or horse. One of the 
teamsters, Dill, fell into the river, and was swept down before 
the eyes of scores of terrified spectators and drowned. The cur- 
rent had the velocity of a mill-race, and the depth was found to 
vary from ten to twelve feet close to the shore. Frank G-ruard 
was sent across the North Platte with a small party of scouts 
and soldiers to examine into the condition of the road, and while 
out on this duty came very near being cut off by a reconnoitring 
band of the enemy. 

General Crook assumed command in General Orders, No. 1, 
May 28, 1876. Colonel William B. Eoyall, Third Cavalry, was 
assigned to the command of the fifteen companies of cavalry 
forming part of the expedition, having under him Colonel 
Alexander W. Evans, commanding the ten companies of the 
Third Cavalry, and Major JEL E. Noyes, commanding the five of 
the Second Cavalry. 

Five companies of the Ninth and Fourth Infantry were 
placed under the command of Colonel Alexander Chambers, of 
the Fourth Infantry ; Captain Nickerson and Lieutenant Boorke 
were announced as Aides-de-Camp ; Captain G-eorge M. Ran- 
dall, Twenty-third Infantry, as Chief of Scouts ; Captain Will- 
iam Stanton as Chief Engineer Officer ; Captain John Y. 
Furey as Chief Quartermaster ; First Lieutenant John W. 
JBubb as Commissary of Subsistence ; Assistant Surgeon Albert 


Hartsuf as Medical Director. The companies starting out on 
this expedition and the officers connected with them were as 
follows: Company "A.," Third Cavalry, Lieutenant Charles 
Morton ; Company Ci B," Third Cavalry, Captain Meinhold, 
Lieutenant Simpson ; Company " C/* Third Cavalry, Captain 
Van Yliet, Lieutenant Yon Leuttewitz ; Company "D," Third 
Cavalry, Captain Guy V. Henry, Lieutenant W. W. Robinson ; 
Company "E," Third Cavalry, Captain Sutorius ; Company 
"F," Third Cavalry, Lieutenant B. Eeynolds ; Company " Q," 
Third Cavalry, Lieutenant Emmet Crawford ; Company " I," 
Third Cavalry, Captain Andrews, Lieutenants A. D. King and 
Foster ; Company " L," Third Cavalry, Captain P. D. Vroom, 
Lieutenant Chase ; Company "M," Third Cavalry, Captain An- 
son Mills and Lieutenants A. C. Paul and Schwatka ; Company 
"A, w Second Cavalry, Captain Dewees, Lieutenant Peirson ; 
Company " B," Second Cavalry, Lieutenant Eawolle ; Company 
"E," Second Cavalry, Captain Wells, Lieutenant Sibley ; Com- 
pany "I," Second Cavalry, Captain H. E. Noyes ; Company 
"Q/ ? Second Cavalry, Lieutenants Swigert and Huntington ; 
Company "0," Ninth Infantry, Captain Sam Munson, Lieu- 
tenant T. H. Capron ; Company " H," Ninth Infantry, Captain 
A. S. Burt, Lieutenant B. B. Robertson ; Company "G," Ninth 
Infantry, Captain T. B. Burroughs, Lieutenant W. L. Carpen- 
ter ; Company " D" Fourth Infantry, Captain A. B, Cain, 
Lieutenant H. Seton ; Company "F," Fourth Infantry, Captain 
Gerard Luhn. 

Assistant surgeons : Patzki, Stevens, and Powell. 

Chief of pack trains : Mr. Thomas Moore. 

Chief of wagon trains : Mr. Charles Russell. 

Guides : Frank Gruard, Louis Richaud, Baptiste Pourrier 

("Big Bat"). 

The press of the country was represented by Joseph Wasson, 
of the Press, Philadelphia, Tribune, New York, and Alia Cal- 
ifornia, of San Francisco, California ; Robert E. Strahorn, of 
the Tribune, Chicago, Rocky Mountain News, Denver, Colo- 
rado, Sun, Cheyenne, Wyoming, and Republican, Omaha, 
Nebraska ; John F. Finerty, Times, Chicago ; T. B. MacMillan, 
Inter- Ocean, Chicago ; R. B. Davenport, Herald, New York, 

Our camp on the north side of the North Platte presented 
a picturesque appearance, with its long rows of shelter tents 


arranged symmetrically in a meadow bounded on three sides by 
the stream ; the herds of animals grazing or running about ; the 
trains of wagons and mules passing from point to point, united 
to form a picture of animation and spirit. We had a train of 
one hundred and three six-mule wagons, besides one of hundreds 
of pack-mules ; and the work of ferriage became too great for 
mortal strength, and the ferrymen were almost exhausted both 
by their legitimate duties and by those of mending and splicing 
the boat and the cable which were leaking or snapping several 
times a day. 

May 29, 1876, saw the column moving out from its camp in 
front of Fort Fetterman ; the long black line of mounted men 
stretched for more than a mile with nothing to break the sombre- 
ness of color save the flashing of the sun's rays back from car- 
bines and bridles. An undulating streak of white told where the 
wagons were already under way, and a puff of dust just in front 
indicated the line of march of the infantry battalion. As we 
were moving along the same road described in the campaign of 
the winter, no further mention is necessary until after passing 
old Fort Reno. Meinhold, with two companies, was sent on in 
advance to reconnoitre the country, and report the state of the 
road as well as any signs of the proximity of large bands of the 
enemy. Van Yliet was instructed to push ahead, and keep a 
look-out for the Crow and Shoshone scouts who had promised to 
join the command at or near Reno. In spite of the fact that 
summer was already with us, a heavy snow-storm attacked the 
column on June 1st, at the time of our coming in sight of the 
Big Horn Mountains. The day was miserably cold, water froze 
in the camp-kettles, and there was much discomfort owing to the 
keen wind blowing down from the frozen crests of the Big Horn. 
From Reno, Gruard, Richaud, and "Big Bat"" were sent to see 
what had become of the Crows, and lead them back to our com- 
mand on the line of march. 

Before he left Frank gave an account, from the story told 
him by the Sioux who had participated in it, of the massacre near 
this place of the force of officers and men enticed out from old 
Fort Kearney. In this sad affair we lost three officers Fetterman, 
Brown, and G-rummond and seventy-five enlisted, -with three 
civilians, names unknown. The Sioux admitted to Frank that 
they had suffered to the extent of one hundred and eighty-five, 


killed and wounded. I mention this story here at the place where 
we heard it from Prank's lips, although we afterwards marched 
over the very spot where the massacre occurred. 

We broke camp at a very early hour, the infantry being out on 
the road by four o'clock each morning, the cavalry remaining for 
some time later to let the animals have the benefit of the grass 
freshened by the frost of the night previous. We were getting 
quite close to Cloud Peak, the loftiest point in the Big Horn 
range ; its massy dome towered high in the sky, white with a 
mantle of snow ; here and there a streak of darkness betrayed 
the attempts of the tall pine trees on the summit to penetrate to 
the open air above them. Heavy belts of forest covered the sides 
of the range below the snow line, and extended along the skirts 
of the foot-hills well out into the plains below. The singing of 
meadow-larks, and the chirping of thousands of grasshoppers, 
enlivened the morning air ; and save these no sound broke the 
stillness, except the rumbling of wagons slowly creeping along the 
road. The dismal snow-storm of which so much complaint had 
been made was rapidly superseded by most charming weather : 
a serene atmosphere, balmy breeze, and cloudless sky were the 
assurances that summer had come at last, and, as if anxious to 
repair past negligence, was about to favor us with all its charms. 
The country in which we now were was a great grassy plain cov- 
ered with herbage just heading into seed. There was no timber 
except upon the spurs of the Big Horn, which loomed up on our 
left covered with heavy masses of pine, fir, oak, and juniper. 
Prom the innumerable seams and gashes in the flanks of this 
noble range issue the feeders of the Tongue and Powder, each 
insignificant in itself, but so well distributed that the country is 
as well adapted for pasturage as any in the world. The bluffs 
are full of coal of varying qualities, from lignite to a good com- 
mercial article ; one of the men of the command brought in a 
curious specimen of this lignite, which at one end was coal and 
at the other was silicified. Buffalo tracks and Indian signs were 
becoming frequent. 

Clear Creek, upon which we made camp, was a beautiful 
stream fifty feet wide, two feet deep ; current rapid and as much 
as eight miles an hour; water icy-cold from the melting of the 
snow-banks on the Big Horn ; bottom of gravel ; banks gently 
sloping ; approaches good. Grass was excellent, but fuel rather 


scarce in the immediate vicinity of the road. Birds, antelope, and 
fish began to figure on the mess canvas ; the fish, a variety of 
sucker, very palatable, were secured by shooting a bullet under 
them and stunning them, so that they rose to the surface, and 
were then seized. Trout were not yet found ; they appear in 
the greatest quantity in the waters of Tongue River, the next 
stream beyond to the west. There is a variety of tortoise in the 
waters of these mountains which is most toothsome, and to my 
uncultivated taste fully as good as the Maryland terrapin. 

Here we were visited by messengers from a party of Montana 
miners who were travelling across country from the Black Hills 
back to the Yellowstone ; the party numbered sixty-five, and had 
to use every precaution to prevent stampede and surprise ; every 
night they dug rifle-pits, and surrounded themselves with rocks, 
palisades, or anything else that could be made to resist a charge 
from the Sioux, whose trails were becoming very thick and 
plenty. There were many pony, but few lodge-pole, tracks, a 
sure indication that the men were slipping out from Bed Cloud 
and Spotted Tail agencies and uniting with the hostiles, but 
leaving their families at home, under the protection of the reser- 
vations. It always seemed to me that that little party of Mon- 
tana miners displayed more true grit, more common sense, and 
more intelligence in their desperate march through a scarcely 
known country filled with hostile Indians than almost any simi- 
lar party which I can now recall ; they were prepared for every 
emergency, and did excellent service under Crook at the Eosebud ; 
but before reaching their objective point, I am sorry to say, 
many of their number fell victims to a relentless and wily foe. 

To prevent any stampede of our stock which might be at- 
tempted, our method of establishing pickets became especially 
rigid : in addition to the mounted vedettes encircling bivouac, 
and occupying commanding buttes and bluffs, solid companies 
were thrown out a mile or two in advance and kept mounted, 
with the purpose of holding in check all parties of the enemy 
which might attempt to rush down upon the herds and frighten 
them off by waving blankets, yelling, firing guns, or other tricks 
in which the savages were adepts. One platoon kept saddled 
ready for instant work ; the others were allowed to loosen the 
cinches, but not to unsaddle. Eight miles from the ruins of old 
Fort Kearney, to the east, we passed Lake De Smet, named after 


the zealous missionary, Father De Smet, whose noble life was 
devoted to the advancement of the Sioux, Pawnees, Arapahoes, 
Crows, Blackfeet, Cheyennes, Coeurs d'Alenes, and Mfez Percys, 
and whose silent ministrations refute the calumny that the 
American Indian is not responsive to efforts for his improvement. 
The view of this body of water, from the roadside, is very beauti- 
ful ; in length, it is nearly 'three miles ; in width, not quite a 
mile. The water is clear and cold, but alkaline and disagreeable 
to the taste. Game and ducks in great numbers resort to this 
lake, probably on account of the mineral contained in its waters 
and a variety of pickerel is said to be abundant. Buffalo were 
seen near this bivouac at old Fort Kearney and elk meat was 
brought into camp with beaver, antelope, pin-tailed grouse, and 
sickle-billed curlew. 

Our camp on Prairie Dog Creek, at its junction with the 
Tongue Kiver, was memorable from being the scene of the killing 
of the first buffalo found within shooting distance of the column. 
Mosquitoes became troublesome near the water courses. Prairie- 
dog villages lined the trail in all places where the sandy soil ad- 
mitted of easy digging. The last hour or two of this march was 
very unpleasant. The heat of the sun became almost unbear- 
able. Dense masses of clouds moved sluggishly up from the 
west and north, while light flaky feathers of vapor flitted across 
the sky, coquetting with the breeze, now obscuring the sun, now 
revealing his rays. Low, rumbling thunder sullenly boomed 
across the Iiorizon, and with the first flash of lightning changed 
into an almost continuous roar. The nearest peaks of the Big 
Horn were hid from our gaze. The heavy arch of clouds sup- 
ported itself upon the crests of the bluffs enclosing the valley of 
our camp. It was a pretty picture ; the parks of wagons and 
pack-mules, the bright rows of tentage, and the moving animals 
and men gave enough animation to relieve the otherwise too 
sombre view of the elements at war. Six buffaloes were killed 
this day. 

On the 7th of June we buried the soldier of Meinhold's com- 
pany who had accidentally wounded himself with his own 
revolver while chopping wood. Besides the escort prescribed by 
the regulations, the funeral cortege was swollen by additions from 
all the companies of the expedition, the pack-train, wagoners, 
officers, and others, reaching an aggregate of over six hundred. 


Colonel G-uy V. Henry, Third Cavalry, read in a very feeling 
manner the burial sendee from the " Book of Common Prayer/* 
the cavalry trumpets sounded " taps/' a handful of earth was 
thrown down upon the remains, the grave was rapidly filled up, 
and the companies at quick step returned to their tents. There 
was no labored panegyric delivered over the body of Tieruan, but 
the kind reminiscences of his comrades were equivalent to an 
eulogy of which an archbishop might have been proud. Soldiers 
are the freest from care of any set of men on earth ; the grave 
had not closed on their comrade before they were discussing other 
incidents of the day, and had forgotten the sad rites of sepulture 
in which they had just participated. To be more charitable, we 
were seeing so much that was novel and interesting that it was 
impossible to chain the mind down to one train of thought. 
Captain N~oyes had wandered off during the storm of the night 
previous, and remained out of camp all night hunting for good 
trout pools. A herd of buffaloes had trotted down close to our 
bivouac, and many of our command had been unable to resist 
the temptation to go out and have a shot ; we knocked over half 
a dozen or more of the old bulls, and brought the meat back for 
the use of the messes. 

The conversation ran upon the difficulty experienced by the 
pioneer party under Captain Andrews, Third Cavalry, in smooth- 
ing and straightening the road during the marches of the past 
two or three days. General Crook had been successful in finding 
the nests and the eggs of some rare birds, the white-ringed black- 
bird, the Missouri skylark, and the crow of this region. He had 
all his life been an enthusiastic collector of specimens in natural 
history, especially in all that relates to nests and eggs, and had 
been an appreciative observer of the valuable work done on the 
frontier in that direction by Captain Charles Bendire, of the 
First Cavalry. 

During the 8th of June there was some excitement among us, 
owing to the interchange of conversation between our pickets 
and a party of Indians late the previous night. It could not be 
determined at the moment whether the language used was Sioux 
or Crow, or both, but there was a series of calls and questions 
which our men did not fully understand ; one query was to the 
effect that ours might be a Crow camp. A pony was found out- 
side our lines, evidently left by the visitors. Despatches were 


received by General Crook notifying him that all able-bodied 
male Indians had left the Eed Cloud Agency, and that the Fifth 
Cavalry had been ordered up from Kansas to take post in our 
rear ; also that the Shoshones had sent one hundred and twenty 
of their warriors to help him, and that we should look for their 
arrival almost any day. They were marching across the moun- 
tains from their reservation in the Wind Eiver range, in the heart 
of the Eockies. 

June 9, 1876, the monotony of camp life was agreeably 
broken by an attack upon our lines made in a most energetic 
manner by the Sioux and Cheyennes. We had reached a most 
picturesque and charming camp on the beautiful Tongue Eiver, 
and had thrown out our pickets upon the hill tops, when sud- 
denly the pickets began to show signs of uneasiness, and to first 
walk and then trot their horses around in a circle, a warning 
that they had seen something dangerous. The Indians did not 
wait for a moment, but moved up in good style, driving in our 
pickets and taking position in the rocks, from which they rained 
down a severe fire which did no great damage but was extremely 
annoying while it lasted. We had only two men wounded, one 
in the leg, another in the arm, both by glancing bullets, and 
neither wound dangerous, and three horses and two mules 
wounded, most of which died. The attacking party had made 
the mistake of aiming at the tents, which at the moment were 
unoccupied; but bullets ripped through the canvas, split the 
ridge poles, smashed the pipes of the Sibley stoves, and im- 
bedded themselves in the tail-boards of the wagons. Burt, Mun- 
son, and Burroughs were ordered out with their rifles, and Mills 
was ordered to take his own company of the Third Cavalry and 
those of Sutorius, Andrews, and Lawson, from EoyalPs com- 
mand, and go across the Tongue and drive the enemy, which 
they did. The infantry held the buttes on our right until after 

This attack was only a bluff on the part of " Crazy Horse " to 
keep his word to Crook that he would begin to fight the latter 
just as soon as he touched the waters of the Tongue Eiver ; we 
had scoffed at the message at first, believing it to have been an 
invention of some of the agency half-breeds, but there were 
many who now believed in its authenticity. Every one was glad 
the attack had been made ; if it did nothing else, it proved that 


we were not going to have our marching for nothing ; it kept 
vedettes and guards on the alert and camp in condition for fight 
at a moment's notice. Grass becoming scarce on Tongue Kiver 
Crook moved his command to the confluence of the two forks of 
Goose Creek, which is the largest affluent of the Tongue ; the 
distance was a trifle over seventeen miles, and during the march 
a hail-storm of great severity visited us and continued its pest- 
iferous attentions for some time after tents had been erected. 
The situation at the new camp had many advantages : excellent 
pasturage was secured from the slopes of the hills ; water flowed 
in the greatest profusion clear, sweet, and icy cold, murmuring 
gently in the channels on each side ; fire-wood in sufficiency 
could be gathered along the banks ; the view of the mountains 
was beautiful and exhilarating, and the climate serene and brac- 
ing. Goose Creek was twenty-five yards wide, with a uniform 
depth of three feet, but greatly swollen by recent rains and the 
melting of the snow-banks up in the mountains. 

We had to settle down and await the return of Frank Gruard, 
Louis Richaud, and "Big Bat/' concerning whose safety not a 
few of the command began to express misgivings, notwithstand- 
ing they were all experienced frontiersmen, able to look out for 
their own safety under almost any contingencies. The more 
sanguine held to the view that the Crows had retired farther 
into their own country on account of the assembling of great 
bands of their enemies the Sioux and Cheyennes and that our 
emissaries had to travel much farther than they had first con- 
templated. But they had been separated from us for ten or 
twelve days, and it was becoming a matter of grave concern what 
to do about them. 

In a bivouac of that kind the great object of life is to kill time. 
Drilling and guard duty occupy very few minutes, reading and 
writing become irksome, and conversation narrowly escapes 
the imputation of rank stupidity. "We had enjoyed several 
pony races, but the best plugs for that sort of work Major 
Burt's white and Lieutenant Kobertson's bay had both been 
shot during the skirmish of the 9th of the month, the former 
fatally, and we no longer enjoyed the pleasure of seeing races in 
which the stakes were nothing but a can of corn or a haunch of 
venison on each side, but which attracted as large and as deeply 
interested crowds as many more pretentious affairs within the 


limits of civilization. The sending in of the mail every week or 
ten days excited a ripple of concern, and the packages of letters 
made up to be forwarded showed that our soldiers were men of 
intelligence and not absolutely severed from home ties. The 
packages were wrapped very tightly, first in waxed cloth and 
then in oiled muslin, the official communications of most impor- 
tance being tied to the courier's person, the others packed on a 
led mule. At sundown the courier, Harrison, who had under- 
taken this dangerous business, set out on his return to Fort 
Fetterman, accompanied by a non-commissioned officer whose 
time had expired, They were to ride only by night, and never 
follow the road too closely ; by hiding in little coves high up in 
the hills during the day they could most easily escape detection 
by prowling bands of Indians coming oat from the agencies, but 
at best it was taking their lives in their hands. 

The packers organized a foot-race, and bets as high as five 
and ten thousand dollars were freely waged. These were of 
the class known in Arizona as " jawbone/' and in Wyoming as 
(t wind " ; the largest amount of cash that I saw change hands 
was twenty-five cents. Rattlesnakes began to emerge from their 
winter seclusion, and to appear again in society ; Lieutenant 
Lemly found an immense one coiled up in his blankets, and 
waked the echoes with his yells for help. The weather had as- 
sumed a most charming phase ; the gently undulating prairie 
upon whose bosom camp reposed was decked with the greenest 
and most nutritive grasses ; our animals lazily nibbled along 
the hill skirts or slept in the genial light of the sun. In the 
shade of the box-elder and willows along the stream beds the 
song of the sweet-voiced meadow lark was heard all day. At 
rare moments the chirping of grasshoppers might be distin- 
guished in, the herbage ; in front of our line of tents a cook was 
burning or browning coffee it was just as often one as the 
other an idle recruit watching the process with a semi-attentive 
stupefaction. The report of a carbine, aimed and fired by one 
exasperated teamster at another attracted general notice ; the 
assailant was at once put in confinement and a languid discussion 
of the merits or supposed merits of the case undulated from 
tent to tent. Parties of whist-players devoted themselves to 
their favorite game ; other players eked out a share of diversion 
with home-made checker-boards. Those who felt disposed to 


test their skill as anglers were fairly rewarded ; the trout began 
to bite languidly at first and with exasperating deliberation, but 
making up for it all later on, when a good mess could be hooked 
in a few minutes. Noyes and Wells and Randall were the trout 
maniacs, but they had many followers in their gentle lunacy, 
which, before the hot weather had ended, spread throughout the 
whole command. Mills and his men were more inclined to go 
up in the higher altitudes and hunt for bear ; they brought in a 
good-sized "cinnamon," which was some time afterwards fol- 
lowed by other specimens of the bruin family ; elk and deer and 
buffaloes, the last chiefly the meat of old bulls driven out of the 
herds to the northwest, gave relish and variety to the ordinary 
rations and additional topics for conversation. 

General Crook was an enthusiastic hunter and fisher, and never 
failed to return with some tribute exacted from the beasts of the 
hills or the swimmers of the pools ; but he frequently joined 
Burt and Carpenter in their search for rare birds and butterflies, 
with which the rolling plains at the base of the Big Horn were 
filled. "We caught one very fine specimen of the prairie owl, 
which seemed wonderfully tame, and comported itself with rare 
dignity; the name of " Sitting Bull" was conferred unanimously, 
and borne so long as the bird honored camp with its presence. 
Lieutenant Foster made numbers of interesting sketches of the 
scenery of the Big Horn and the hills nearest the Goose Creek ; 
one of the packers, a man with decided artistic abilities, named 
Stanley, was busy at every spare moment sketching groups of 
teamsters, scouts, animals, and wagons, with delicacy of execu- 
tion and excellent effect. Captain Stanton, our engineer officer, 
took his altitudes daily and noted the positions of the stars. 
Newspapers were read to pieces, and such books as had found 
their way with the command were passed from hand to hand and 
read eagerly. Mr. Wasson and I made an arrangement to peruse 
each day either one of Shakespeare's plays or an essay by Macau- 
lay, and to discuss them together. The discovery of the first mess 
of luscious strawberries occasioned more excitement than any of 
the news received in the journals of the time, and an alarm on 
the picket line from the accidental discharge of a carbine or rifle 
would bring out all the conversational strength of young and old. 

It was whispered that one of our teamsters was a woman, and 
no other than. "Calamity Jane/' a character famed in border 


story ; she had donned the raiment of the alleged rougher sex, and 
was skinning mules with the best of them. She was eccentric and 
wayward rather than bad, and had adopted male attire more to aid 
her in getting a living than for any improper purpose. "Jane " 
was as rough and burly as any of her messmates, and it is doubt- 
ful if her sex would ever have been discovered had not the wag- 
on-master noted that she didn't cuss her mules with the enthu- 
siasm to be expected from a graduate of Patrick & Saulsbury's 
Black Hills Stage Line, as she had represented herself to be. 
The Montana miners whom we had found near old Fort Eeno 
began to " prospect" the gulches, but met with slight success. 

During the afternoon of June 14th Frank Gruard and Louis 
Eichaud returned, bringing with them an old Crow chief ; they 
reported having been obliged to travel as far as old Fort Smith, 
on the Big Horn, and that they had there seen a large village of 
Crows, numbering more than two hundred lodges. "While prepar- 
ing a cup of coffee the smoke from their little fire was discovered 
by the Crow scouts, and all the young warriors of the village, mis- 
taking them for a smajl band of Sioux raiders, charged across 
the river and attacked them, nearly killing both Frank and Bat 
before mutual recognition was made and satisfactory greetings 
exchanged. The Crows were at first reluctant to send any of 
their men to aid in the war against the Sioux, alleging that they 
were compelled to get meat for their women and children, and the 
buffaloes were now close to them in great herds ; we might stay 
out too long; the enemy was so close to the Crows that reprisals 
might be attempted, and many of the Crow women, children, and 
old men would fall beneath the bullet and the lance. But at last 
they consented to send a detachment of one hundred and seventy- 
five of their best men to see Crook and talk the matter over. 
Frank led them to our deserted camp on the Tongue River, upon 
seeing which they became alarmed, and supposed that we must 
have had a defeat from the Sioux and been compelled to aban- 
don the country ; only sixteen followed further ; of these Frank 
and Louis took the old chief and rode as rapidly as possible to our 
camp on the Goose, leaving Bat to jog along with fifteen others 
and join at leisure. 

General Crook ordered a hot meal of coffee, sugar, biscuits, 
butter, venison, and stewed dried apples to be set before the 
guest and guides, and then had a long talk with the former 


through the "sign language/' the curious medium of corre- 
spondence between all the tribes east of the Eocky Mountains, 
from the Saskatchewan to the Pecos. This language is idea- 
graphic and not literal in its elements, and has strong resemblance 
to the figure speech of deaf mutes. Every word, every idea to be 
conveyed, has its characteristic symbol ; the rapidity of transmis- 
sion is almost telegraphic ; and, as will be demonstrated later on, 
every possible topic finds adequate expression. The old chief 
explained to Prank that the troops from Montana (Gibbon's com- 
mand) were encamped on the left bank of the Yellowstone, oppo- 
site the mouth of the Eosebud, unable to cross ; the hostile Sioux 
were watching the troops from the other side. An attempt made 
by Gibbon to throw his troops across had resulted in the drown- 
ing of one company's horses in the flood ; the Sioux had also, in 
some unexplained way, succeeded in running off the ponies belong- 
ing to the thirty Crow scouts attached to Gibbon's command. 

The main body of the hostile Sioux and Oheyennes was 
encamped on the Tongue, near the mouth of Otter Creek, and 
between that and the Yellowstone. The Crows had heard that a 
large band of Shoshones had started out to join Crook, and 
should soon be with him at his present camp. It was a small 
detachment of Crow scouts that had alarmed our pickets by yell- 
ing some ten nights previously. As soon as the meal and the 
conversation were ended Crook sent the old chief back with 
Louis Eichaud and Major Burt, who from previous service among 
the Crows was well acquainted with many of them, to halt the 
main body and induce them to enter our camp. Burt was entirely 
successful in his mission, and before dusk he was with us again, 
this time riding at the head of a long retinue of savage retainers, 
whose grotesque head-dresses, variegated garments, wild little 
ponies, and war-like accoutrements made a quaint and curious 

While the main column halted just inside our camp, the three 
chiefs "Old Crow/' " Medicine Crow/' and "Good Heart " 
were presented to General Crook, and made the recipients of 
some little attentions in the way of food. Our newly-arrived allies 
bivouacked in our midst, sending their herd of ponies out to 
graze alongside of our own horses. The entire band numbered 
one hundred and seventy-six, as near as we could ascertain ; each 
had two ponies. The first thing they did was to erect the war- 


lodges of saplings, covered over with blankets or pieces of can- 
vas; fires were next built, and a feast prepared of the supplies 
of coffee, sugar, and hard-tack dealt out by the commissary ; 
these are the prime luxuries of an Indian's life. A curious crowd 
of }ookers-on officers, soldiers, teamsters, and packers congre- 
gated around the little squads of Crows, watching with eager at- 
tention their every movement. The Indians seemed proud of the 
distinguished position they occupied in popular estimation, and 
were soon on terms of easy familiarity with the soldiers, some of 
whom could talk a sentence or two of Crow, and others were 
expert to a slight extent in the sign language. 

In stature, complexion, dress, and general demeanor a marked 
contrast was observable between our friends and the Sioux In- 
dians, a contrast decidedly to the advantage of the former. The 
Absarokaor Crow Indians, perhaps as a consequence of their resi- 
dence among the elevated banks and cool, fresh mountain ranges 
between the Big Horn Eiver and the Yellowstone, are somewhat 
fairer than the other tribes about them ; they are all above me- 
dium height, not a few being quite tall, and many have a noble 
expression of countenance. Their dress consisted of a shirt of 
flannel, cotton, or buckskin ; breech-clout ; leggings of blanket ; 
moccasins of deer, elk, or buffalo hide ; coat of bright-colored 
blanket, made with loose sleeves and hood ; and a head-dress 
fashioned in divers shapes, but most frequently formed from an 
old black army hat, with the top cut out and sides bound round 
with feathers, fur, and scarlet cloth. Their arms were all breech- 
loaders, throwing cartridges of calibre .50 with an occasional .45. 
Lances, medicine-poles, and tomahawks figured in the procession. 
The tomahawks, made of long knives inserted in shafts or han- 
dles of wood and horn, were murderous weapons. Accompanying 
these Indians were a few little boys, whose business was to hold 
horses and other unimportant work while their elders conducted 
the dangerous operations of the campaign. 

At " retreat " all the battalion commanders and staff officers 
assembled in front of the tent of the commanding general, and 
listened to his terse instructions regarding the approaching 
march. We were to cut loose from our wagons, each officer and 
soldier carrying four days* rations of hard bread, coffee, and 
bacon in saddle-pockets, and one hundred rounds of ammunition 
in belts or pouches ; one blanket to each person. The wagons 


were to be parked and left behind in a defensible position on the 
Tongue or G-oose, and under the protection of the men unable 
for any reason to join in the forward movement ; all the infantry- 
men who could ride and who so desired were to be mounted on 
mules from the pack-trains with saddles from the wagons or 
from the cavalry companies which could spare them. If success- 
ful in attacking a village, the supplies of dried meat aad other 
food were to be saved, and we should then, in place of returning 
immediately to our train, push on to make a combination with 
either Terry or Gibbon, as the case might be. 

Scarcely had this brief conference been ended when a long line 
of glittering lances and brightly polished weapons of fire an- 
nounced the anxiously expected advent of our other allies, fche 
Shoshones or Snakes, who, to the number of eighty-six, galloped 
rapidly up to headquarters and came left front into line in 
splendid style. No trained warriors of civilized armies ever exe- 
cuted the movement more prettily. Exclamations of wonder 
and praise greeted the barbaric array of these fierce warriors, 
warmly welcomed by their former enemies but at present strong 
friends the Crows. General Crook moved out to review their 
line of battle, resplendent in ^11 the fantastic adornment of 
feathers, beads, brass buttons, bells, scarlet cloth, and flashing 
lances. The Shoshones were not slow to perceive the favorable 
impression made, and when the order came for them to file off by 
the right moved with the precision of clock-work and the pride 
of veterans. 

A grand council was the next feature of the evening's enter- 
tainment. Around a huge fire of crackling boughs the officers 
of the command arranged themselves in two rows, the interest 
and curiosity depicted upon their countenances acting as a foil 
to the stolidity and imperturbable calmness of the Indians 
squatted upon the ground on the other side. The breezes blow- 
ing the smoke aside would occasionally enable the flames to 
bring out in bold and sudden relief the intense blackness of the 
night, the sepulchral whiteness of the tents and wagon-sheets, 
the blue coats of officers and soldiers (who thronged among the 
wagons behind their superiors), the red, white, yellow, and black 
beaded blankets of the savages, whose aquiline features and glit- 
tering eyes had become still more aquiline and still more glitter- 
ing, and the small group in the centre of the circle composed of 


General Crook and his staff, the interpretersFrank Gruard and 
" Big Bat" and Louis and the Indian chiefs. One quadrant was 
reserved for the Shoshones, another for the Crows. Each tribe 
selected one spokesman, who repeated to his people the words of 
the General as they were made known by the interpreters. 
Ejaculations of "Ugh ! ugh 1" were the only signs of approval, 
but it was easy enough to see that nothing was lost that was 
addressed to them. Pipes of the same kind as those the Sioux 
have were kept in industrious circulation. The remarks made 
by General Crook were almost identical with those addressed to 
the Crows alone earlier in the evening ; the Indians asked the 
privilege of scouting in their own way, which was conceded. 

An adjournment was ordered at between ten and eleven 
o'clock to allow such of our allies as so desired to seek much- 
needed rest. The Shoshones had ridden sixty miles, and night 
was far advanced. The erroneousness of this assumption was 
disclosed very speedily. A long series of monotonous howls, 
shrieks, groans, and nasal yells, emphasized by a perfectly ear- 
piercing succession of thumps upon drums improvised from " par- 
fleche " (tanned buffalo skin), attracted nearly all the soldiers 
and many of the officers not on duty to the allied camp. Peep- 
ing into the different lodges was very much like peeping through 
the key-hole of Hades. 

Crouched around little fires not afl ording as much light as an 
ordinary tallow candle, the swarthy figures of the naked and 
half-naked Indians were visible, moving and chanting in unison 
with some leader. No words were distinguishable ; the cere- 
mony partook of the nature of an abominable incantation, and 
as far as I could judge had a semi-religious character. One of 
the Indians, mounted on a pony and stripped almost naked, 
passed along from lodge to lodge, stopping in front of each and 
calling upon the Great Spirit (so our interpreter said) to send 
them plenty of scalps, a big Sioux village, and lots of ponies. 
The inmates would respond with, if possible, increased vehe- 
mence, and the old saying about making night hideous was 
emphatically suggested. "With this wild requiem ringing in his 
ears one of our soldiers, a patient in hospital, Private "William 
Nelson, Company "L," Third Cavalry, breathed his last. The 
herd of beef cattle, now reduced to six, became scared by the din 
and broke madly for the hills. All night the rain pattered down. 



Among our Crows were said to be some very distinguished 
warriors ; one of these pointed out to me had performed during 
the preceding winter the daring feat of stealing in alone upon a 
Sioux village and getting a fine pony, which he tied loosely to a 
stake outside ; then he crept back, lifted up the flap of one of 
the lodges, and called gently to the sleepers, who, unsuspecting, 
answered the grunt, which awakened them, and thus betrayed 
just where the men were lying ; the Crow took aim coolly and 
blew the head off of one of the Sipox, slipped down through the 
village, untied and mounted his pony,, and was away like the 
wind before the astonished enemy could tell from the screaming 
and jabbering squaws what was the matter. 

All through the next day, June 15, 1876, camp was a bee- 
hive of busy preparation. Colonel Chambers had succeeded in 
finding one hundred and seventy-five infantrymen who could 
ride, or were anxious to try, so as to see the whole trip through 
in proper shape. These were mounted upon mules from the 
wagon and pack trains, and the first hour's experience with the 
reluctant Eosin antes equalled the best exhibition ever given by 
Barnum. Tom Moore organized a small detachment of packers 
who had had any amount of experience ; two of them Young 
and Delaney had been with the English in India, in the wars 
with the Sikhs and Eohillas, and knew as much as most people 
do about campaigning and all its hardships and dangers. The 
medical staff was kept busy examining men unfit to go to the 
front, but it was remarkable that the men ordered to remain 
behind did so under protest. The wagons were parked in a great 
corral, itself a sort of fortification against which the Sioux would 
not heedlessly rush,. Within this corral racks made of willow 
branches supported loads of wild meat, drying in the sun : deer 
and antelope venison, buffalo, elk, and grizzly-bear meat, the last 
two killed by a hunting party from the pack-train the previous day. 

The preparations which our savage allies were making were no 
less noticeable : in both Snake and Crow camps could be seen 
squads of young warriors looking after their rifles, which, by the 
way, among the Shoshones, I forgot to mention, were of the latest 
model calibre .45 and kept with scrupulous care in regular 
gun-racks. Some were sharpening lances or adorning them with 
feathers and paint; others were making " coup " sticks, which 
are long willow branches about twelve feet from end to end, 


stripped of leaves and bark, and having each some distinctive 
mark, in the way of feathers, bells, fur, paint, or bright-colored 
cloth or flannel. These serve a singular purpose : the great 
object of the Shoshones, Crows, Cheyennes, and Dakotas in 
making war is to set the enemy afoot. This done, his destruc- 
tion is rendered more easy if not more certain. Ponies are also 
the wealth of the conquerors ; hence, in dividing the spoil, each 
man claims the animals first struck by his <e coup " stick. 

With the Snakes were three white meni Cosgrove, Yarnell, 
and Bckles all Texans; and one French-Canadian half-breed, 
named Luisant. Cosgrove, the leading spirit, was, during the 
Rebellion, a captain in the 32d Texas Cavalry, C. S. A., and 
showed he had not forgotten the lessons of the war by the 
appearance of discipline and good order evinced by his command,, 
who, in this respect, were somewhat ahead of the Crows. We 
were informed that on the march over from Wind Eiver, the 
Snakes, during one afternoon, killed one hundred and seventy- 
five buffaloes on the eastern slope of the Owl Creek Mountains. 
In the early hours of the afternoon the Crows had a foot-race, 
for twenty cartridges a side ; the running was quite good for the 
distance of one hundred and fifty yards. 

At sunset we buried Private Nelson, who had died the previous 
night. The funeral cortege was decidedly imposing, because, as 
on all former occasions of the same nature, all officers and men 
not engaged on other duty made it a point to be present at the 
grave of every dead comrade ; the noise of the parting volleys 
brought our savages up on a gallop, persuaded that the Sioux 
were making a demonstration against some part of our lines ; 
they dashed up to the side of the grave, and there they sat 
motionless upon their ponies, feathers nodding in the breeze, 
and lances gleaming in the sun. Some of them wore as many as 
four rings in each ear, the entire cartilage being perforated from 
apex to base. 



ON" the 16th of June, by five o'clock in the morning, our 
whole command had broken camp and was on its way west- 
ward ; we crossed Tongue Biver, finding a swift stream, rather 
muddy from recent rains, with a current twenty-fire yards wide, 
and four feet deep ; the bottom of hard-pan,, but the banks on 
one side muddy and slippery. 

The valley, as we saw it from the bluffs amid which we 
marched, presented a most beautiful appearance green with 
juicy grasses, and dark with the foliage of cotton wood and willow. 
Its sinuosities encircled many park-like areas of meadow, bounded 
on the land side by bluffs of drift. The Indians at first marched 
on the flank, but soon passed the column and took the lead, the 
"medicine men" in front ; one of the head ^medicine men" of 
the Crows kept up a piteous chant, reciting the cruelties of their 
enemies and stimulating the young men to deeds of martial 
valor. In every possible way these savages reminded me of the 
descriptions I had read of the Bedouins. 

Our course turned gradually to the northwest, and led us 
across several of the tributaries of the Tongue, or " Deje-ajie " as 
the Crows called it, each of these of good dimensions, and carrying 
the unusual flow due to the vapid melting of snow in the higher 
elevations. The fine grass seen close to the Tongue disappeared, 
and the country was rather more barren, with many prairie- 
dog villages. The soil was made up of sandstones, with a great 
amount of both clay and lime, shales and lignite, the latter burnt 
out. Some of the sandstone had been filled with pyrites, which 
had decomposed and left it in a vesicular state. There were a 


great many scrub pines in the recesses of the bluffs. The cause 
for the sudden disappearance of the grass was soon apparent : 
the scouts ran in upon a herd of buffaloes whose cast-off bulls 
had been the principal factor in our meat supply for more than a 
week ; the trails ran in every direction, and the grass had been 
nipped off more closely than if cut by a scythe. There was much 
more cactus than we had seen for some time, and a reappearance 
of the sage-brush common nearer to Fort Fetterman. 

In the afternoon, messengers from our extreme advance came 
as fast as ponies would carry them, with the information that we 
were upon the trail of a very great village of the enemy. The 
cavalry dismounted and unsaddled, seeking the shelter of all the 
ravines to await the results of the examination to be made by a 
picked detail from the Crows and Shoshones. The remaining 
Indians joined in a wild, strange war-dance, the younger warriors 
becoming almost frenzied before the exercises terminated. The 
young men who had been sejnt out to spy the land rejoined us on 
a full run ; from the tops of the hills they yelled like wolves, the 
conventional signal among the plains tribes that the enemy has 
been sighted. Excitement, among the Indians at least, was at 
fever heat ; many of the younger members of the party re-echoed 
the ululation of the incoming scouts ; many others spurred out 
to meet them and escort them in with becoming honors. The 
old chiefs held their bridles while they dismounted, and the less 
prominent warnors deferentially formed in a circle to listen to 
their narrative. It did not convey much information to my 
mind, unaccustomed to the indications so familiar to them. It 
simply amounted to this, that the buffaloes were in very large 
herds directly ahead of us, and were running away from a Sioux 
hunting party. 

Knowing the unfaltering accuracy of an Indian's judgment in 
matters of this kind, General Crook told the chiefs to arrange 
their plan of inarch according to their own ideas. On occasions 
like this, as I was told by our scouts and others, the young men 
of the Assiniboines and Northern Sioux were required to hold 
in each hand a piece of buffalo chip as a sign that they were tell- 
ing the truth ; nothing of that kind occurred on the occasion 
in question. "While the above was going on, the Indians were 
charging about on their hardy little ponies, to put them out of 
breath, so that, when they regained their wind, they would not 


fail to sustain a whole day's battle. A little herb is carried 
along, to be given to the ponies in such emergencies, but what 
virtues are attributed to this medicine I was unable to ascertain. 
Much solemnity is attached to the medicine arrows of the "medi- 
cine men/' who seem to possess the power of arbitrarily stopping 
a march, at almost any moment. As I kept with them, I had 
opportunity to observe all that they did, except when every one 
was directed to keep well to the rear, as happened upon approach- 
ing a tree jumper or cedar in the fork of whose lower branches 
there was a buffalo head, before which the principal " medicine 
man " and his assistant halted and smoked from their long pipes. 
JSToon had passed,, and the march was resigned to gain the 
Rosebud, one of the tributaries of the Yellowstone, marking the 
ultimate western limit of our campaign during the previous win- 
ter. We moved along over an elevated, undulating, grassy table- 
land. Without possessing any very marked beauty, there was a 
certain picturesqueness in the country which was really pleasing. 
Every few rods a petty rivulet coursed down the hill-sides to pay 
its tribute to the Tongue ; there was no timber, except an occa- 
sional small cotton wood or willow, to be seen along the banks of 
these little water-courses, but wild roses by the thousand laid 
their delicate beauties at our feet ; a species of phlox, daintily 
blue in tint, was there also in great profusion, while in the 
bushes multitudes of joyous-voiced singing-birds piped their wel- 
come as the troops filed by. Yet this lovely country was aban- 
doned to the domination of the thriftless savage, the buffalo, 
and the rattlesnake ; we could see the last-named winding along 
through the tall grass, rattling defiance as they sneaked ..away. 
Buffalo spotted the landscape in every direction, in squads of 
ten and twelve and "bunches" of sixty and seventy. These 
were not old bulls banished from the society of their mates, to be 
attacked and devoured by coyotes, but fine fat cows with calves 
ambling close behind them. One young bull calf trotted down 
close to the column, his eyes beaming with curiosity and wonder. 
He was allowed to approach within a few feet, when our prosaic 
Crow guides took his life as the penalty of his temerity. Thirty 
buffaloes were killed that afternoon, and the choice pieces 
hump, tenderloin, tongue, heart, and rib steaks packed upon 
our horses. The flesh was roasted in the ashes, a pinch of salt 
sprinkled over it, and a very savory and juicy addition made to 


our scanty supplies. The Indians ate the buffalo liver raw, 
sometimes sprinkling a pinch of gall upon it ; the warm raw 
liver alone is not bad for a hungry man, tasting very much like 
a raw oyster. The entrails are also much in favor with the abo- 
rigines ; they are cleaned, wound round a ramrod, or something 
akin to it if a ramrod be not available, and held in the hot ashes 
until cooked through ; they make a palatable dish ; the buffalo 
has an intestine shaped like an apple, which is filled with chyle, 
and is the bonne louche of the savages when prepared in the same 
manner as the other intestines, excepting that the contents are 
left untouched. 

While riding alongside of one of our Crow scouts I noticed 
tears flowing down his cheeks, and very soon he started a wail 
or chant of the most lugubrious tone ; I respected his grief until 
he had wept to his heart's content, and then ventured to ask the 
cause of such deep distress ; he answered that his uncle had 
been killed a number of years before by the Sioux, and he was cry- 
ing for him now and wishing that he might come back to life to 
get some of the ponies of the Sioux and Cheyennes. Two minutes 
after having discharged the sad duty of wailing for his dead 
relative, the young Crow was as lively as any one else in the 

We bivouacked on the extreme head-waters of the Eosebud, 
which was at that point a feeble rivulet of snow water, sweet 
and palatable enough when the muddy ooze was not stirred up 
from the bottom. Wood was found in plenty for the slight 
wants of the command, which made small fires for a few moments 
to boil coffee, while the animals, pretty well tired out by the 
day's rough march of nearly forty miles, rolled and rolled again 
in the matted bunches of succulent pasturage growing at their 
feet. Our lines were formed in hollow square, animals inside, 
and each man sleeping with his saddle for a pillow and with 
arms by his side. Pickets were posted on the bluffs near camp, 
and, after making what collation we could, sleep was sought at 
the same moment the black clouds above us had begun to patter 
down rain. A party of scouts returned late at night, reporting 
having come across a small gulch in which was a still burning 
fire of a band of Sioux hunters, who in the precipitancy of their 
flight had left behind a blanket of India-rubber. We came near 
having a casualty in the accidental discharge of the revolver of 


Mr. John F. Finerty, the bullet burning the saddle and break- 
ing it, but, fortunately, doing no damage to the rider. By day- 
light of the next day, June 17, 1876, we were marching down 
the Rosebud. 

The Crow scouts with whom I was had gone but a short dis- 
tance when shots were heard down the valley to the north, 
followed by the ululation proclaiming from the hill-tops that the 
enemy was in force and that we were in for a fight. Shot after 
shot followed on the left, and by the time that two of the Crows 
reached us, one of them severely wounded and both crying, 
*' Sioux ! Sioux I" it was plain that something out of the com- 
mon was to be expected. There was a strong line of pickets out 
on the hills on that flank, and this was immediately strengthened 
by a respectable force of skirmishers to cover the cavalry horses, 
which were down at the bottom of the amphitheatre through 
which the Eosebud at that point ran. The Shoshones promptly 
took position in the hills to the left, and alongside of them were 
the companies of the Fourth Infantry, under Major A. B. Cain, 
and one or two of the cavalry companies, dismounted. 

The Sioux advanced boldly and in overwhelming force, cover- 
ing the hills to the north, and seemingly confident that our com- 
mand would prove an easy prey. In one word, the battle of the 
Eosebud was a trap, and " Crazy Horse," the leader in command 
here as at the Ouster massacre a week later, was satisfied he was 
going to have everything his own way. He stated afterwards, 
when he had surrendered to General Crook at the agency, that 
he had no less than six thousand five hundred men in the fight, 
and that the first attack was made with fifteen hundred, the 
others being concealed behind the bluffs and hills. His plan of 
battle was either to lead detachments in pursuit of his people, 
and turning quickly cut them to pieces in detail, or draw the 
whole of Crook's forces down into the caflon of the Eosebud, 
where escape would have been impossible, as it formed a verita- 
ble cul de sac, the vertical walls hemming in the sides, the front 
being closed by a dam and abatis of broken timber which gave 
a depth of ten feet of water and mud, the rear, of course, to 
be shut off by thousands of yelling, murderous Sioux and Chey- 
ennes. That was the Sioux programme as learned that day, or 
afterwards at the agencies from the surrendered hostiles in the 
spring of the following year. 


While this attack was going on on our left and front,, a deter- 
mined demonstration was made by a large body of the enemy on 
our right and rear, to repel which Colonel Royall, Third Cavalry, 
was sent with a number of companies, mounted, to charge and 
drive back. I will restrict my observations to what I saw, as the 
battle of the Rosebud has been several times described in books 
and any number of times in the correspondence sent from the 
command to the journals of those years. The Sioux and 
Cheyennes, the latter especially, were extremely bold and fierce, 
and showed a disposition to come up and have it out hand to 
hand ; in all this they were gratified by our troops, both red and 
white, who were fully as anxious to meet them face to face and 
see which were the better men. At that part of the line the 
enemy were disconcerted at a very early hour by the deadly fire 
of the infantry with their long rifles. As the hostiles advanced 
at a full run, they saw nothing in their front, and imagined that 
it would be an easy thing for them to sweep down through the 
long ravine leading to the amphitheatre, where they could see 
numbers of our cavalry horses clumped together. They ad- 
vanced in excellent style, yelling and whooping, and glad of the 
opportunity of wiping us off the face of the earth When Cain's 
men and the detachments of the Second Cavalry which were 
lying down behind a low range of knolls rose up and delivered a 
withering fire at less than a hundred and fifty yards, the Sioux 
turned and fled as fast as "quirt " and heel could persuade their 
ponies to get out of there. 

But, in their turn, they re-formed behind a low range not 
much over three hundred yards distant, and from that position 
kept up an annoying fire upon our men and horses. Becoming 
bolder, probably on account of re-enforcements, they again 
charged, this time upon a weak spot in our lines a little to 
Cain's left ; this second advance was gallantly met by a counter- 
charge of the Shoshones, who, under their chief ff Luishaw/' 
took the Sioux and Cheyennes in flank and scattered them be- 
fore them. I went in with this charge, and was enabled to 
see how such things were conducted by the American savages, 
fighting according to their own notions. There was a headlong 
rush for about two hundred yards, which drove the enemy back 
in confusion ; then was a sudden halt, and very many of the 
Shoshones jumped down from their ponies and began firing from 


the ground ; the others who remained mounted threw themselves 
alongside of their horses' necks, so that there would be few good 
marks presented to the aim of the enemy. Then, in response 
to some signal or cry which, of course, I did not understand, we 
were off again, this time for good, and right into the midst of 
the hostiles, who had been halted by a steep hill directly in their 
front. Why we did not kill more of them than we did was be- 
cause they were dressed so like our own Crows that even our 
Shoshones were afraid of mistakes, and in the confusion many 
of the Sioux and Cheyennes made their way down the face of 
the bluffs unharmed. 

Prom this high point there could be seen on Crook's right 
and rear a force of cavalry, some mounted, others dismounted, 
apparently in the clutches of the enemy ; that is to say, a body 
of hostiles was engaging attention in front and at the same time 
a large mass, numbering not less than five hundred, was get- 
ting ready to pounce upon the rear and flank of the unsuspect- 
ing Americans. I should not forget to say that while the 
Shoshones were charging the enemy on one flank, the Crows, 
led by Major George M. Randall, were briskly attacking them 
on the other ; the latter movement had been ordered by Crook 
in person and executed in such a bold and decisive manner 
as to convince the enemy that, no matter what their numbers 
were, our troops and scouts were anxious to come to hand-to- 
hand encounters with them. This was really the turning-point 
of the Rosebud fight for a number of reasons : the main attack 
had been met and broken, and we had gained a key-point ena- 
bling the holder to survey the whole field and realize the strength 
and intentions of the enemy. The loss of the Sioux at this place 
was considerable both in warriors and ponies ; we were at one 
moment close enough to them to hit them with clubs or "coup" 
sticks, and to inflict considerable damage, but not strong enough 
to keep them from getting away with their dead and wounded. 
A number of our own men were also hurt, some of them quite 
seriously. I may mention a young trumpeter Elmer A. Snow, 
of Company M, Third Cavalry who went in on the charge 
with the ^hoshones, one of the few white men with them ; he 
displayed noticeable gallantry, and was desperately wounded in 
both arms, which were crippled for life ; his escape from the 
midst of the enemy was a remarkable thing. 


I did not learn until nightfall that at the same time they 
made the charge just spoken of; the enemy had also rushed 
down through a ravine on our left and rear, reaching the spring 
alongside of which I had been seated with General Crook at 
the moment the first shots were heard, and where I had jotted 
down the first lines of the notes from which the above con- 
densed account of the fight has been taken. At that spring 
they came upon a young Shoshone boy, not yet attained to 
years of manhood, and shot him through the back and killed 
him, taking his scalp from the nape of the neck to the forehead, 
leaving his entire skull ghastly and white. It was the boy's 
first battle, and when the skirmishing began in earnest he asked 
permission of his chief to go back to the spring and decorate 
himself with face-paint, which was already plastered over one 
cheek, and his medicine song was half done, when he received the 
fatal shot. 

Crook sent orders for all troops to fall back until the line 
should be complete ; some of the detachments had ventured out 
too far, and our extended line was too weak to withstand a deter- 
mined attack in force. Burt and Burroughs were sent with 
their companies of the Ninth Infantry to drive back the force 
which was congregating in the rear of RoyalPs command, which 
was the body of troops seen from the hill crest almost surrounded 
by the foe. Tom Moore with his sharpshooters from the pack- 
train, and several of the Montana miners who had kept along 
with the troops for the sake of a row of some kind with the na- 
tives, were ordered to get into a shelf of rocks four hundred yards 
out on our front and pick off as many of the hostile chiefs as 
possible and also to make the best impression upon the flanks 
of any charging parties which might attempt to pass on either 
side of that promontory. Moore worried the Indians so much 
that they tried to cut off him and his insignificant band. It was 
one of the ridiculous episodes of the day to watch those well- 
meaning young warriors charging at full speed across the open 
space commanded by Moore's position ; not a shot was fired, and 
beyond taking an extra chew of tobacco, I do not remember that 
any of the party did anything to show that he cared a conti- 
nental whether the enemy came or stayed. When those deadly 
rifles, sighted by men who had no idea what the word " nerves " 
meant, belched their storm of lead in among the braves and 


their ponies, it did not take more than seven seconds for the 
former to conclude that home, sweet home was a good enough 
place for them. 

While the infantry were moving down to close the gap on 
Royall's right, and Tom Moore was amusing himself in the rocks, 
Crook ordered Mills with five companies to move out on our 
right and make a demonstration down stream, intending to get 
ready for a forward movement with the whole command. Mills 
moved out promptly, the enemy falling hack on all sides and 
keeping just out of fair range. I went with Mills, having re- 
turned from seeing how Tom Moore was getting along, and can 
recall how deeply impressed we all were by what we then took to 
be trails made by buffaloes going down stream, but which we 
afterwards learned had been made by the thousands of ponies be- 
longing to the immense force of the enemy here assembled. "We 
descended into a measly-looking place : a caflon with straight 
walls of sandstone, having on projecting knobs an occasional 
scrub pine or cedar ; it was the locality where the savages had 
planned to entrap the troops, or a large part of them, and 
wipe them out by closing in upon their rear. At the head of 
that column rode two men who have since made their mark in 
far different spheres : John F. Finerty, who has represented 
one of the Illinois districts in Congress; and Frederick Schwatka, 
noted as a bold and successful Arctic explorer. 

Crook recalled our party from the cation before we had gone 
too far, but not before Mills had detected the massing of forces 
to cut him off. Our return was by another route, across the 
high hills and rocky places, which would enable us to hold our 
own against any numbers until assistance came. Crook next 
ordered an advance of our whole line, and the Sioux fell back and 
left us in undisputed possession of the field. Our total loss was 
fifty-seven, killed or wounded some of the latter only slightly. 
The heaviest punishment had been inflicted upon the Third Cav- 
alry, in Royall's column, that regiment meeting with a total loss 
of nine killed and fifteen wounded, while the Second Cavalry 
had two wounded, and the Fourth Infantry three wounded. In 
addition to this were the killed and wounded among the scouts, 
and a number of wounds which the men cared for themselves, as 
they saw that the medical staff was taxed to the utmost. One 
of our worst wounded was Colonel Guy Y. Henry, Third Cavalry, 


who was at first believed to have lost both eyes and to have 
been marked for death ; but, thanks to good nursing, a wiry 
frame, and strong vitality, he has since recovered vision and some 
part of his former physical powers. The officers who served on 
Crook's staff that day had close calls, and among others Bubb 
and Nickerson came very near falling into the hands of the 
enemy. Colonel Royall's staff officers, Lemly and Foster, were 
greatly exposed, as were Henry, Vroora, Eeynolds, and others of 
that part of the command. General Crook's horse was shot from 
under him, and there were few, if any, officers or soldiers, facing 
the strength of the Sioux and Cheyennes at the Rosebud, who did 
not have some incident of a personal nature by which to impress 
the affair upon their memories for the rest of their lives. 

The enemy's loss was never known. Our scouts got thirteen 
scalps, but the warriors, the moment they were badly wounded, 
would ride back from the line or be led away by comrades, so 
that we then believed that their total loss was much more severe. 
The behavior of Shoshones and Crows was excellent. The chief 
of the Shoshones appeared to great advantage, mounted on a 
fiery pony, he himself naked to the waist and wearing one of the 
gorgeous head-dresses of eagle feathers sweeping far along the 
ground behind his pony's tail. The Crow chief. " Medicine 
Crow," looked like a devil in his war-bonnet of feathers, fur, and 
buffalo horns. 

We had pursued the enemy for seven miles, and had held the 
field of battle, without the slightest resistance on the side of the 
Sioux and Cheyennes. It had been a field of their own choosing, 
and the attack had been intended as a surprise and, if possible, 
to lead into an ambuscade also ; but in all they had been frus- 
trated and driven off, and did not attempt to return or to annoy 
us during the night. As we had nothing but the clothing each 
wore and the remains of the four days' rations with which we 
had started, we had no other resource but to make our way back 
to the wagon trains with the wounded. That night was an un- 
quiet and busy time for everybody. The Shoshones caterwauled 
and lamented the death of the young warrior whose life had 
been ended and whose bare skull still gleamed from the side of 
the spring where he fell. About midnight they buried him, 
along with our own dead, for whose sepulture a deep trench was 
dug in the bank of the Rosebud near the water line, the bodies 


laid in a row, covered with stones, mud, and $arth packed down, 
and a great fire kindled on top and allowed to burn all night. 
When we broke camp the next morning the entire command 
marched over the graves, so as to obliterate every trace and prevent 
prowling savages from exhuming the corpses and scalping them. 

A rough shelter of boughs and branches had been erected for 
the wounded, and our medical officers, Hartsuff, Patzki, and Ste- 
vens, labored all night, assisted by Lieutenant Sehwatka, who had 
taken a course of lectures at Bellevue Hospital, !N"ew York. The 
Shoshones crept out during the night and cut to pieces the two 
Sioux bodies within reach ; this was in revenge for their own 
dead, and because the enemy had cut one of our men to pieces 
during the fight, in which they made free use of their lances, 
and of a kind of tomahawk, with a handle eight feet long, which 
they used on horseback. 

June 18, 1876, we were turned out of our blankets at three 
o'clock in the morning, and sat down to eat on the ground a 
breakfast of hard- tack, coffee, and fried bacon. The sky was an 
immaculate blue, and the ground was covered with a hard frosfc, 
which made every one shiver. The animals had rested, and the 
wounded were reported by Surgeon Hartsuff to be doing as well 
"as could be expected." "Travois" were constructed of cot- 
tonwood and willow branches, held together by ropes and raw- 
hide, and to care for each of these six men were detailed. As 
we were moving off, our scouts discerned three or four Sioux 
riding down to the battle-field, upon reaching which they dis- 
mounted, sat down, and bowed their heads ; we could not tell 
through glasses what they were doing, but the Shoshones and 
Crows said that they were weeping for their dead. They were 
not fired upon or molested in any way. We pushed up the Kose- 
bud, keeping mainly on its western bank, and doing our best to 
select a good trail along which the wounded might be dragged 
with least jolting. Crook wished to keep well to the south so as 
to get farther into the Big Horn range, and avoid much of the 
deep water of the streams flowing into Tongue Eiver, which 
might prove too swift and dangerous for the wounded men in 
the "travois." In avoiding Scylla, we ran upon Charybdis : we 
escaped much of the deep water, although not all of it, but en- 
countered much trouble from the countless ravines and gullies 
which cut the flanks of the range in every" direction. 


The column halted for an hour at the conical hill, crested with 
pine, which marks the divide between the Eosebud and the 
Greasy Grass, a tributary of the Little Big Horn, the spot 
where our Crow guides claimed that their tribe had whipped and 
almost exterminated a band of the Blackfeet Sioux. Our horses 
were allowed to graze until the rear-guard had caught up, with 
the wounded men under its care. The Crows had a scalp dance, 
holding aloft on poles and lances the lank, black locks of the 
Sioux and Cheyeimes killed in the fight of the day before, and 
one killed that very morning. It seems that as the Crows 
were riding along the trail off to the right of the command, they 
heard some one calling, "Mini! Mini!" which is the Dakota 
term for water ; it was a Cheyenne Whose eyes had been shot out 
in the beginning of the battle, and who had crawled to a place of 
concealment in the rocks, and now- hearing the Crows talk as 
they rode along addressed them in Sioux, thinking them to be 
the latter. The Crows cut him limb from limb and ripped off 
his scalp. The rear-guard reported having had a hard time get- 
ting along with the wounded on account of the great number of 
gullies already mentioned ; great assistance had been rendered 
in this severe duty by Sergeant Warfield, Troop "F," Third 
Cavalry, an old Arizona veteran, as well as by Tom Moore and 
his band of packers. So far as scenery was concerned, the most 
critical would have been pleased with that section of our national 
domain, the elysium of the hunter, the home of the bear, the 
elk, deer, antelope, mountain sheep, and buffalo ; the carcasses 
of the last-named lined the trail, and the skulls and bones 
whitened the hill-sides. The march of the day was a little over 
twenty- two miles, and ended upon one of the tributaries of the 
Tongue, where we bivouacked and passed the night in some dis- 
comfort on account of the excessive cold which drove us from 
our scanty covering shortly after midnight. The Crows left 
during the night, promising to resume the campaign with others 
of their tribe, and to meet us somewhere on the Tongue or Goose 

June 19 found us back at our wagon- train, which Major 
Furey had converted into a fortress, placed on a tongue of land, 
surrounded on three sides by deep, swift-flowing water, and on 
the neck by a line of breastworks commanding all approaches. 
Ropes and chains had been stretched from wheel to wheel, so 


that even if any of the enemy did succeed in slipping inside, the 
stock could not be run out. Furey had not allowed his little 
garrison to remain inside the intrench ments : he had insisted 
upon some of them going out daily to scrutinize the country and 
to hunt for fresh meat ; the carcasses of six buff aloes and three 
elk attested the execution of his orders. Furey's force consisted 
of no less than eighty packers and one hundred and ten team- 
sters, besides sick and disabled left behind. One of his assistants 
was Mr. John Mott MacMahon, the same man who as a sergeant 
in the Third Cavalry had been by the side of Lieutenant Gush- 
ing at the moment he was killed by the Chiricahua Apaches in 
Arizona. After caring for the wounded and the animals, every 
one splashed in the refreshing current ; the heat of the afternoon 
became almost unbearable, the thermometer indicating 103 
Fahrenheit. Lemons, limes, lime juice, and citric acid, of each 
of which there was a small supply, were hunted up and used for 
making a glass of lemonade for the people in the rustic hospital. 
June 21, Crook sent the wounded back to Fort Fetterman, 
placing them in wagons spread with fresh grass ; Major Furey 
was sent back to obtain additional supplies ; the escort, consist- 
ing of one company from the Ninth and one from the Fourth 
Infantry, was commanded by Colonel Chambers, with whom were 
the following officers : Munson and Capron of the Ninth, Luhn 
and Seton of the Fourth. Mr. MacMillan, the correspondent of 
the Inter- Ocean of Chicago, also accompanied the party; he had 
been especially energetic in obtaining all data referring to the 
campaign, and had shown that he had as much pluck as any offi- 
cer or soldier in the column, but his strength was not equal to 
the hard marching and climbing, coupled with the yiolent 
alternations of heat and cold, rain and shine, to which we were, 
subjected. The Shoshones also left for their own country, going 
across the Big Horn range due west ; after having a big scalp 
dance with their own people they would return; for the same 
reason, the Crows had rejoined their tribe. Five of the Sho- 
shones remained in camp, to act in any needed capacity until the 
return of their warriors. The care taken of the Shoshone 
wounded pleased me very much, and I saw that the " medicine 
men " knew how to make a fair article of splint from the twigs 
of the willow, and that they depended upon such appliances in 
cases of fracture fully as much as they did upon the singing 


which took up so much of their time, and was so obnoxious to 
the unfortunate whites whose tents were nearest. 

In going home across the mountains to the Wind River the 
Crows took one of their number who had been badly wounded in 
the thigh. Why he insisted upon going back to his own home I 
do not know; perhaps the sufferer really did not know himself, 
but disliked being separated from his comrades. A splint was 
adjusted to the fractured limb, and the patient was seated upon 
an easy cushion instead of a saddle. Everything went well until 
after crossing the Big Horn Mountains, when the party ran in 
upon a band of Sioux raiders or spies in strong force. The 
Crows were hailed by some of the Sioux, but managed to answer 
a few words in that language, and then struck out as fast as 
ponies would carry them to get beyond reach of their enemies. 
They were afraid of leaving a trail, and for that reason followed 
along the current of all the mountain streams, swollen at that 
season by rains and melting snows, fretting into foam against 
impeding boulders and crossed and recrossed by interlacing 
branches of fallen timber. Through and over or under, as the 
case might be, the frightened Crows made their way, indifferent 
to the agony of the wounded companion, for whose safety only 
they cared, but to whose moans they were utterly irresponsive. 
This story we learned upon the return of the Shoshones. 

To be obliged to await the train with supplies was a serious 
annoyance, but nothing better could be done. We had ceded to 
the Sioux by the treaty of 1867 all the country from the Missouri 
to the Big Horn, destroying the posts which had afforded protec- 
tion to the overland route into Montana, and were now feeling 
the loss of just such depots of supply as those posts would have 
been. It was patent to every one that not hundreds, as had been 
reported, but thousands of Sioux and Cheyennes were in hostility 
and absent from the agencies, and that, if the war was to be 
prosecuted with vigor, some depots must be established at an 
eligible location like the head of Tongue River, old Fort Reno, 
or other point ia that vicinity j another in the Black Hills; and 
still another at some favorable point on the Yellowstone, prefer- 
ably the moufch of Tongue River. Such, at least, was the 
recommendation made by General Crook, and posts at or near all 
the sites indicated were in time established and are still main- 
tained. The merits of Tongue River and its tributaries as 


great trout streams were not long without proper recognition at 
the hands of our anglers. Under the influence of the warm 
weather the fish had begun to bite voraciously, in spite of the 
fact that there were always squads of men bathing in the limpid 
waters, or mules slaking their thirst. The first afternoon 
ninety-five were caught and brought into camp, where they were 
soon broiling on the coals or frying in pans. None of them were 
large, but all were " pan " fish, delicious to the taste. While 
the sun was shining we were annoyed by swarms of green and 
black flies, which disappeared with the coming of night and its 
refreshingly cool breezes. 

June 23, Lieutenant Schuyler, Fifth Cavalry, reported at head- 
quarters for duty as aide-de-camp to General Crook. He had 
been four days making the trip out from Fort Fetterman, trav- 
elling with the two couriers who brought our mail. At old Fort 
Eeno they had stumbled upon a war party of Sioux, but wer^ not 
discovered, and hid in the rocks until the darkness of night en- 
abled them to resume their journey at a gallop, which never 
stopped for more than forty miles. They brought news that the 
Fifth Cavalry was at Eed Cloud Agency ; that five commission- 
ers were to be appointed to confer with the Sioux; and that 
Eutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, had been nominated by the Ee- 
publicans for the Presidency. Q-eneral Hayes had commanded 
a brigade under General Crook in the Army of West Virginia 
during the War of the Eebellion. Crook spoke of his former 
subordinate in the warmest and most affectionate manner, in- 
stancing several battles in which Hayes had displayed excep- 
tional courage, and proved himself to be, to use Crook's words, 
* * as brave a man as ever wore a shoulder-strap." 

My note-books #b6ut this time seem to be almost the chronicle 
of a sporting club, so filled are they with the numbers of trout 
brought by different fishermen into camp ; all fishers did not 
stop at my tent, and I do not pretend to have preserved accurate 
figures, much being left unrecorded. Mills started in with a 
record of over one hundred caught by himself and two soldiers 
in one short afternoon. On the 28th of June the same party has 
another record of one hundred and forty-six. On the 29th of 
same month Bubb is credited with fifty-five during the after- 
noon, while the total brought into camp during the 28th ran over 
five hundred. General Crook started out to catch a mess, but 


met with poor lack. He saw bear tracks and followed them, 
bringing in a good-sized " cinnamon/' so it was agreed not to 
refer to his small number of trout. Buffalo and elk meat were 
both plenty, and with the trout kept the men well fed. 

The cavalry companies each morning were exercised at a walk, 
trot, and gallop. In the afternoon the soldiers were allowed to 
roam about the country in small parties, hunting a/nd seeing 
what they could see. They \vere all the better for the exercise, 
and acted as so many additional vidett^s. The packers organ- 
ized a mule race, which absorbed all interest. It was estimated 
by conservative judges that fully five dollars had changed hands in 
ten-cent bets. Tip to the end of June no news of any kind, from 
any source excepting Crow Indians, had been received of Gen- 
eral Terry and his command, and much comment, not unmixed 
with uneasiness, was occasioned thereby. 



IK" the main, this absence of news from Terry was the reason 
why General Crook took a small detachment with him to 
the summit of the Big Horn Mountains and remained four 
days. We left camp on the 1st of July,, 1876, the party consist- 
ing of General Crook, Colonel Royall, Lieutenant Lemly, Ma- 
jor Burt, Lieutenants Carpenter, Schuyler, and Bourke, Messrs. 
Wasson, Finerty, Strahorn, and Davenport, with a small train 
of picked mules under Mr. Young. The climb to the summit 
was effected without event worthy of note, beyond the to-be- 
expected ruggedness of the trail and the beauty and grandeur 
of the scenery. From the highest point gained during the 
day Crook eagerly scanned the broad vista of country spread 
out at our feet, reaching from the course of the Little Big Horn 
on the left to the country near Pumpkin Buttes on the right. 
Neither the natural vision nor the aid of powerful glasses showed 
the slightest trace of a marching or a camping column ; there 
was no smoke, no dust, to indicate the proximity of either Terry 
or Gibbon. 

Frank Gruard had made an inspection of the country to the 
northwest of camp several days before to determine the truth 
of reported smokes, but his trip failed to confirm the story. 
The presence of Indians near camp had also been asserted, but 
scouting parties had as yet done nothing beyond proving these 


camp rumors to be baseless. In only one instance had there 
been the slightest reason for believing that hostiles had ap- 
proacbed our position. An old man, who had been following 
the command for some reason never very clearly understood, had 
come into camp on Tongue Eiver and stated that while out on 
the plain, letting his pony have a nibble of grass, and while he 
himself had been sleeping under a box elder, he had been awak- 
ened by the report of a gun and had seen two Indian boys scam- 
pering off to the north : he showed a bullet hole through the 
saddle, but the general opinion in camp was that the story had 
been made up out of whole cloth, because parties of men had 
been much farther down Tongue JRiver that morning, scouting 
and hunting, without perceiving the slightest sign or trace of 
hostiles. Thirty miners from Montana had also come into camp 
from the same place, and they too had been unable to discover 
traces of the assailants. 

The perennial character of the springs and streams watering 
the pasturage of the Tongue Eiver region was shown by the great 
masses of snow and ice, which were slowly yielding to the as- 
saults of the summer sun on the flanks of " Cloud Peak " and 
its sister promontories. Every few hundred yards gurgling riv- 
ulets and crystal brooks leaped down from the protecting shadow 
of pine and juniper groves and sped away to join the Tongue, 
which warned us of its own near presence in a cafion on the left 
of the trail by the murmur of its current flowing swiftly from 
basin to basin over a succession of tiny falls. Exuberant Nature 
had carpeted the knolls and dells with vernal grasses and lovely 
flowers ; along the brook-sides, wild rose-buds peeped ; and 
there were harebells, wild flax, forget-me-nots, and astragulus 
to dispute with their more gaudy companions the sunflowers 
possession of the soil. The silicious limestones, red clays, and 
sandstones of the valley were replaced by granites more or less 
perfectly crystallized. Much pine and fir timber was encount- 
ered, at first in small copses, then in more considerable bodies, 
lastly in dense forests. A very curious variety of juniper made 
its appearance : it was very stunted, grew prone to the ground, 
and until approached closely might be mistaken for a bed of 
moss. In the protecting solitude of these frozen peaks, lakes 
of melted snow were frequent ; upon their pellucid surface ducks 
swam gracefully, admiring their own reflection. 


We did not get across the snowy range that night, but were 
compelled to bivouac two or three miles from it, in a sheltered 
nook offering fairly good grass for the mules, and any amount 
of fuel and water for our own use. There might be said to be 
an excess of timber, as for more than six miles we had crawled 
as best we could through a forest of tall pines and firs, uprooted 
by the blasts of winter. Game trails were plenty enough, but 
we did not see an animal of any kind ; neither could we entice 
the trout which were jumping to the surface of the water, to 
take hold of the bait offered them. General Crook returned 
with a black-tailed deer and the report that the range as seen 
from the top of one of the lofty promontories to which he had 
climbed appeared to be studded with lakelets similar to the ones 
so near our bivouac. We slashed pine branches to make an 
odorous and elastic mattress, cut fire-wood for the cook, and 
aided in the duty of preparing the supper for which impatient 
appetites were clamoring. We had hot strong coffee, bacon 
and yenison sliced thin and placed in alternate layers on twigs 
of willow and frizzled oyer the embers, and bread baked in a 

Our appetites, ordinarily good enough, had been aggravated 
by the climb of twelve miles in the keen mountain air, and 
although epicures might not enyy us our food, they certainly 
would haye sighed in vain for the pleasure with which it was 
devoured. After supper, each officer staked his mule in a patch 
of grass which was good and wholesome, although not equal to 
that of the lower slopes, and then we gathered around the fire 
for the post-prandial chat prior to seeking blankets and repose, 
which fortunately was not disturbed by excessive cold or the 
bites of mosquitoes, the twin annoyances of these great eleva- 
tions. We arose early next morning to begin a march of great 
severity, which taxed to the utmost the strength, nervous system, 
and patience of riders and mules ; much fallen timber blocked 
the trail, the danger of passing this being increased a hundred- 
fold by boulders of granite and pools of unknown depth; the 
leaves of the pines had decayed into a pasty mass of peat, afford- 
ing no foothold to the pedestrian or horseman, and added the 
peril of drowning in a slimy ooze to the terrors accumulated 
for the intimidation of the explorer penetrating these wilds. 

We floundered along in the trail made by our Shoshones on 


their way back to their own homes, and were the first white men, 
not connected with that band of Indians, who had ever ascended 
to this point. Immense blocks of granite, some of them hun- 
dreds of feet high, towered aboye us, with stunted pine clinging 
to the scanty soil at their bases ; above all loomed 1 the majestic 
rounded cone of the Cloud Peak, a thousand feet beyond timber 
line. The number of springs increased so much that it seemed 
as if the ground were oozing water from every pore ; the 
soil had become a sponge, and travel was both difficult and dan- 
gerous ; on all sides were lofty banks of snow, often pinkish in 
tint ; the stream in the pass had diminished in breadth, but its 
volume was unimpaired as its velocity had trebled. At every 
twenty or thirty feet of horizontal distance there was a cascade 
of no great height, but so choked up with large fragments of 
granite that the current, lashed into fury, foamed like milk. 
The sun's rays were much obscured by the interlacing branches 
of the majestic spruce and fir trees shading the trail, and the 
rocky escarpments looming above the timber line. We could 
still see the little rivulet dancing along, and hear it singing its 
song of the icy granite peaks, the frozen lakes, and piny soli- 
tudes that had watched its birth. The " divide/ 7 we began 
to congratulate ourselves, could not be far off ; already the 
pines had begun to thin out, and the stragglers still lining the 
path were dwarfed and stunted. Our pretty friend, the moun- 
tain brook, like a dying swan, sang most sweetly in its last mo- 
ments ; we saw it issue from icy springs above timber line, and 
bade it farewell to plunge and flounder across the snow-drifts 
lining the crest. In this last effort ourselves and animals were 
almost exhausted. On the " divide ; ' was a lake, not over five 
hundred yards long, which supplied water to the Big Horn on 
the west and the Tongue on the east side of the range. Largo 
cakes and floes of black ice, over a foot in thickness, floated on 
its waters. Each of these was covered deep with snow and re- 
gelated ice. 

It was impossible to make camp in this place. There was no 
timber nothing but rocks and ice-cold water, which chilled the 
hands dipped into it. Granite and granite alone could bo seen in 
massy crags, timberless and barren of all trace of vegetation, tow- 
ering into the clouds, in bold-faced ledges, the home of the moun- 
tain sheep ; and in cyclopean blocks, covering acres upon acres of 


surface. Continuing due west we clambered over another ridge of 
about the same elevation, and as deep with snow and ice, and 
then saw in the distance the Wind Eiver range, one hundred and 
thirty miles to the west. With some difficulty a way was made 
down the flank of the range, through the asperous declivities of 
the cafion of fl No Wood " Creek, and, after being sated with the 
monotonous beauties of precipices, milky cascades, gloomy forests, 
and glassy springs, the welcome command was given to bivouac. 

We had climbed and slipped fifteen miles at an altitude of 
12,000 feet, getting far above the timber line and into the region 
of perpetual snow. Still, ut that elevation, a few pleasant-faced 
little blue and white flowers, principally forget-me-nots, kept us 
company to the very edge of snow-banks. I sat upon a snow- 
bank, and with one hand wrote my notes and with the other 
plucked forget-me-nots or fought off the mosquitoes. We fol- 
lowed down the cafion of the creek until we had reached the 
timber, and there, in a dense growth of spruce and fir, went into 
bivouac in a most charming retreat. Buffalo tracks were seen all 
day, the animal having crossed the range by the same trail we 
had used. Besides buffalo tracks we saw the trails of mountain 
sheep, of which General Crook and Lieutenant Schuyler killed 
two. The only other life was tit-larks, butterflies, grasshoppers, 
flics, and the mosquitoes already spoken of. The snow in one 
place was .sixty to seventy foot deep arid had not been disturbed 
for years, bocauso there were live or six strata of grasshoppers 
frozen stiff, ouch representing one season. In all cases where the 
snow had drifted into sheltered ravines and was not exposed to 
direct solar action, it never molted from year's end to year's end. 
Our supper of mountain mutton and of sheep and elk heart 
boilod in salt water was oaten by the light of the fire, and was 
followed by a restful sloop upon couches of spruce boughs. 

We returned to our main camp on the 4th of July, guided by 
General Crook over a now trail, which proved to be a great improve- 
ment upon the other. Mr. John F. Finorty killed his first buffalo, 
which appeared to be a very good specimen at tho time, but after 
perusing tho description given by Finerty in tho columns of the 
Timw 9 several weeks later, wo saw that it must have been at 
least cloven foot high and weighed not much less than nine thou- 
sand pounds. We made chase after a herd of sixteen elk drink- 
ing at one of the lakes, but on account of the noise in getting 


through fallen timber were unable to approach near enough. An 
hour later, while I was jotting down the character of the coun- 
try in my note-book, eight mountain sheep came up almost close 
enough to touch me, and gazed with wonder at the intruder. 
They were beautiful creatures in appearance : somewhat of a 
cross between the deer, the sheep, and the mule ; the head re- 
sembles that of the domestic sheep, surmounted by a pair of 
ponderous convoluted horns ; the body, in a slight degree, that 
of a mule, but much more graceful ; and the legs those of a deer, 
but somewhat more chunky;" the tail, short, slender, fur- 
nished with a brush at the extremity ; the hair, short and choco- 
late-gray in color ; the eyes rival the beauty of the topaz. Be- 
fore I could grasp my carbine they had scampered around a 
rocky promontory, where three of them were killed : one by Gen- 
eral Crook and two by others of the party. 

Camp kept moving from creek to creek in the valley of the 
Tongue, always finding abundant pasturage, plenty of fuel, and 
an ample supply of the coldest and best water. The foot-hills 
of the Big Horn are the ideal camping-grounds for mounted 
troops ; the grass grows to such a height that it can be cut with 
a mowing-machine ; cattle thrive, and although the winters are 
severe, with proper shelter all kinds of stock should prosper. 
The opportunity of making a suitable cross between the accli- 
matized buffalo and the domestic stock has perhaps been lost, 
but it is not too late to discuss the advisability of introduc- 
ing the Thibetan yak, a bovine accustomed to the polar rigors 
of the Himalayas, and which has been tamed and used either for 
the purposes of the dairy or for those of draught and saddle. 
The body of the yak is covered with a long coat of hair, which 
enables it to lie down in the snow-drifts without incurring any 
risk of catching cold. The milk of the yak is said to be remark- 
ably rich, and the butter possesses the admirable quality of keep- 
ing fresh for a long time. 

This constant moving of camp had another object : the troops 
were kept in practice in taking down and putting up tenfcs ; sad- 
dling and unsaddling horses ; packing and unpacking wagons ; 
laying out camps, with a due regard for hygiene by building 
sinks in proper places ; forming promptly ; and, above all, were 
kept occupied. The raw recruits of the spring were insensibly 
converted into veterans before the close of summer. The credu- 


lity of the reader will be taxed to the utmost limit if he follow 
my record of the catches of trout made in all these streams. 
What these catches would have amounted to had there been no 
herds of horses and mules we had, it must be remembered, over 
two thousand when the wagon-trains, pack-trains, Indian scouts, 
and soldiers were all assembled together I am unable to say ; 
but the hundreds and thousands of fine fish taken from that set 
of creeks by officers and soldiers, who had nothing but the rudest 
appliances, speaks of the wonderful resources of the country in 
game at that time. 

The ambition of the general run of officers and men was to 
take from fifteen to thirty trout, enough to furnish a good meal 
for themselves and their messmates ; but others were carried 
away by the desire to make a record as against that of other fish- 
ers of repute. These catches were carefully distributed through- 
out camp, and the enlisted men fared as well as the officers in the 
matter of game and everything else which the country afforded. 
General Orook and the battalion commanders under him were 
determined that there should be no waste, and insisted upon the 
fish being eaten at once or dried for later use. Major Dewees is 
credited with sixty-eight large fish caught in one afternoon, 
Bubb with eighty, Crook with seventy, and so on. Some of 
the packers having brought in reports of beautiful deep pools 
farther up the mountain, in which lay hidden fish far greater in 
size and weight than those caught closer to camp, a party was 
formed at headquarters to investigate and report. Our prin- 
cipal object was to enjoy the cool swimming pools so eloquently 
described by our informants ; but next to that we intended try- 
ing our luck in hauling m trout of exceptional size. 

The rough little bridle-path led into most romantic scenery r 
the grim walls of the cafton began to crowd closely upon the banks 
of the stream ; in places there was no bank at all, and the swirl- 
ing, brawling current rushed along the rocky wall, while our 
ponies carefully picked their way over a trail, narrow, sharp, and 
dangerous as the knifo-odgo across which true believers were to 
enter into Mahomet's Paradise. Before long we gained a mossy 
glade, hidden in the granite rauiparts of the cation, where we 
found a few blades of grass for the animals and shade from the too 
warm rays of the sun. The moss-covered banks terminated in a 
flat stone table, reaching well out into the current and shaded by 


overhanging boulders and widely-branching trees. The dark- 
green water in front rushed swiftly and almost noiselessly by, 
but not more than five or six yards below our position several 
sharp-toothed fragments of granite barred the progress of the 
current, which grew white with rage as it hissed and roared on 
its downward course. 

We disrobed and entered the bath, greatly to the astonishment 
of a school of trout of all sizes which circled about and darted in 
and out among the rocks, trying to determine who and what we 
were. We were almost persuaded that we were the first white 
men to penetrate to that seclusion. Our bath was delightful ; 
everything combined to make it so shade, cleanliness, conven- 
ience of access, purity and coolness of the water, and such perfect 
privacy that Diana herself might have chosen it for her ablu- 
tions ! Splash ! splash ! a sound below us ! The illusion was 
very strong, and for a moment we were willing to admit that the 
classical huntress had been disturbed at her toilet, and that we 
were all to share the fate of Actaeon. Our apprehensions didn't 
last long ; we peeped through the foliage and saw that it was 
not Diana, but an army teamster washing a pair of unques- 
tionably muddy overalls. Our bath finished, we took our stand 
upon projecting rocks and cast bait into the stream. 

We were not long in finding out the politics of the Big Horn 
trout ; they were McKinleyites, every one ; or, to speak more 
strictly, they were the forerunners of McKinleyism. We tried 
them with all sorts of imported and manufactured flies of gaudy 
tints or sombre hues it made no difference. After suspiciously 
nosing them they would flap their tails, strike with the side-fins, 
and then, having gained a distance of ten feet, would most pro- 
vokingly stay there and watch us from under the shelter of slip- 
pery rocks. Foreign luxuries evidently had no charm for them. 
Next we tried them with home-made grasshoppers, caught on 
the banks of their native stream. The change was wonderful : 
in less than a second, trout darted out from all sorts of unex- 
pected places from the edge of the rapids below us, from uuden 
gloomy blocks of granite, from amid the gnarly roots of almost 
amphibious trees. My comrades had come for an afternoon's 
fishing, and began, without more ado, to haul in the struggling, 
quivering captives. My own purpose was to catch one or two 
of good size, and then return to camp. A teamster, named 


O'Shaughnessy, formerly of the Fourteenth Infantry, who had 
been brought up in the salmon districts of Ireland, was standing 
near me with a large mess just caught ; he handed me his willow 
branch, most temptingly baited with grasshoppers, at the same 
time telling me there was a fine big fish, " a regular buster, in 
the hole beyant." He had been unable to coax him out from his 
retreat, but thought that, if anything could tempt him, my bait 
would. I cautiously let down the line, taking care to keep in 
the deepest shadow. I did not remain long in suspense ; in an 
instant the big fellow came at full speed from his hiding-place, 
running for the bait. He was noble, heavy, and gorgeous in his 
dress of silver and gold and black and red. He glanced at the 
grasshoppers to satisfy himself they were the genuine article, and 
then one quick, nervous bound brought his nose to the hook and 
the bait into his mouth, and away he went. I gave him all the 
line ho wanted, fearing I should lose him. His course took him 
close to the bank, and, as he neared the edge of the stream, I 
laid him, with a quick, firm jerk, sprawling on the moss. I was 
glad not to have had any fight with him, because he would 
surely have broken away amid the rocks and branches. Ho was 
pretty to look upon, weighed three pounds, and was the largest 
specimen reaching camp that week. He graced our dinner, 
served up, roasted and stuffed, in our cook Phillips^ best stylo. 

General Crook, wishing to ascertain with some definiteness the 
whereabouts of the Sioux, sent out during the first week of July 
a reconnoitring party of twenty enlisted men, commanded by 
Lieutenant Sibloy, Second Cavalry ? to escoxi Prank Gruard, who 
wished to move along the base of the mountains as far as the 
caflon of the Big Horn and Bcratmbc the country to the north 
and woal, A larger force would bo likoly to embarrass tho rapidity 
of marching with which Gruard hoped to accomplish his inten- 
tion, which was that of spying as far as he could into the region 
where he supposed tho hostilos to be ; all the party were to go as 
lightly equipped as possible, and to carry little else than arms 
and ammunition. With them went two volunteers, Mr. John P. 
Finorty and Mr. Jim Traynor, the latter one of tho packers and 
an old frontiersman. Another member of the party was " Big 

This little detachment had a miraculous escape from destruc- 
tion ; at or near the head of the Little Big Horn River, they were 


discovered, charged upon, and surrounded by a large body of 
hostile Cheyennes and Sioux,, who fired a volley of not less than 
one hundred shots, but aimed too high and did not hit a man ; 
three of the horses and one of the mules were severely crippled, 
and the command was forced to take to the rocks and timber at 
the edge of the mountains, whence they escaped, leaving animals 
and saddles behind. The savages seemed confident of their 
ability to take all of them alive, which may explain in part why 
they succeeded in slipping away under the guidance of Frank 
Gruard., to whom the whole country was as familiar as a book ; 
they crept along under cover of high rocks until they had gained 
the higher slopes of the range, and then travelled without stop- 
ping for two days and nights, pursued by the baffled Indians, 
across steep precipices, swift torrents, and through almost im- 
penetrable forests. When they reached camp the whole party 
looked more like dead men than soldiers of the army : their 
clothes were torn into rags, their strength completely gone, and 
they faint with hunger and worn out with anxiety and distress. 
Two of the men, who had not been long in service, went com- 
pletely crazy and refused to believe that the tents which they 
saw were those of the command ; they persisted in thinking that 
they were the "tepis" of the Sioux and Cheyennes, and would 
not accompany Sibley across the stream, but remained hiding in 
the rocks until a detachment had been sent out to capture and 
bring them back. It should be mentioned that one of the 
Cheyenne chiefs, " White Antelope," was shot through the bead 
by Prank Gruard and buried in all his fine toggery on the ground 
where he fell; his body was discovered some days after by 
"Washakie," the head-chief of the Shoshones, who led a large 
force of his warriors to the spot. General Orook, in forwarding* 
to General Sheridan Lieutenant Sibley's report of the affair, 
indorsed it as follows: ee l take occasion to express my grate- 
ful appreciation to the guides, Frank Gruard and Baptiste Pour- 
rier, to Messrs. Bechtel, called Traynor in my telegram, and John 
F. Finerty, citizen volunteers, and to the small detachment of 
picked men from the Second Cavalry, for their cheerful endurance 
of the hardships and perils such peculiarly dangerous duty of 
necessity involves. The coolness and judgment displayed by 
Lieutenant Sibley and Frank Gruard, the guide, in the conduct 
of this reconnaissance, made in the face of the whole force of the 


enemy, are deserving of my warmest acknowledgments. Lieu- 
tenant Sibley, although one of the youngest officers in this 
department, has shown a gallantry that is an honor to himself 
and the service." A very vivid and interesting description of 
this perilous affair has been given by Fmerty in his fascinating 
volume, "War-Path and Bivouac/' During the absence of the 
Sibley party General Crook ascended the mountains to secure 
meat for the command ; we had a sufficiency of bacon, and all 
the trout the men could possibly eat, but fresh meat was not to 
be had in quantity, and the amount of deer, elk, antelope, and 
bear brought in by our hunters, although considerable in itself, 
cut no figure when portioned out among so many hundreds of 
hungry mouths. The failure to hear from Terry or Gibbon dis- 
tressed Crook a great deal more than he cared to admit; he 
feared for the worst, obliged to give ear to all the wild stories 
brought in by couriers and others reaching the command from 
the forts and agencies. By getting to the summit of the high 
peaks which overlooked our camps in the drainage of the Tongue, 
the surrounding territory for a distance of at least one hundred 
miles in every direction could be examined through glasses, and 
anything unusual going on detected. Every afternoon we were 
now subjected to storms of rain and lightning, preceded by gusts 
of wind. They came with such regularity that one could almost 
set his watch by them. 

Major Noyes, one of our most earnest fishermen, did not return 
from one of his trips, and, on account of the very severe storm 
assailing us that afternoon, it was feared that some accident had 
befallen him : that he had been attacked by a bear or other wild 
.animal, had fallen over some ledge of rocks, been carried away 
in the current of the stream, or in some other manner met with 
disaster. Lieutenant Kingsbury, Second Cavalry, went out to 
hunt him, accompanied by a mounted detachment and a hound. 
Noyes was found fast asleep under a tree, completely exhausted 
by his hard work : he was afoot and unable to reach camp with 
his great haul of fish, over one hundred and ten in number; he 
had played himself out, but had broken the record, and was 
snoring serenely* Mr. Stevens, chief clerk for Major Furey, the 
quartermaster, was another sportsman whose chief delight in 
life seemed to be in tearing the clothes off his back in efforts to 
get more and bigger fish than any one else. 


Word came in from General Crook to send pack mules to a 
locality indicated, where the carcasses of fourteen elk and other 
game for the command had heen tied to the branches of trees. 
It was not until the 10th of July, 1876, that Louis Eichaud and 
Ben Arnold rode into camp, bearing despatches from Sheridan to 
Crook with the details of the terrible disaster which had over- 
whelmed the troops commanded by General Custer ; the shock 
was so great that men and officers could hardly speak when the 
tale slowly circulated from lip to lip. The same day the Sioux 
made their appearance, and tried to burn us out : they set fire to 
the grass near the infantry battalions ; and for the next two weeks 
paid us their respects every night in some manner, trying to 
stampede stock, burn grass, annoy pickets, and devil the com- 
mand generally. They did not escape scot-free from these 
encounters, because we saw in the rocks the knife left by one 
wounded man, whose blood stained the soil near it ; another 
night a pony was shot through the body and abandoned ; and on 
still another occasion one of their warriors, killed by a bullet 
through the brain, was dragged to a ledge of rocks and there hid- 
den, to be found a week or two after by our Shoshone scouts. 

The Sioux destroyed an immense area of pasturage, not less 
than one hundred miles each way, leaving a charred expanse of 
territory where had so lately been the refreshing green of dainty 
grass, traversed by crystal brooks ; over all that blackened sur- 
face it would have been difficult to find so much as a grasshopper ; 
it could be likened to nothing except Burke's description of the 
devastation wrought by Hyder Ali in the plains of the Carnatic. 
Copious rains came to our relief, and the enemy desisted ; besides 
destroying the pasturage, the Sioux had subjected us to the great 
annoyance of breathing the tiny particles of soot which filled the 
air and darkened the sky. 

Hearing from some of our hunters that the tracks of a party 
a large party of Sioux and Oheyennes, mounted, had boen seen 
on the path taken by Crook and his little detachment of hunters, 
going up into the Big Horn, Colonel Koyall ordered Mills to 
take three companies and proceed out to the relief, if necessary, 
of our General and comrades. They all returned safely in the 
course of the afternoon, and the next day, July llth, we were 
joined by a force of two hundred and thirteen Shoshones, com- 
manded by their head-chief, "Washakie," whose resemblance in 


face and bearing to the eminent divine, Henry Ward Beecher, 
was noticeable. This party had been delayed, waiting for the 
Utes and Bannocks, who had sent word that they wanted to take 
part in the war against the Sioux ; but " Washakie" at last grew 
tired, and started off with his own people and two of the Bannock 

Of these two a story was related to the effect that, during the 
previous winter, they had crossed the mountains alone, and 
slipped into a village of Sioux, and begun to cut the fastenings 
of several fine ponies ; the alarm was given, and the warriors 
began to tumble out of their beds ; our Bannocks were crouch- 
ing down in the shadow of one of the lodges, and in the confu- 
sion of tongues, barking of dogs, hurried questioning and answer- 
ing of the Sioux, boldly entered the "topi" jtist vacated by two 
warriors and covered themselves up with robes. The excitement 
quieted down after a while, and the camp was once more in 
slumber, the presence of the Bannocks undiscovered, and the 
Sioux warriors belonging to that particular lodge blissfully igno- 
rant that they were harboring two of the most desperate villains 
in the whole western country. When the proper moment had 
come, the Bannocks quietly reached out with their keen knives, 
cut the throats of the squaws and babies closest to them, stalked 
out of the lodge, ran rapidly to whore they had tied the two best 
ponies, mounted, and like the wind were away 

Besides the warriors with " Washakio/' there were two squaws, 
wives of two of the men wounded in tho Rosebud fight, who had 
remained with us. As this was tho last campaign in which great 
numbers of warriors appeared with bows, arrows, lances, and 
shields as well as rifles, I may say that the shields of the Sho- 
shones, like those of tho Sioux and Crows and Ohoyonnes, wore 
made of tho skin of the buffalo bull's nock, which is an inch in 
thickness. This is cut to tho desired shape, and slightly larger 
than tho required sisse to allow for shrinking ; it is pegged down 
tight on the ground, and covered with a thin layer of clay upon 
which is heaped a bed of burning coals, winch hardens the skin 
BO that it will turn the point of a lance or a round bullet. A 
war-song and dance from the Shoshones ended the day. 

On the 12th of July, 1876, three men, dirty, ragged, dressed 
in the tatters of army uniforms, rode into camp and gave their 
names as Evans, Stewart, and Bell, of Captain Clifford's company 


of the Seventh Infantry, bearers of despatches from General 
Terry to General Crook ; in the dress of each was sewed a copy 
of the one message which revealed the terrible catastrophe happen- 
ing to the companies under General Ouster. These three modest 
heroes had ridden across country in the face of unknown dan- 
gers, and had performed the duty confided to them in a manner 
that challenged the admiration of every man in our camp. I 
have looked in vain through the leaves of the Army Register to 
see their names inscribed on the roll of commissioned officers ; 
and I feel sure that ours is the only army in the world in which 
such conspicuous courage, skill, and efficiency would have gone 
absolutely unrecognized. 

Colonel Chambers, with seven companies of infantry and a 
wagon-train loaded with supplies., reached camp on the 13th. 
With him came, as volunteers, Lieutenants Hayden Delaney, of 
the Ninth, and Calhoun and Crittenden, of the Fourteenth In- 
fantry, and Dr. V. T. McGillicuddy. Personal letters received 
from General Sheridan informed General Crook that General 
Merritt, with ten companies of the Fifth Cavalry, had left Red 
Cloud Agency with orders to report to Crook, and that as soon 
after they arrived as possible, but not until then, Crook was to 
start out and resume the campaign. Courier Fairbanks brought 
in despatches from Adjutant-General Robert Williams at Omaha, 
Nebraska, to the effect that we should soon be joined by a de- 
tachment of Utes, who were desirous of taking part in the 
movements against the Sioux, but had been prevented by their 
agent. General Williams had made a representation of all the 
facts in the case to superior authority, and orders had been, 
received from the Department of the Interior directing their 
enlistment. Nearly fifty of the TTtes did start out under Lieu- 
tenant Spencer, of the Fourth Infantry, and made a very rapid 
march to overtake us, but failed to reach our wagon-train camp 
until after our command had departed ; and, in the opinion of 
Major Furey, the risk for such a small party was too great to be 

Camp was the scene of the greatest activity : both infantry 
and cavalry kept up their exercises in the school of the soldier, 
company and battalion, and in skirmishing. Detachments of 
scouts were kept constantly in advanced positions, and although 
the enemy had made no attempt to do anything more than annoy 


us in our strong natural intrenchments, as the camps close to 
the Big Horn might fairly be designated, yet it was evident that 
something unusual was in the wind. "Washakie " ascended to 
the tops of the highest hills every morning and scanned the 
horizon through powerful field-glasses, and would then report 
the results of his observations. Colonel Mills did the same thing 
from the peaks of the Big Horn, to some of the more accessible 
of which he ascended. The Shoshones were kept in the highest 
state of efficiency, and were exercised every morning and evening 
like their white brothers. At first they had made the circuit of 
camp unattended, and advanced five or ten miles out into the 
plains in the performance of their evolutions ; but after the ar- 
rival of fresh troops, under Chambers, " Washakie " was afraid 
that some of the new-comers might not know his people and 
would be likely to fire upon them when they charged back to 
camp ; so he asked General Crook to detail some of his officers 
to ride at the head of the column, with a view to dispelling any 
apprehensions the new recruits might feel. It fell to my lot to 
be one of the officers selected. In all the' glory of war-bonnets, 
bright blankets, scarlet cloth, head-dresses of feathers, and gleam- 
ing rifles and lances, the Shoshones, mounted bareback on 
spirited ponies, moved slowly around camp, led by *' Washakie," 
alongside of whom was borne the oriflamme of the tribe a 
standard of eagle feathers attached to a lance-staff twelve feet 
in length. Each warrior wore in his head-dress a small piece of 
white drilling as a distinguishing mark to let our troops know 
who he was. 

We moved out in column of twos ; first at a fast walk, almost 
a trot, afterwards increasing the gait. The young warriors sat 
like so many statues, horse and rider moving as one. Ifot a 
word was spoken until the voices of the leaders broke out in 
their warsong, to "vtfhioh the whole column at once lent the 
potent aid of nearly two hundred pairs of sturdy lungs. Down 
the valley about three miles, and then, at a signal from " Wash- 
akie,' 1 the column turned, and at another, formed front into 
lino and proceeded slowly lor about fifty yards. " Washakie n 
was endeavoring to explain something to me, but the noise of the 
ponies* hoofs striking the burnt ground and my ignorance of 
his language were impediments to a full understanding of what 
the old gentleman was driving at. I learned afterwards that he 


was assuring me that I was now to see some drill such as the 
Shoshones alone could execute. He waved his hands ; the line 
spread out as skirmishers and took about two yards' interval 
from knee to knee. Then somebody" Washakie " or one of 
his lieutenants yelled a command in a shrill treble ; that's all I 
remember. The ponies broke into one frantic rush for camp, 
riding over sage-brush, rocks, stumps, bunches of grass, buffalo 
heads it mattered not the least- what, they went over it the war- 
riors all the while squealing, yelling, chantiqg their war-songs, or 
howling like coyotes. The ponies entered into the whole business, 
and needed not the heels and "quirts" which were plied against 
their willing flanks. In the centre of the line rode old " Wash- 
akie ; " abreast of him the eagle standard. It was an exciting 
and exhilarating race, and the force preserved an excellent align- 
ment. Only one thought occupied my mind during this charge, 
and that thought was what fools we were not to incorporate 
these nomads the finest light cavalry in the world into our 
permanent military force. With five thousand such men, and 
our aboriginal population would readily furnish that number, we 
could harass and annoy any troops that might have the audacity 
to land on our coasts, and worry them to death. 

General Crook attempted to open communication with Gen- 
eral T^rry by sending out a miner named Kelly, who was to 
strike for the head of the Little Big Horn, follow that down 
until it proved navigable, then make a raft or support for him- 
self of cottonwood or willow, saplings and float by night to the 
confluence of the Big Horn and the Yellowstone, and down the 
latter to wherever Terry's camp might be. Kelly made two at- 
tempts to start, but was each time driven or frightened back ; but 
the third time got off in safety and made the perilous journey, 
and very much in the lines laid down in his talk with Crook. 

Violent storms of snow, hail, and cold rain, with tempests of 
wind, prevailed upon the summits of the range, which was fre- 
quently hidden from our gaze by lowering masses of inky vapor. 
Curious effects, not strictly meteorological, were noticed ; our 
camp was visited by clouds of flies from the pine forests, which 
deposited their eggs upon everything ; the heat of the sun was 
tempered by a gauze veil which inspection showed to be a 
myriad of grasshoppers seeking fresh fields of devastation. Pos- 
sibly the burning over of hundreds of square miles of pasturage 


had driven them to hunt new and unharmed districts ; possibly 
they were driven down from the higher elevations by the rigorous 
cold of the storms ; possibly both causes operated. The fact was all 
we cared for, and we found it disagreeable enough With these 
insects there was larger game : mountain sheep appeared in the 
lower foot-hills,, and two of thorn were killed along our camp 
lines. To balk any attempt of the enemy to deprive us alto- 
gether of grass, whenever camp was moved to a new site, a detail 
of men was put to work to surround us with a tire-hue, which 
would prevent the fires set by mischievous Sioux from gaining 
headway. In making one of those moves we found the Tongue 
River extremely swollen from the storms in the higher peaks, 
and one of the drivers, a good man but rather inexperienced, 
had the misfortune to lose his self-possession, and his wagon was 
overturned by the deep current and three of the mules drowned, 
the man himself being rescued by the exertions of the Shoshone 
scouts, who were passing at the moment. 

On the li)th of July four Crow Indians rode into camp bear- 
ing despatches, the duplicates of those already received by the 
hands of Evans, Stewart, and Bell. General Terry, realizing the 
risk the latter ran, had taken the precaution to repeat his cor- 
respondence with Crook in order that the latter might surely 
understand the exact situation of affairs in the north. After 
being refreshed with sleep and a couple of good warm meals, 
tho Orows wore interrogated concerning all they knew of the 
position of tho hostilos, their numbers, ammunition, and other 
points of the same kind. Squatting upon tho ground, with 
fingers and hands deftly moving, they communicated through 
tho " sign language " a detailed account of the advance of 
Terry, Gibbon, and Ouster ; tho march of Ouster, tho attack upon 
the village of "Grassy Horao" and '* Sitting Bull/' tho massacre, 
tho retreat of llono, the investment, tho arrival of fresh troops 
on tho Hold, tho carrying away of tho wounded to tho steam- 
boats, tho sorrow in tho command, and many other things which 
would astonish persons ignorant of tho ncopo and power of this 
silent vehicle for tho interchange of thought. 

The troops having boon paid off by .Major Arthur, who had 
corno with Colonel Ohambors and the wagon -train, the Shoshonos 
each evening had pony races for some of tho soldiers' monoy. 
This was tho great amusement of our allies, besides gambling, 


fishing, drilling^ and hunting. The greater the crowd assem- 
bled, the greater the pleasure they took in showing their rare 
skill in riding and managing their fleet little ponies. The course 
laid off was ordinarily one of four hundred yards. The signal 
given, with whip and heel each rider plied his maddened steed ; it 
was evident that the ponies were quite as much worked up in the 
matter as their riders. With one simultaneous bound the half- 
dozen or more contestants dart like arrow from bow ; a cloud of 
dust rises and screens them from vision ; it is useless to try to 
pierce this veil ; it is unnecessary, because within a very few 
seconds the quaking earth throbs responsive to many-footed 
blows, and, quick as lightning's flash, the mass of steaming, 
panting, and frenzied steeds dash past, and the race is over. 
Over so far as the horses were concerned, but only begun, so far 
as the various points of excellence of the riders and their mounts 
could be argued about and disputed. 

This did not conclude the entertainment of each day : the 
Shoshones desired to add still more to the debt of gratitude we 
already owed them, so they held a serenade whenever the night 
was calm and fair. Once when the clouds had rolled by and the 
pale light of the moon was streaming down upon tents and pack- 
trains, wagons and sleeping animals, the Shoshones became 
especially vociferous, and I learned from the interpreter that 
they were singing to the moon. This was one of the most pro- 
nounced examples of moon worship coming under my observa- 

The Shoshones were expert fishermen, and it was always a 
matter of interest to me to spend my spare momenta among them, 
watching their way of doing things. Their war lodges were 
entirely unlike those of the Apaches, with which I had be- 
come familiar. The Shoshones would take half a dozen wil- 
low branches and insert them in the earth, so as to make a semi- 
cylindrical framework, over which would be spread a sufficiency 
of blankets to afford the requisite shelter. They differed also 
from the Apaches in being very fond of fish ; the Apaches could 
not be persuaded to touch anything with scales upon it, or any 
bird which lived upon fish ; but the Shoshones had more eeiase, 
and made the most of their opportunity to fill themselves with, 
the delicious trout of the mountain streams, They did nofc 
bother much about hooks and lines, flies, casts, and appliances 


and tricks of that kind, but set to work methodically to get the 
biggest mess the streams would yield. They made a dam of 
rocks and a wattle-work of willow, through which the water 
could pass without much impediment, but which would retain 
all solids. Two or three young men would stay by this dam or 
framework as guards to repair accidents. The others of the 
party, mounting their ponies, would start down-stream to a 
favorable location and there enter and begin the ascent of the 
current, keeping their ponies in touch, lashing the surface of the 
stream in their front wifch long poles, and all the while joining 
in a wild medicine song. The frightened trout, haying no other 
mode of escape, would dart up-stream only to be- held in the 
dam, from which the Indians would calmly proceed to take 
them out in gunny sacks. It was not yery sportsmanlike, but it 
was business. 

I find the statement in my note-books that there must have 
been at least fifteen thousand trout captured in the streams 
upon which we had been encamped during that period of three 
weeks, and I am convinced that my figures are far below the 
truth ; the whole command was living upon trout or as much 
as it wanted ; when it is remembered that we had hundreds of 
white and red soldiers, teamsters, and packers, and that when 
Crook finally left this region the camp was full of trout, salt or 
dried in the sun or smoked, and that every mau had all he could 
possibly cat for days and days, the enormous quantity taken 
must be apparent. Added to this we continued to have a con- 
siderable amount of venison, elk, and bear moat, but no buffalo 
had been seen for some days, probably on account of the destruc- 
tion of grass. Mountain sheep and bear took its place to a cer- 
tain extent, 

It was the opinion and advice of Sheridan that Crook should 
wait for the arrival of Herritt, and that the combined force 
should then hunt Terry and unite with him, and punish the 
Sioux, rather than attempt to do anything with a force which 
might prove inadequate. In this view old '* Washakie " fully con- 
curred. The old chief said to Crook ; " The Sioux and Gheyennes 
have three to your one, even now that you have been reinforced ; 
why not let them alone for a few days ? they cannot subsist the 
great numbers of warriors and men in their camp, and will have 
to scatter for pasturage and meat ; they'll begin to fight among 


themselves about the plunder taken on the battle-field, and many 
will want to slip into the agencies and rejoin their families." 

But, while waiting for Merritt to come up with his ten com- 
panies of cavalry, Crook sent out two large scouting parties to 
definitely determine the location and strength of the enemy. 
One of these consisted entirely of Shoshones, under " Wash- 
akie ; " it penetrated to the head of the Little Big Horn and 
around the corner of the mountain to the cation of the Big 
Horn ; the site of a great camp was found of hundreds of lodges 
and thousands of ponies, but the indications were that the enemy 
were getting hard pressed for food, as they had been eating their 
dogs and ponies whose bones were picked up around the camp- 
fires. From that point the trails showed that the enemy had 
gone to the northeast towards the Powder Eiver. The other 
scouting party was led by Louis Richaud, and passed over the 
Big Horn Mountains and down into the cation of the Big Horn 
Eiver ; they found where the Sioux of the big village had sent 
parties up into the range to cut and trim lodge-poles in great 
numbers. Richaud and his party suffered extremely from cold ; 
the lakes on the summit of the mountains were frozen, and on 
the 1st of August they were exposed to a severe snow-storm. 

Later advices from Sheridan told that the control of the Sioux 
agencies had been transferred to the War Department ; that Mac- 
kenzie and six companies of his regiment had been ordered to take 
charge at Bed Cloud and Spotted Tail, assisted by Gordon with 
two companies of the Fifth Cavalry. Although showers of rain 
were of almost daily occurrence, and storms of greater impor- 
tance very frequent, the weather was so far advanced, and the 
grass so dry and so far in seed, that there was always danger of a 
conflagration from carelessness with fire. 

One of the Shoshones dropped a lighted match in the dry 
grass near his lodge, and in a second a rattle and crackle warned 
the camp of its danger. All hands, Indian and white, near by 
rushed up with blankets, blouses, switches, and branches of trees 
to beat back the flames. This was a dangerous task ; as, one 
after another, the Shoshone frame shelters were enveloped in the 
fiery embrace of the surging flames, the explosion of cartridges 
and the whistling of bullets drove our men back to places of 
safety. In the tall and dry grass the flames held high revel ; 
the whole infantry command was turned out, and bravely set to 


work, and, aided by a change in the wind, secured camp from 
destruction. While thus engaged, they discovered a body of 
Indians moving down the declivity of the mountain ; they im- 
mediately sprang to arms and prepared to resist attack ; a couple 
of white men advanced from the Indian column and called out 
to the soldiers that they were a band of Utes and Shoshones 
from Camp Brown, coming to join General Crook. 

Our men welcomed and led them into camp, where friends 
gave them a warm reception, which included the invariable war- 
dance and the evening serenade. Some of the new-comers strolled 
over to chat with the Shoshones who had been wounded in the 
Eosebud fight, and who, although horribly cut up with bullet 
wounds in the thigh or in the flanks, as the case was, had 
recovered completely under the care of their own doctors, who 
applied toothing but cool water as a dressing ; but I noticed that 
they wore not all the time washing out the wounds as Americans 
would have done, which, treatment as they think would only irri- 
tate the tender surfaces. The now-comors proved to be a band of 
thirty-five, and were all good men. 

On the M of August camp was greatly excited over what was 
termed a game of base-ball between the officers of the infantry 
and cavalry ; quite a number managed to hit the ball, and one or 
two catches wore made ; the playing was in much the same style, 
and of about the same comparative excellence, as the amateur 
theatrical exhibitions, whore those who come to scoff remain to 
pray that they may never have to come again. 





ON the 3d of August, 1876, Crook's command marched 
twenty miles north-northeast to Goose Creek, where Mer- 
ritt had been ordered to await its arrival. The flames of prairie 
fires had parched and disfigured the country. ' ' Big Bat " took 
me a short cut across a petty affluent of the Goose, which had 
been full of running water but was now dry as a bone, choked 
with ashes and dust, the cottonwoods along its banks on fire, and 
every sign that its current had been dried up by the intense heat 
of the flames. In an hour or so more the pent-up waters forced 
a passage through the ashes, and again flowed down to mingle 
with the Yellowstone. The Sioux had also set fire to the timber 
in the Big Horn, and at night the sight was a beautiful one of 
the great line of the foot-hills depicted in a tracery of gold. 

General Merritt received us most kindly. He was at that time 
a very young man, but had liad great experience during the war 
in command of mounted troops, He was blessed with a power- 
ful physique, and seemed to be specially well adapted to undergo 
any measure of fatigue and privation that might befall him. 
His force consisted of ten companies of the Fifth Cavalry, and he 
had also brought along with him seventy-six recruits for the 
Second and Third Regiments, and over sixty surplus horses, be- 
sides an abundance of ammunition. 
The officers with General Merritt, or whose names have not 


already been mentioned in these pages, were : Lieutenant-Colonel 
E, A. Carr, Major John V. Upham, Lieutenant A. D. B. Smead, 
A. D. King, George 0. Eaton, Captain Robert H. Montgomery, 
Emil Adam, Lieutenant E. L. Keyes, Captain Samuel Sumner, 
Lieutenant C. P. Rodgers, Captain George P. Price, Captain 
J Scott Payne, Lieutenants A. B. Bache, "William P. Hall, Cap- 
tain E. M. Hayes, Lieutenant Hoel S. Bishop, Captain Sanford 
C, Kellogg, Lieutenants Bernard Eeilly and Robert London, 
Captain Julius W. Mason, Lieutenant Charles King, Captain. 
Edward H. Leib, Captain William H. Powell, Captain James 
Kennington, Lieutenant John Murphy, Lieutenant Charles 
Lloyd, Captain Daniel W. Burke, Lieutenant F. S. Oalhoun, 
Captain Thomas P. Tobey, Lieutenant Prank Taylor, Lieu- 
tenant Richard T, Yeatman, Lieutenants Julius H. Pardee, 
Robert H. Young, Rockefeller, and Satterlle C. Plummer, with 
Lieutenants W. C, Forbush as Adjutant, and Charles H. Rock- 
well as Quartermaster of the Fifth Cavalry, and Assistant Sur- 
geons Grimes, Lecompt, and Surgeon B. H. Clements, who was 
announced as Medical Director of the united commands by 
virtue of rank. Colonel T. H. Stanton was announced as in 
command of the irregulars and citizen volunteers, who in small 
numbers accompanied the expedition. He was assisted by Lieu- 
tenant Robert H. Young, Fourth Infantry, a gallant and effi- 
cient soldier of great experience. At the head of the scouts 
with Merritt rode William P. Cody, better known to the world 
at large by his dramatic representation which has since traversed 
two continents : (C Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show." 

Major Purey was directed to remain at this point, or in some 
eligible locality close to it, and keep with him the wagon-train 
and the disabled. Paymaster Arthur was to stay with him; and 
outside of that there wore three casualties in the two com- 
mands : Sutorius, dismissed by sentence of general court-mar- 
tial ; Wilson, resigned July 29th ; and Cain, whose mind betrayed 
symptoms of tmsoundnees, and who was ordered to remain with 
Furey, but persisted in keeping with the column until the Yellow- 
stone had boon reached. Couriers arrived with telegrams from 
General Sheridan at Chicago, Williams at Omaha, and Colonel 
Towwsend, commanding at Port Laramie ; all of whom had 
likewise sent clippings from the latest papers, furnishing in- 
formation from all points iu the Indian country* From these 


clippings it was learned that the stream of adventurers pouring 
into the Black Hills was unabated, and that at the confluence of 
the Deadwood and Whitewood Creeks a large town or city of no 
less than four thousand inhabitants had sprung up and was 
working the gold << placers," all the time exposed to desperate 
attacks from the Indians, who, according to one statement, 
which was afterwards shown to be perfectly true, had murdered 
more than eighty men in less than eight days. These men were 
not killed within the limits of the town, but in its environs and 
in the exposed " claims " out in the Hills. 

Several new correspondents had attached themselves to Mer- 
ritt's column; among them I recall Mills, of the New York 
Times, and Lathrop, of the Bulletin, of San Francisco. These, 
I believe, were the only real correspondents in the party, al- 
though there were others who vaunted their pretensions ; one of 
these last, name now forgotten, claimed to have been sent out 
by the New York Graphic, a statement very few were inclined 
to admit. He was the greenest thing I ever saw without feath- 
ers ; he had never been outside of New York before, and the 
way the scouts, packers, and soldiers "laid for " that man was a 
caution. Let the other newspaper men growl as they might 
about the lack of news, Mr. "Graphic/' as I must call him, 
never had any right to complain on that score. Never was 
packer or scout or soldier shall I add officer ? so weary, wet, 
hungry, or miserable at the end of a day's march that he couldn't 
devote a half -hour to the congenial task of "stuffin' the tender- 
foot," The stories told of Indian atrocities to captives, espe- 
cially those found with paper and lead-pencils, were enough to 
make the stoutest veteran's teeth chatter, and at times our 
newly-discovered acquisition manifested a disinclination to swal- 
low, unstrained, the stories told him ; but his murmurs of mild 
dissent were drowned in an inundation of "Oh, that hain't 
nawthin' to what I've seed 'em do." Who the poor fellow was I 
do not know ; no one seemed to know him by any other designa- 
tion than "The Tenderfoot." He had no money, he could nbt 
draw, and was dependent upon the packers and others for every 
meal ; I must say that he never lacked food, provided he 
swallowed it with tales of border horrors which would cause the 
pages of the Boys' Own Five-Cent Novelette series to creak with 
terror. I never saw him smile but once, and that was under 


provocation sufficient to lead a corpse to laugh itself out of its 

One of the biggest liars among Stanton's scouts I do not 
recall whether it was " Slap-jack Billy, the Pride of the Pan- 
Handle, " or " Pisen-weed Patsey, the Terror of |he Bresh' 1 was 
devoting a half-hour of his valuable time to i gettin' in his work " 
on the victim, and was riding one pony and leading another, 
which he had tied to the tail of the first by a rope or halter. 
Tins plan worked admirably, and would have been a success to 
the end had not the led pony started at some Indian clothing in 
the trail, and jumped, and pulled the tail of the leader nearly 
out by the roots. The front horse wasn't going to stand any such 
nonsense as that ; he squealed and kicked and plunged- in rage, 
sending his rider over his head like a rocket, and then, still 
attached to the other, something after the stylo of a Siamese 
twin, charged through the column of scouts, scattering them in 
every direction. But this paroxysm of hilarity was soon over, 
and the correspondent subsided into his normal condition of 
deep-settled melancholy. He left us when we reached the Yel- 
lowstone, and I have never blamed him. 

One of the facts brought out in the telegrams received by 
General Crook was that eight warriors, who had left the hostiles 
and surrendered at Bod Cloud Agency, had reported that the 
main body of the hostiles would turn south. Lieutenant B, B. 
Robertson, Ninth Infantry, found a soapstone dish on the line 
of march, which could have come from the Mandans only, either 
by trade or theft ; or, possibly, some band of Mandans, in search 
of buffalo, had penetrated thus far into the interior and had 
lost it 

In a telegram sent in to Sheridan about this date Crook said ; 
" On the 251U or 20th, all the howtilo Indians left the foot of the 
Big Horn Mountains, and moved back in the direction of the 
Rosebud Mountains, so that it is now impracticable to communi- 
cate with General Terry by courier* I am fearful that they will 
scatter, as there is not sufficient grass in that country to support 
thorn in such large numbers. If we meet the Indiana in too 
strong force, I will swing around and unite with General Terry, 
Your management of the agencies will be a groat benefit to us 
hero* " 

We had one busy day 5 saddles had to be exchanged or repaired, 


horses shod, ammunition issued, provisions packed, and all stores 
in excess turned into the wagon-train. The allowance of bag- 
gage was cut down to the minimum : every officer and soldier 
was to have the clothes on his back and no more ; one overcoat, 
one blanket (to be, carried by the cavalry over the saddle blanket), 
and one India-rubber poncho or one-half of a shelter tent, was 
the allowance carried by General Crook, the members of his 
staff, and all the officers, soldiers, and packers. We had rations 
for fifteen days half of bacon, sugar, coffee, and salt, and full of 
hard bread; none of vinegar, soap, pepper, etc. There were two 
hundred and fifty rounds of ammunition to the man ; one hundred 
to be carried on the person, and the rest on the pack-mules, of 
which there were just three hundred and ninety-nine. The 
pack-train was in five divisions, each led by a bell-mare ; no tents 
allowed, excepting one for the use of the surgeons attending 
to critical cases. "Travois" poles were hauled along to drag 
wounded in case it should become necessary. 

Our mess, which now numbered eleven, was, beyond dispute, 
the most remarkable mess the army has ever known. I challenge 
comparison with it from anything that has ever been seen among 
our officers outside of Libby or Andersonville prisons. General 
Crook did not allow us either knife, fork, spoon, or plate. Each 
member carried strapped to the pommel of his saddle a tin cup, 
from which at balmy morn or dewy eve, as the poets would say, 
he might quaff the decoction called coffee. Our kitchen utensils 
comprised one frying-pan, one carving-knife, one carving-fork, 
one large coffee pot, one large tin platter, one largo and two 
small tin ladles or spoons, and the necessary bags for carrying 
sugar, coffee, bacon, and hard bread. I forgot to say that we 
had also one sheet-iron mess pan. General Crook had deter- 
mined to make his column as mobile as a column of Indians, and 
he knew that example was more potent than a score of general 

We marched down "Prairie Dog" Creek, to its junction with 
Tongue Eiver, passing through a village of prairie dogs, which 
village was six miles long. Tbe mental alienation of our unfortu- 
nate friend Captain Cain became more and more apparent. By 
preference, I rode with Colonel Stanton's scouts; they called 
themselves the "Montana Volunteers/' but why they did so I 
never could understand, unless it was that every other State and 


Territory had repudiated them and set a price upon their heads. 
There was a rumor widely circulated in camp to the effect that 
one or two of these scouts had never been indicted for murder ; it 
was generally suspected that Stanton himself was at the bottom of 
this, in his anxiety to secure a better name for his corps. There 
were very few of them who couldn't claim the shelter of the jail* 
of Cheyenne, Denver, and Omaha by merely presenting them- 
selves, and confessing certain circumstances known to the police 
and detectives of those thriving boroughs. Many a night Joe 
Wasson, Strahorn, and I sat upon our saddles, to be sure that we 
should have them with us at sunrise. One of the most impor- 
tant of these volunteers was "Ute John/' a member of the tribe 
of the same name, who claimed to have been thoroughly civilized 
and Christianized, because he had once, for six months, been 
"dlivin* team to 9 Mo'mon" in Salt Lake. "Ute John" was 
credited by most people with having murdered his own grand- 
mother and drunk her blood, but, in my opinion, the reports to 
his detriment were somewhat exaggerated, and he was harmless 
except when sober, which wasn't often, provided whiskey was 
handy, (< John's " proudest boast was that he was a " Klischun/' 
and he assured mo that ho had been three times baptized in one 
year by the **Mo'mon," who hacj. made him "heap wash," and 
gavo him "heap biled shirt/' by which wo understood that he had 
been baptized and clad in the garments of righteousness, which 
he sorely needed. "TTto John" had one peculiarity: he would 
never speak to any one but Crook himself in regard to the issues 
of the campaign, " Hello, Oluke," ho would say, " how you gittin 7 
on ? Where you tink dom Classy Hoss en Settin* Bull is now, 
Cluko ? " 

We had a difficult time marching down the Tongne, which 
had to be forded thirteen times in one day, the foot-soldiers dis- 
daining the aid which the cavalry was ordered to extend by car- 
rying across all who so desired. The country was found to be one 
gloomy desolation. We crossed the Rosebnd Mountains and 
descended into the Eosebud Creek, where trails were found aa 
broad and distinct as wagon-roads ; the grass was picked clean, 
and the valley, of which I wrote so enthusiastically in the 
spring, was now a desert. We discovered the trap which " Crazy 
Horse " had set for us at the "Rosebud fight on the 17th of June, 
and confidence in Crook was increased tenfold by the knowledge 


that he had outwitted the enemy on that occasion. The Sioux 
and Cheyennes had encamped in seven circles, covering four 
miles in length of the valley. The trail was from ten to twelve 
days old, and, in the opinion of Frank and the other guides, had 
been made by from ten to twenty thousand ponies. 

The hills bordering the Eosebud were vertical bluffs pre- 
senting beautiful alternations of color in their stratification ; 
there were bands of red, pink, cream, black, and purple ; the 
different tints blending by easy gradations into a general effect 
pleasing to the eye. There were quantities of lignite which 
would be of incalculable benefit to the white settlers who might 
in the future flock into this region. In riding along with our 
Indian scouts we learned much of the secret societies among the 
aboriginal tribes: the " Brave Night Hearts," the "Owl 
Feathers," and the "Wolves and Foxes/' These control the 
tribe, fight its battles, and determine its policy. Initiation into 
some one of them is essential to the young warrior's advancement. 
The canon of the Eosebud would seem to have been the bury- 
ing-ground of the Western Dakotas ; there were dozens of 
graves affixed to the branches of the trees, some of them of great 
age, and all raided by our ruthless Shoshones and Utes, who 
with their lances tumbled the bones to the ground and ransacked 
the coverings for mementos of value, sometimes getting fine 
bows, at others, nickel-plated revolvers. There was one which 
the Shoshones were afraid to touch, and which they said was full 
of bad ''medicine ;" but "Ute John," fortified, no doubt, by 
the grace of his numerous Mormon baptisms, was not restrained 
by vain fears, and tumbled it to the ground, letting loose six- 
teen field mice which in some way had made their home in those 
sepulchral cerements. 

Captain " Jack Crawford, the Poet Scout/ 3 rode into camp on 
the 8th of August attended by a few companions. The weather 
became rainy, and the trail muddy and heavy. August llth our 
scouts sent in the information that a line of Indians was coming 
up the valley, and our men advanced as skirmishers. Soon word 
was received that behind the supposed enemy could be seen the 
white canvas coders of a long column of wagons, and we then 
knew that we were about to meet Terry's command, Our cavalry 
were ordered to halt and unsaddle to await the approach of the 
infantry. The Indian scouts were directed to proceed to the 


front and determine exactly who the strangers were. They 
decked themselves in all the barbaric splendors of which they 
were capable : war-bonnets streamed to the ground ; lances and 
rifles gleamed in the sun ; ponies and riders, daubed with mud, 
pranced out to meet our friends, as we were assured they must be. 

When our Indians raised their yells and chants, the scouts at 
the head of the other column took fright and ran in upon the 
solid masses of horsemen following the main trail. These im- 
mediately deployed into line of skirmishers, behind which we 
saw, or thought we saw, several pieces of artillery. "Buffalo 
Bill," who was riding at the head of our column, waved his hat, 
and, putting spurs to his horse, galloped up alongside of Major 
Reno, of the Seventh Cavalry, who was leading Terry's advance. 
When the news passed down from man to man, cheers arose from 
the two columns ; as fast as the cheers of Terry's advance guard 
reached the ears of our men, they responded with heart and soul. 
General Orook sent Lieutenant Schuyler to extend a welcome to 
General Terry, and proffer to him and his officers such hospitali- 
ties as wo could furnish, 

Schuyler returned, loading to the tree under which Crook was 
seated a band of officers at whoso head rode Terry himself. The 
meeting between the two commanders was most cordial, as was 
that between Hie subaltern^ many of whom had served together 
(luring the war and in other places. We made every exertion to 
receive our guests with the best in our possession : messengers 
were despatched down to the pack-trains to borrow every knife, 
fork,, spoon, and dish available, and they returned with about 
thirty of each and two great coffee-pots, which wore soon hum- 
ming on the fire lilled to the brim with an exhilarating decoc- 
tion, Phillips, the cook, was assisted on this occasion by a man 
whose experience had been garnered among the Nez Perc6s and 
Flat-Heads, certainly not among Caucasians, although I must 
admit that he worked hard and did the best lie knew how, A 
long strip of canvas was stretched upon the ground and covered 
with the tin cups and cutlery, Terry and his staff seated them- 
selves and partook of what we had to offer, which was not very 
nrach but was given with full heart, 

Terry was one of the most charming and affable of men j his 
general air was that of the scholar no less than the soldier. 
His figure was tall and commanding ; his face gentle, yet de- 


cided ; his kindly blue eyes indicated good-nature ; his complex- 
ion, bronzed by wind and rain and sun to the color of an old 
sheepskin- covered Bible, gave him a decidedly martial appear- 
ance. He won his way to all hearts by unaffectedness and affa- 
bility. In his manner lie was the antithesis of Crook. Crook 
was also simple and unaffected, but he was reticent and taciturn 
to the extreme of sadness, brusque to the verge of severity. In 
Terry's face I thought I could sometimes detect traces of inde- 
cision ; but in Crook's countenance there was not the slightest 
intimation of anything but stubbornness, rugged resolution, and 
bull-dog tenacity. Of the two men Terry alone had any preten- 
sions to scholarship, and his attainments were so great that the 
whole army felt proud of him ; but Nature had been bountiful 
to Crook, and as he stood there under a tree talking with Terry, 
I thought that within that cleanly outlined skull, beneath that 
brow, and behind those clear-glancing blue-gray eyes, there was 
concealed more military sagacity, more quickness of comprehen- 
sion and celerity to meet unexpected emergencies, than in any of 
our then living Generals excepting Grant, of whose good quali- 
ties he constantly reminded me, or Sheridan, whose early friend 
and companion he had been at West Point and in Oregon. 

That evening, General Crook and his staff dined with Gen- 
eral Terry, meeting with the latter Captains Smith and Gibbs, 
Lieutenants Maguire, Walker, Thompson, Nowlan, and Mich- 
aelis. Prom this point Terry sent his wagon-train down to the 
Yellowstone, and ordered the Fifth Infantry to embark on one 
of the steamboats and patrol the river, looking out for trails 
of hostiles crossing or attempting to cross to the north. All the 
sick and disabled were sent down with this column ; we lost Cain 
and Bache and a number of enlisted men, broken down by the 
exposure of the campaign. The heat in the middle of the day 
had become excessive, and General Terry informed me that on 
the 8th it registered in his own tent 117 Fahrenheit, and on the 
7th, 110. Much of this increase of temperature was, no doubt, 
due to the heat from the pasturage destroyed by the hosfciles, 
which comprehended an area extending from the Yellowstone to 
the Big Horn Mountains, from the Big Horn River on the west 
to the Little Missouri on the east, 

In two things the column from the Yellowstone was sadly 
deficient : in cavalry and in rapid transportation. The Seventh 


Oavalrj was in need of reorganization, half of its original num- 
bers having been killed or wounded in the affair of the Big Horn ; 
the pack-train, made up, as it necessarily was, of animals taken 
out of the traces of the heavy wagons, was the saddest burlesque 
in that direction which it has ever been my lot to witness for 
this no blame was ascribable to Terry, who was doing the best 
he could with the means allowed him from Washington. The 
Second Cavalry was in good shape, and so was Gibbon's column 
of infantry, which seemed ready to go wherever ordered and go 
at once. Crook's pack-train was a marvel of system; it main- 
tained a discipline much severer than had been attained by any 
company in either column j under the indefatigable supervision 
of Tom Moore, Dave Mears, and others, who had had an experi- 
ence of more than a quarter of a century, our mules moved with 
a precision to which the worn-out comparison of ee clockwork " is 
justly adapted. The mules had been continuously in training 
since the preceding December, making long marches, carrying 
heavy burdens in the worst sort of weather. Consequently, they 
were hardened to the hardness and toughness of wrought-iron and 
whalebone. They followed the bell, and were as well trained as 
any soldiers in the command. Behind them one could see the 
other pack-train, a string of mules, of all sizes, each led by one 
soldier and beaten and driven along by another attendants often 
rivalling animals in dumbness and it was hard to repress a smile 
except by the reflection that this was the motive power of a col- 
umn supposed to bo in pursuit of savages. On the first day's 
march, after meeting Orook, Terry's pack-train dropped, lost, or 
damaged more stores than Crook's command had spoiled from 
the same causes from the time when the campaign commenced. 

Whan the imiteqi columns struck the Tongue, the trail of the 
hostile bands hnd split into tljree : one going up stream, one 
down, and one across country oast towards the Powder, Orook 
ordered his scouts to examine in front and on flanks, and in the 
mean time the commands unsaddled and went into camp ; the 
scouts did not return until almost dark, when they brought in- 
formation that tho main trail had kept on in the direction of the 
Powder* Colonel Koyall's command found tho skeletons of two 
mining prospectors in the bushes near the Tongue ; appearances 
indicated that the Sioux had captured these men and roasted 
them, alive. Oa this march we saw a large " medicine rock," in 


whose crevices the Sioux had deposited various propitiatory offer- 
ings, and upon whose face had been graven figures and symbols 
of fanciful and grotesque outline. 

In following the main trail of the enemy it seemed as if we 
were on a newly cut country road ; when we reached a projecting 
hill of marl and sandy clay, the lodge poles had cut into the soft 
soil to such an extent that we could almost believe that we were 
on the line of work just completed, with pick, spade, and shovel, 
by a gang of trained laborers. Trout were becoming scarce in 
this part of the Tongue, but a very delicious variety of the 
"cat" was caught and added to the mess to the great delight of 
the epicure members. The rain had increased in volume, and 
rarely an hour now passed without its shower. One night, while 
sitting by what was supposed to be our camp-fire, watching the 
sputtering flames struggling to maintain life against the down- 
pouring waters, I heard my name called, and as soon as I could 
drag my sodden, sticky clothes through a puddle of mud I found 
myself face to face with Sam Hamilton, of the Second, whom I 
had not seen since we were boys together in the volunteer service 
in the Stone Eiver campaign, in 1862. It was a very melancholy 
meeting, each soaked through to the skin, seated alongside of 
smoking embers, and chilled to the marrow, talking of old times, 
of comrades dead, and wondering who next was to be called. 

The Indian trail led down the Tongue for some miles before it 
turned east up the "Four Horn " Creek, where we followed it, 
being rewarded with an abundance of very fine grama, called by 
our scouts the " Two-Day " grass, because a bellyful of it 
would enable a tired horse to travel for two days more. An 
Indian puppy was found abandoned by its red-skinned owners, 
and was adopted by one of the infantry soldiers, who carried it on 
his shoulders. Part of this time we were in " Bad Lands/' in- 
fested with rattlesnakes in great numbers, which our Shoshones 
lanced with great glee. It was very interesting to watch them, 
and see how they avoided being bitten : three or four would ricle 
up within easy distance of the doomed reptile and distract its 
attention by threatening passes with their lances ; the crotalus 
would throw itself into a coil in half a second, and stay there, 
tongue darting in and out, head revolving from side to side, 
leaden eyes scintillating with the glare of the diamond, ready to 
strike venomous fangs into any one coming within reach. The 


Shoshonc boys would drive their lances into the coil from three 
or four different directions, exclaiming at the same time : "Gott 
tammee you ! Gott tammee you ! *" which was all the English 
they had been able to master. 

We struck the Powder and followed it down to its junction 
with the Yellowstone, where we were to replenish our supplies 
from Terry's steamboats. The Powder contrasted unfavorably 
with the Tongue : the latter was about one hundred and fifty 
feet wide, four feet deep, swift current., and cold water, and, ex- 
cept in the Bad Lands near its mouth, clear and sweet, and not 
perceptibly alkaline. The Powder was the opposite in every 
feature : its water, turbid and milky ; current, slow ; bottom, 
muddy and frequently miry, whereas that of the Tongue was 
nearly always hard-pan. The water of the Powder was alkaline 
and not always palatable, and the fords rarely good and often 
dangerous. The Yellowstone was a delightful stream : its width 
was not over two hundred and fifty yards, but its depth was con- 
siderable, its bed constant, and channel undeviating. The cur- 
rent flows with so little noise that an unsuspecting person would 
have no idea of its velocity ; but steamboats could rarely stem it, 
and bathers venturing far from the banks wore swept off their 
feet. The depth was never loss than ilve feet in the main chan- 
nel during time of high water. The banks were thickly grassed 
aud covered with cotton wood and other timber in heavy copses. 

Crook's forces encamped on the western bank of the Powder ; 
the supplies wo had looked for were not on hand in suffi- 
cient quantity, and Lieutenant Bubb, our commissary, reported 
that ho was afraid that wo wore going to bo grievously dis- 
appointed in that regard. General Terry sent steamers up and 
down the Yellowstone to gather up all stores from depots, and 
also from points where they had been unloaded on account of 
shallow water. Crook's men spent a great deal of the time 
bathing in the Yellowstone and washing their clothes, following 
the example set by the General himself : each man waded out 
into the channel clad in his undergarments and allowed the cur- 
rent to soak them thoroughly, and ho would then stand in the 
sunlight until dried. Each had but the suit on his back, and 
this was all the cleaning or change they had for sixty days. The 
Utes and Shoshones became very discontented, und et Washa- 
kie " had several interviews with Crook, in which he plainly told 


the latter that his people would not remain longer with Terry's 
column, because of the inefficiency of its transportation ; with 
such mules nothing could be done ; the infantry was all right, 
and so was part of the cavalry, but the pack-train was no good, 
and was simply impeding progress. The steamer " Par West/' 
Captain Grant Marsh, was sent up the river to the mouth of the 
Eosebud to bring down all the supplies to be found in the depot 
at that point, bat returned with very little for so many mouths 
as we now had about four thousand all told. 

A great many fine agates were found in the Yellowstone near 
the Powder, aud so common were they that nearly all provided 
themselves with souvenirs from that source. Colonel Burt 
was sent up the river to try to induce the Crows to send 
some of their warriors to take the places soon to be vacated by 
the Shoshones, as Crook foresaw that without native scouts the 
expedition might as well be abandoned. Burt was unsuccessful 
in his mission, and all our scouts left with the exception of the 
much-disparaged " Ute John," who expressed his determination 
to stick it out to the last. 

Mackinaw boats, manned by adventurous trad'ers from Mon- 
tana, bad descended the river loaded with all kinds of knick- 
knacks for the use of the soldiers ; these were retailed at enor- 
mous prices, but eagerly bought by men who had no other 
means of getting rid of their money. Besides the "Mackinaw," 
which was made of rough timber framework, the waters of the 
Yellowstone and the Missouri were crossed by the " bull-boat," 
which bore a close resemblance to the basket " coracle " of the 
west coast of Ireland, and, like it, was a framework of willow or 
some kind of basketry covered with the skins of the buffalo, or 
other bovine ; in these frail hemispherical barks squaws would 
paddle themselves and baggage and pappooses across the swift- 
running current and gain the opposite bank in safety. 

At the mouth of Powder there was a sutler's store packed 
from morning till night with a crowd of expectant purchasers. 
To go in there was all one's life was worth : one moment a 
soldier stepped on one of your feet, and the next some two-hun- 
dred-pound packer favored the other side in the same manner. 
A disagreeable sand-storm drove Colonel Stanton and myself to 
the shelter of the lunette constructed by Lieutenant William P. 
Clarke, Second Cavalry, who had descended the Yellowstone 


from Fort Ellis with a piece of artillery. Here we lunched with 
Clarke and Colonel Carr, of the Fifth Cavalry, stormbound like 
ourselves. The Ree scouts attached to Terry's column favored 
our Utes and Shoshones with a fe pony " dance after nightfall. 
The performers were almost naked, and, with their ponies, be- 
daubed and painted from head to foot. They advanced in a 
regular line, which was not broken for any purpose, going over 
every obstruction, even trampling down the rude structures of 
cottonwood branches erected by the Utes and Shoshones for 
protection from the elements. As soon as they had come within 
a few yards of the camp-fires of the Shoshones, the latter, with 
the Utes, joined the Kees in their chant and also jumped upon 
their ponies, which staggered for some minutes around camp 
under their double and even treble load, until, thank Heaven ! 
the affair ended. Although I had what might be called a " dead- 
head"" view of the dance, I did not enjoy it at all, and was 
not sorry when the Eees said that they would have to go back to 
their own camp. 

There was not very much to eat down on the Yellowstone, and 
one could count on his fingers the "square " meals in that lovely 
valley. Conspicuous among them should be the feast of hot 
bacon and beans, to which Tom Moore invited Hartsuff, Stauton, 
Bubb, Wasson, Strahorn, Schuyler, and myself long after the 
camp was wrapped in slumber. The beans were cooked to a 
turn ; there was plenty of hard-tack and coffee, with a small 
quantity of sugar ; each knew the other, there was much to talk 
about, and in the light and genial warmth of the fire, with 
stomachs filled, we passed a delightful time until morning had 
almost dawned. 

Ou tho 20th of August, our Utes and Shoshones left, and word 
was also received from the Crows that they were afraid to let 
any of tho young men leave their own country while such num- 
bers of the Sioux and Cbeyeimes were in hostility, and so close 
to them, General Crook had a flag prepared for his head- 
quarters after the stylo prevailing in Terry's column, which 
served the excellent purpose of directing orderlies and officers 
promptly to the battalion or other command to which a message 
was to be delivered. This standard, for the construction of which 
we were indebted to th$ industry of Randall and Schuyler, was 
rather primitive in desigri and general make-up. It was a 


guidon, of two horizontal bands, white above, red beneath, with a 
blue star in the centre. The white was from a crash towel con- 
tributed by Colonel Stanton, the red came from a flannel under- 
shirt belonging to Schuyler, and an old blouse which Randall 
was about to throw away furnished the star. Tom Moore had a 
"travois" pole shaved down for a staff, the ferrule and tip of 
which were made of metallic cartridges. 

Supper had just been finished that day when we were exposed 
to as miserable a storm as ever drowned the spirit and enthusiasm 
out of any set of mortals. It didn't come on suddenly, but with 
slowness and deliberation almost premeditated. For more than 
an hour fleecy clouds skirmished in the sky, wheeling and cir- 
cling lazily until re-enforced from the west, and then moving 
boldly forward and hanging over camp in dense, black, sullen 
masses. All bestirred themselves to make such preparations as 
they could to withstand the siege : willow twigs and grasses were 
cut in quantities, and to these were added sage-brush and grease- 
wood. Wood was stacked up for the fire, so that at the earliest 
moment possible after the cessation of the storm it could be 
rekindled and afford some chance of warming ourselves and dry- 
ing clothing. With the twigs and sage-brush we built up beds 
in the best-drained nooks and corners, placed our saddles and 
bridles at our heads, and carbines and cartridges at our sides to 
keep them dry. As a last protection, a couple of lariats were 
tied together, one end of the rope fastened to a picket pin in the 
ground, the other to the limb of the withered cottonwood along- 
side of which headquarters had been established; over this 
were stretched a couple of blankets from the pack-train, and we 
had done our best. There was nothing else to do but grin 
and bear all that was to happen. The storm-king had waited 
patiently for the completion of these meagre preparations, and 
now, with a loud, ear-piercing crash of thunder, and a hissing 
flash of white lightning, gave the signal to the elements to begin 
the attack. "We cowered helplessly under the shock, sensible 
that human strength was insignificant in comparison with the 
power of the blast which roared and yelled and shrieked about us* 

For hours the rain poured down either as heavy drops which 
stung by their momentum ; as little pellets which drizzled through 
canvas and blankets, chilling our blood as they soaked into cloth- 
ing ; or alternating with hail which in great, globular crystals, 


crackled against the miserable shelter, whitened the ground, and 
froze the air. The reverberation of the thunder was incessant ; 
one shock had barely begun to echo around the sky, when peal 
after peal, each stronger, louder, and more terrifying than its 
predecessors, blotted from our minds the sounds and flashes 
which had awakened our first astonishment, and made us forget 
in new frights our old alarms. The lightning darted from zenith 
to horizon, appeared in all quarters, played around all objects. 
In its glare the smallest bushes, stones, and shrubs stood out as 
plainly as under the noon sun of a bright summer's day ; when it 
subsided, our spirits were oppressed with the weight of darkness. 
No stringing together of words can complete a description of 
what wo saw, suffered, and feared during that awful tempest. 
The stoutest hearts, the oldest soldiers, quailed. 

The last growl of thunder was heard, the last flash of lightning 
seen, between two and three in the morning, and then we turned 
out from our wretched, water-soaked couches, and gathering 
around the lakelet in whose midst our fire had been, tried by the 
smoke of sodden chips and twigs to warm our benumbed limbs 
and dry our saturated clothing. N"ot until the dawn of day did 
we feel the circulation quicken and otir spirits revive. A com- 
parison of opinion developed a coincidence of sentiment. Every- 
body agreed that while perhaps this was not the worst storm he 
had ever known, the circumstances of our complete exposure to 
its force had mudo it about the very worst any of the command 
had ever experienced. There was scarcely a day from that on 
for nearly a month that my note-books do not contain references 
to storms, some of them fully as severe as the one described in the 
above linens ; the exposure began to tell upon officers, men, and 
animals, and I think the statement will be accepted without 
challenge that no one who followed Crook during those terrible 
days was benefited in any way. 

I made out a rough list of the officers present on this expedi- 
tion, and another of those who have died, been killed, diod of 
wounds, or been retired for one reason or another, and I find 
that the first list had one hundred and sixteen names and the 
second sixty-nine ; so it can be seen that of the officers who were 
considered to be physically able to enter upon that campaign in 
the early summer months of 1876, over fifty per cent, are not 
now answering to roll-call on the active list, after about sixteen 


years' interval. The bad weather had the good effects of bring- 
ing to the surface all the dormant geniality of Colonel Evans's 
disposition : he was the Mark Tapley of the column ; the harder 
it rained, the louder he laughed ; the bright shafts of lightning 
revealed nothing more inspiriting than our worthy friend's smile 
of serene contentment. In Colonel Evans's opinion, which he 
was not at all diffident about expressing, the time had come for 
the young mea of the command to see what real service was 
like. ts There had been entirely too much of this playing 
soldier, sir; what had been done by soldiers who were soldiers, 
sir, before the war, sir, had never been properly appreciated, sir, 
and never would be until these young men got a small taste of it 
themselves, sir." 

General Merritt's division of the command was provided with 
a signal apparatus, and the flags were of great use in conveying 
messages to camp from the outlying pickets, and thus saving the 
wear and tear of horse-flesh ; but in this dark and rainy season 
the system was a failure, and many thought that it would have 
been well to introduce a code of signals by whistles, but it was 
not possible to do so under our circumstances. 

The "Far West" had made several trips to the depot at the 
mouth of the Eosebud, and had brought down a supply of shoes, 
which was almost sufficient for our infantry battalions, but there 
was little of anything else, and Bubb, our commissary, was unable 
to obtain more than eleven pounds of tobacco for the entire force. 

We were now laboring under the serious disadvantage of 
having no native scouts, and were obliged to start out without 
further delay, if anything was to be done with the trail of the 
Sioux, which had been left several marches up the Powder, be* 
fore we started down to the Yellowstone to get supplies. Crook 
had sent out Frank Q-ruard, " Big Bat," and a small party to 
learn all that could be learned of that trail, which was found 
striking east and south. Terry's scouts had gone to the north 
of the Yellowstone to hunt for the signs of bands passing across 
the Missouri. The report came in that they had found some in 
that direction, and the two columns separated, Terry going in one 
direction, and Crook keeping his course and following the large 
trail, which he shrewdly surmised would lead over towards the 
Black Hills, where the savages would find easy victims in the 
settlers pouring into the newly discovered mining claims. 


Captain Cain, Captain Burrowes, and Lieutenant Eaton, the 
latter broken down with chills and fever as well a pistol wound 
in the hand, were ordered on board the transports, taking with 
them twenty-one men of the command pronounced unfit for field 
service. One of these enlisted men Eshleman, Ninth Infantry 
was violently insane. Our mess gained a new member, Lieu- 
tetiant William P. Clarke, Second Cavalry, ordered to report to 
General Crook for duty as aide-de-camp. He was a brave, 
bright, companionable gentleman, always ready in an emergency, 
and had he lived would, beyond a doubt, have attained, with 
opportunity, a distinguished place among the soldiers of our 
country. General Terry very kindly lent General Crook five of 
his own small band of Ree scouts ; they proved of great service 
while with our column. 



ON the 23d of August we were beset by another violent storm, 
worse, if such a thing were possible, than any yet expe- 
rienced. All through the night we lay in from three to four 
inches of water, unable to shelter ourselves against the strong 
wind and pelting Niagara which inundated the country. Sleep 
was out of the question, and when morning came it threw its 
cold gray light upon a brigade of drowned rats, of disgusted and 
grumbling soldiers. It was with difficulty we got the fires to 
burn, but a cup of strong coffee was ready in time, and with the 
drinking of that the spirits revived, and with a hearty good-will 
all hands pulled out from the valley of the Yellowstone, and 
plodded slowly through the plastic mud which lay ankle deep 
along the course of the Powder, There was a new acquisition to 
the column a fine Newfoundland dog, which attached itself 
to the command, or was reported to have done so, although I 
have always had doubts upon that subject. Soldiers will steal 
dogs, and "Jack/' as he was known to our men, may have been 
an unwilling captive, for all I know to the contrary. 

There was no trouble in finding the big Sioux trail, or in fol- 
lowing it east to O'Mlon's Creek, finding plenty of water and 
getting out of "the burnt district." The grass was as nutritive 
as it ought to have been in "Wyoming and Montana, and as it 
would have been had not the red men destroyed it all. Another 


trying storm soaked through clothing, and dampened the cour- 
age of our bravest. The ruin which set in about four in the 
afternoon, just as we were making camp, suddenly changed to 
hail of large size, which, with the sudden fall in temperature, 
chilled and frightened our herds of horses and mules, and had 
the good effect of making them cower together in fear, instead of 
stampeding, as we had about concluded they would surely do. 
Lightning played about us with remorseless vividness, and one 
great bolt crashed within camp limits, setting fire to the grass 
on a post near the sentinel. 

The 29th and 30th of August we remained in. bivouac at a 
spring on the summit of the ridge overlooking the head waters of 
Cabin Creek, while our blankets and clothing were drying; and 
the scouts reconnoitred to the front and flanks to learn what was 
possible regarding the trail, which seemed much fresher, as if 
made only a few days previously. Hunting detachments were 
sent out on each flank to bring in deer, antelope and jack rabbits 
for the sick, of whom we now had a number suffering from neu- 
ralgia, rheumatism, malaria, and diarrhoea. Lieutenant Hunt- 
ington was scarcely able to sit his horse, and Lieutenant Bache 
had to be hauled in a "travois." 

The night of August 31, 1876, was so bitter cold that a num- 
ber of General Crook's staff, commissioned and enlisted, had a 
narrow escape from freezing to death. In our saturated condi- 
tion, with clothing scant oven for summer, we were in no condi- 
tion to face a sudden <tf norther/' which blew vigorously upon all 
who were encamped upon the crests of the buttes but neglected 
those in the shelter of the ravines. The scenery in this neigh- 
borhood was entrancing. Mr. Finerty accompanied me to the 
summit of the bluffs, and we looked out upon a panorama grander 
than any that artist would bo bold enough to trace upon canvas, 
In the western sky the waning glories of the setting sun were 
most dazzling. Scarlet and gold, pink and yellow in lovely 
contrast or graceful harmony wero scattered with reckless prod- 
igality from the tops of the distant hills to near the zenith, where 
neutral tints of gray aud pale blue marked the dividing line be- 
tween the gorgeousness of the vanishing sunlight and the more 
placid splendors of the advancing night, with its millions of stars. 
The broken contour of the ground, with its deeply furrowed 
ravines, or its rank upon rank of plateaux and ridges, resembled 


an angry sea whose waves had been suddenly stilled at the climax 
of a storm. The juiciest grama covered the pink hillocks from 
base to crest, but scarcely a leaf could be seen ; it was pasturage, 
pure and simple the paradise of the grazier and the cowboy. 
We gave free rein to our fancy in anticipating the changes ten 
years would effect in this noble region, then the hunting ground 
of the savage and the lair of the wild beast, 

We crossed the country to the east, going down Beaver Creek 
and finding indications that the hostiles knew that we were on 
their trail, which now showed signs of splitting ; we picked up 
four ponies, abandoned by the enemy, and Frank Gruard, who 
brought them in, was sure that we were pressing closely upon 
the rear of the Indians, and might soon expect a brush with 
them. A soldier was bitten in the thumb by a rattlesnake ; 
Surgeon Patzki cauterized the wound, administered ammonia, and 
finished up with two stiff drinks of whiskey from the slender 
allowance of hospital supplies. The man was saved. The trail 
kept trending to the south, running down towards the "Senti- 
nel " Buttes, where our advance had a running fight with the 
enemy's rear-guard, killing one or two ponies. 

The next point of note was the Little Missouri River, into the 
valley of which we descended on the 4th of September, at the 
place where General Stanley had entered it with the expedition 
to survey the line of the Northern Pacific Eailroad in 1873. This 
is called by the Indians the "Thick Timber 5 ' Creek, a name 
which it abundantly deserves in comparison with the other 
streams flowing within one hundred miles on either side of it. 
We emerged from the narrow defile of Andrus* Creek, into a 
broad park, walled in by precipitous banks of marl, clay, and 
sandstone, ranging from one hundred to three hundred feet high. 
Down the central line of this park grew a thick grove of cotton- 
wood, willow,, and box-elder, marking the channel of the stream, 
which at this spot was some thirty yards wide, two to three feet 
deep, carrying a good volume of cold, sweet water, rather muddy 
in appearance. The bottom is of clay, and in places miry, and 
the approaches are not any too good. A small amount of work 
was requisite to cut them clown to proper shape, but there was 
such a quantity of timber and brush at hand that corduroy and 
causeway were soon under construction. The fertility of the 
soil was attested by the luxuriance of the grass, the thickness of 


timber, the dense growth of grape-vines, wild plums, and bull 
berries, already ripening under the warm rays of the sun and 
the constant showers. Where the picket lines of Terry's cavalry 
had been stretched during the spring, and the horses had 
scattered grains of corn from their feed, a volunteer crop had 
sprung up, whose stalks were from ten to twelve feet high, each 
bearing from two to four large ears still in the milk. 

Our scouts and the advance-guard of the cavalry rushed into 
this unexpected treasure-trove, cutting and slashing the stalks, 
and bearing them off in large armfuls for the feeding of our own 
animals. The half -ripened plums and bull berries were thoroughly 
boiled, and, although without sugar, proved pleasant to the taste 
and a valuable anti-scorbutic. Trial was also made of the com- 
mon opuntia, or Indian fig, the cactus which is most frequent in 
that section of Dakota ; the spines were burnt off, the thick skin 
peeled, and the inner meaty pulp fried; it is claimed as an excel- 
lent remedy for scurvy, but the taste is far from agreeable, being 
slimy and mucilaginous. 

On the 5th of September we made a long march of thirty 
miles in drizzling rain and sticky mud, pushing up Davis Creek, 
and benefiting by tho bridges which Terry's men had erected in 
many places where the .stream had to be crossed ; we reached the 
head of tho Heart River, and passed between the Eosebud Butte 
on the right and the OameFs Hump on the left. Here we again 
ran upon the enemy's rear-guard, which seemed disposed to make 
a fight until our advance got up and pushed them into the bluffs, 
when they retreated in safety, under cover of the heavy fog 
which had spread over the hills all day. Of the fifteen days' 
rations with which we had started out from the Yellowstone, 
only two and a half days* rations were left, When Randall and 
Stanton returned from the pursuit of the enemy, the Bees, who 
were still with us, gave it as their opinion that the command 
could easily reach Fort Abraham Lincoln in four days, or five ; 
GHendive, on. the Yellowstone, in our rear, could not be much 
farther in a direct line ; but here was a hot trail leading due 
south towards the Black Hills, which were filling with an 
unknown number of people, all of whom would be exposed to 
slaughter and destruction. There is one thing certain about a 
hot trail : you'll find Indians on it if you go far enough, and 
youll find them nowhere else. Comfort and ease beckoned from 


Fort Lincoln, but duty pointed to Deadwood, and straight to 
Deadwood Crook went. His two and a half days' rations were 
made to last five ; the Rees were sent in with despatches as fast 
as their ponies could travel to Lincoln, to inform Sheridan of 
our whereabouts, and to ask that supplies be hurried out from 
Camp Eobinson to meet us. With anything like decent luck 
we ought to be able to force a fighfc and capture a village with its 
supplies of meat. Still, it was plain that all the heroism of our 
natures was to be tried in the fire before that march should be 
ended ; Bubb concealed seventy pounds of beans to be used for 
the sick and wounded in emergencies ; Surgeon Hartsuff carried 
in his saddle-bags two cans of jelly and half a pound of corn- 
starch, with the same object ; the other medical officers had each 
a little something of the same sort tea, chocolate, etc. This was 
a decidedly gloomy outlook for a column of two thousand* men in 
an unknown region in tempestuous weather. We had had^ no 
change of clothing for more than a month since leaving Goose 
Creek, and we were soaked through with rain and mud, and 
suffering greatly in health and spirits in consequence. 

We left the Heart River in the cold, bleak mists of a cheer- 
less morning, which magnified into grim spectres the half-dozen 
cottonwoods nearest camp, which were to be imprinted upon 
memory with all the more vividness, because until we had struck 
the Belle Fourche, the type of the streams encountered in our 
march was the same timberless, muddy, and sluggish. The 
ground was covered with grass, alternating with great patches of 
cactus. Villages of prairie dogs extended for leagues, and the 
angry squeak of the population was heard on all sides. ee Jack/' 
the noble Newfoundland dog which had been with us since we 
started out from the mouth of Powder, was now crazy for some 
fresh meat, and would charge after the prairie dogs with such 
impetuosity that when he attempted to seize his victim, and the 
loosely packed soil around the burrow had given way beneath their 
united weight, he would go head over heels, describing a com- 
plete somersault, much to his own astonishment and our amuse- 
ment. After turning the horses out to graze in the evening, it 
generally happened that camp would be visited by half a dozen, 
jack rabbits, driven out of their burrows by fear of the horses' 
hoofs. The soldiers derived great enjoyment every time one ws 
started, and as poor pussy darted from bush to bush, doubled and 


twisted, bounded boldly through a line of her tormentors, or 
cowered trembling under some sage-brush, the pursuers, armed 
with nose-bags, lariats, and halters, would advance from all sides, 
and keep up the chase until the wretched victim was fairly run to 
death. There would be enough shouting, yelling, and screeching 
to account for the slaughter of a thousand buffaloes. We learned 
to judge of the results of the chase in the inverse ratio to the 
noise : when an especially deafening outcry was heard, the ver- 
dict would be rendered at once that an unusually pigmy rabbit 
had been run to cover, and that the men who had the least to do 
with the capture had most to do with the tumult. 

The country close to the head of Heart Eiver was strewn with 
banded agate, much of it very beautiful We made our first 
camp thirty-five miles south of Heart River by the side of two 
large pools of brackish water, so full of e< alkali " that neither 
men nor horses cared to touch it. There wasn't a stick of tim- 
ber in sight as big around as one's little finger ; we tried to make 
coffee by digging a hole in the ground upon which we set a tin cup, 
and then each one in the mess by tarns fed the flames with wisps 
of such dry grass as could be found and twisted into a potty fagot, 
Wo succeeded in making the collee, but the water in boiling 
threw up so much saline and sedimentary matter that the ap- 
pearance was decidedly repulsive. To the North Fork of the 
Grand River was another thirty-five miles, made, like the march 
of the preceding day, in the pelting rain which had lasted all 
night. The country was beautifully grassed, and we saw several 
patches of wild onions, which wo dug up and saved to boil with 
the horse-meat which was now appearing as our food ; General 
Crook found half a dozen rose-bushes, which ho had guarded by 
a sentinel for the use of the sick ; Lieutenant Bubb had four or 
five cracker-boxes broken up and distributed to the command for 
fuel ; it is astonishing what results can be effected with a hand- 
ful of fire- wood if people will only half try. The half and third 
ration of hard-tack was issued to each and every officer in the 
headquarters mess just the same as it was issued to enlisted men ; 
the coffee was prepared with a quarter ration, and even that had 
failed. Although there could not be a lovelier pasturage than 
that through which we were marching, yet our animals, too, began, 
to play out, because they were carrying exhausted and half -starved 
men who could not sit up in the saddle, and couldn't so fre- 


quently dismount on coming to steep, slippery descents where ifc 
would have been good policy to " favor " their faithful steeds. 

Lieutenant Bubb was now ordered forward to the first settle- 
ment he could find in the Black Hills Dead wood or any other 
this side and there to buy all the supplies in sight ; he took fifty 
picked mules and packers under Tom Moore ; the escort of one 
hundred and fifty picked men from the Third Cavalry, mounted 
on our strongest animals, was under command of Colonel Mills, 
who had with him Lieutenants Chase, Crawford, Schwatka, Von 
Leuttewitz, and Doctor Stevens. Two of the correspondents, 
Messrs. Strahorn and Davenport, went along, leaving the main 
column before it had reached the camp of the night. We 
marched comparatively little the next day, not more than twenty- 
four miles, going into camp in a sheltered ravine on the South 
Fork of the Grand Eiver, within sight of the Slim Buttes, and in 
a position which supplied all the fuel needed, the first seen for 
more than ninety miles, but so soaked with water that all we 
could do with it was to raise a smoke. It rained without inter- 
mission all day and all night, but we had found wood, and our 
spirits rose with the discovery ; then, our scouts had killed five 
antelope, whose flesh was distributed among the command, the 
sick in hospital being served first. Plums and bull berries 
almost ripe were appearing in plenty, and gathered in quantity to 
be boiled and eaten with horse-meat. Men were getting pretty 
well exhausted, and each mile of the march saw squads of strag- 
glers, something which, we had not seen before ; the rain was so 
unintermittent, the mud so sticky, the air so damp, that with 
the absence of food and warmth, men lost courage, and not a 
few of the officers did the same thing. Horses had to be 
abandoned in great numbers, but the best of them were killed to 
supply meat, which with the bull berries and water had become 
almost our only certain food, eked out by an occasional slico of 
antelope or jack rabbit. 

The 8th of September was General Crook's birthday ; fifteen 
or sixteen of the officers had come to congratulate him at his fire 
under the cover of a projecting rock, which kept off a considera- 
ble part of the down-pour of rain ; it was rather a forlorn birth- 
day party, nothing to eat, nothing to drink, no chance to dry 
clothes, and nothing for which to be thankful except that we had 
found wood, which was a great blessing. Sage-brush, once so 


despised, was now welcomed whenever it made its appearance, 
as it began to do from this on ; it at least supplied the means of 
making a small fire, and provided the one thing which under all 
circumstances the soldier should have, if possible. Exhausted 
by fatiguing marches through mud and rain, without sufficient 
or proper food, our soldiers reached bivouac each night, to find 
only a rivulet of doubtful water to quench their thirst, and then 
went supperless to bed. 

In all the hardships, in all the privations of the humblest 
soldier, General Crook freely shared ; with precisely the same 
allowance of food and bedding, he made the weary campaign of 
the summer of 1876 ; criticism was silenced in the presence of a 
general who would reduce himself to the level of the most lowly, 
and even though there might be dissatisfaction and grumbling, as 
there always will be in so large a command, which is certain to 
have a percentage of the men who want to wear uniform without 
being soldiers, the reflective and observing saw that their sufferings 
were fully shared by their leader and honored him accordingly. 
There was no mess in the whole column which suffered as much 
as did that of which General Crook was a member ; for four days 
before any other mess had been so reduced we had been eating 
the meat of played-out cavalry horses, and at the date of which I 
ana now writing all the food within reach was horse-meat, water, 
and enough bacon to grease the pan in which the former was to 
be fried. Crackers, sugar, and coffee had been exhausted, and 
we had no addition to our bill of fare beyond an occasional plate- 
ful of wild onions gathered alongside of the trail. An antelope 
had been killed by ono of the orderlies attached to the head- 
quarters, and tho remains of this were hoarded with car for 

On. the morning of September 9th, as we were passing a little 
watercourse which we ww unable to determine correctly, some 
insisting that it was tho South Fork of the Grand, others calling 
it the North Fork of Owl Creek the maps were not accurate, 
and it was hard to say anything about that region couriers from 
Mills's advance-guard came galloping to General Crook with the 
request that he hurry on to tho aid of Mills, who had surprised 
and attacked an Indian village of uncertain size, estimated at 
twenty-five lodges, and had driven the enemy into the bluffs near 
him, but was able to hold his own until Crook could reach him. 


The couriers added that Lieutenant Von Leuttewitz had been 
severely wounded in the knee, one soldier had been killed, and 
five wounded ; the loss of the enemy could not then be ascer- 
tained. C 4 rook gave orders for the cavalry to push on with all 
possible haste, the infantry to follow more at leisure ; but these 
directions did not suit the dismounted battalions at all, and they 
forgot all about hunger, cold, wet, and fatigue, and tramped 
through the mud to such good purpose that the first infantry 
company was overlapping the last one of the mounted troops 
when the cavalry entered the ravine in which Mills was awaiting 
them. Then we learned that the previous evening Frank Gru- 
ard had discovered a band of ponies grazing on a h ill-side and 
reported to Mills, who, thinking that the village was inconsidera- 
ble, thought himself strong enough to attack and carry it unaided. 

He waited until the first flush of daylight, and then left his 
pack-train in the shelter of a convenient ravine, under command 
of Bubb, while he moved forward with the greater part of his 
command on foot in two columns, under Crawford and Von 
Leuttewitz respectively, intending with them to surround the 
lodges, while Schwatka, with a party of twenty-five mounted men, 
was to charge through, firing into the "tepis." The enemy's 
herd stampeded through the village, awakening the inmates, 
and discovering the presence of our forces. Schwatka made his 
charge in good style, and the other detachments moved in as 
directed, but the escape of nearly all the bucks and squaws could 
not be prevented, some taking shelter in high bluffs surround- 
ing the village, and others running into a ravine where they still 
were at the moment of our arrival eleven A.M. 

The village numbered more than Mills had imagined : we 
counted thirty-seven lodges, not including four upon which the 
covers had not yet been stretched. Several of the lodges were of 
unusual dimensions : one, probably that occupied by the guard 
called by Gmard and "Big Bat "the "Bravo Night Hearts," 
contained thirty saddles and equipments. Great quantities of 
furs almost exclusively untannad buffalo robes, antelope, and 
other skins wrapped up in bundles, and several tons of meat, 
dried after the Indian manner, formed the main part of the 
spoil, although mention should be made of the almost innumera- 
ble tin dishes, blankets, cooking utensils, boxes of caps, ammu- 
nition, saddles, horse equipments, and other supplies that would 


prove a serious loss to the savages rather than a gain to our- 
selves. Two hundred ponies many of them fine animals not 
quite one-half the herd, fell into our hands. A cavalry guidon, 
nearly new and torn from the staff ; an army officer's overcoat ; a 
non-commissioned officer's blouse ; cavalry saddles of the McClel- 
lan model, covered with black leather after the latest pattern of 
the ordnance bureau ; a glove marked with the name of Captain 
Keogh ; a letter addressed to a private soldier in the Seventh 

Cavalry ; horses branded U. S. and 7 C. one was branded ~, n : 

? O. 

were proofs that the members of this band had taken part, and a 
conspicuous part, in the Custer massacre. General Crook ordered 
all the meat and other supplies to be taken from the village 
and piled up so that it could be issued or packed upon our 
mules. Next, he ordered the wounded to receive every care ; 
this had already been done, as far as he was able, by Mills, who 
had pitched one of the captured lodges in a cool, shady spot, 
near the stream, and safe from the annoyance of random shots 
which the scattered Sioux still fired from the distant hills, 

A still more important task was that of dislodging a small 
party who had run into a gulch fifty or sixty yards outside of the 
line of the lodges, from which they made it dangerous for any of 
Mills's command to enter the village, and had already killed several 
of the pack-mules whoso carcasses lay among the lodges. Prank 
Gruard and " Big Bat " were sent forward, crawling on hands and 
feet from shelter to shelter, to get within easy talking distance of 
the defiant prisoners in the gulch, who refused to accede to any 
terms and determined to fight it out, confident that " Crazy 
Horse/' to whom they had despatched runners, would soon hasten 
to their assistance. Lieutenant William P. Clarke was directed 
to take charge of a picked body of volunteers and get the Indians 
out of that gulch ; the firing attracted a largo crowd of idlers 
and others, who pressed so closely upon Clarke and his party as 
to seriously embarrass their work, Our men were so crowded 
that it was a wonder to mo that the shots of the beleaguered did 
not kill them by the half-dozen ; but the truth was, the Sioux did 
not care to waste a shot : they were busy digging rifle-pits in the 
soft marly soil of the ravine, which was a perfect ditch, not more 
than ten to fifteen feet wide, and fifteen to twenty deep, with a 
growth of box elder that aided in concealing their doings from 


our eyes. But, whenever a particularly good chance for doing 
mischief presented itself, the rifle of the Sioux belched out its 
fatal missile. Private Kennedy, Company " G," Fifth Cavalry, 
had all the calf of one leg carried away by a bullet, and at the 
same time another soldier was shot through the ankle-joint. 

The ground upon which Captain Munson and I were standing 
suddenly gave way, and down we both went, landing in the midst 
of a pile of squaws and children. The warriors twice tried to 
get aim at us, but were prevented by the crooked shape of 
the ravine ; on the other side, " Big Bat " and another one 
of Stanton's men, named Gary, had already secured position, 
and were doing their best to induce the Indians to surrender, 
crying out to them " Washte-helo " (Very good) and other ex- 
pressions in Dakota, the meaning of which I did not clearly 
understand. The women and pappooses, covered with dirt and 
blood, were screaming in an agony of terror ; behind and above 
us were the oaths and yells of the surging soldiers ; back of the 
women lay what seemed, as near as we could make out, to be 
four dead bodies still weltering in their gore. Altogether, the 
scene, as far as it went, was decidedly infernal ; there was very 
little to add to it, but that little was added by one of the scouts 
named Buffalo "White, who incautiously exposed himself to find 
out what all the hubbub in the ravine meant. Hardly had 
he lifted his body before a rifle-ball pierced him through and 
through. He cried out in a way that was heart-rending : 
" 0, Lord ! 0, Lord ! They've got me now, boys I " and dropped 
limp and lifeless to the base of the hillock upon which he had 
perched himself, thirty feet into the ravine below at its deepest 

Encouraged by " Big Bat," the squaws and children ventured 
to come up to us, and were conducted down through the winds 
and turns of the ravine to where General Crook was ; he ap- 
proached and addressed them pleasantly ; the women divined at 
once who he was, and clung to his hand and clothing, their own 
skirts clutched by the babies, who all the while wailed most dis- 
mally. When somewhat calmed down they said that their 
village belonged to the Spotted Tail Agency and was commanded 
by " .Roman Nose" and " American Horse," or "Iron Shield," 
the latter still in the ravine. General Crook bade one of them 
go back and say that he would treat kindly all who surrendered. 


The squaw complied and returned to the edge of the ravine, there 
holding a parley, as the result bringing back a young warrior 
about twenty years old. To him General Crook repeated the 
assurances already given, and this time the young man went back, 
accompanied by ee Big Bat," whose arrival unarmed convinced 
"American Horse" that General Crook's promises were not 
written in sand. 

"American Horse " emerged from his rifle-pit, supported on 
one side by the young warrior, on the other by "Big Bat," and 
slowly drew near the group of officers standing alongside of 
General Crook ; the reception accorded the captives was gentle, 
and their wounded ones were made the recipients of necessary 
attentions. Out of this little nook twenty-eight Sioux little 
and great, dead and alive were taken ; the corpses were suffered 
to lie where they fell "American Horse " had been shot through 
the intestines, and was biting hard upon a piece of wood to sup- 
press any sign of pain or emotion ; the children made themselves 
at homo around our fires, and shared with the soldiers the food 
now ready for the evening meal. Wo had a considerable quantity 
of dried buffalo-meat, a few buffalo-tongues, some pony-meat, 
and parflcehe panniers filled with fresh and dried buffalo berries, 
wild cherries, wild plums, and other fruit and, best find of all, a 
trifle of salt. One of the Sioux food preparations dried meat, 
pounded up with wild plums and wild cherries called " Tore," 
was very palatable and nutritious ; it is cousin -germati to our 
own plum pudding. 

These Indiana had certificates of good conduct dated at 
Spotted Tail Agency and issued by Agent Howard. General 
Crook ordered that every vestige of the village and the property 
in it which could not be kept as serviceable to ourselves should be 
destroyed. The whole command ate ravenously that evening 
and the next morning, and we still had enough meat to load 
down twenty-eight of our strongest pack-mules. This will show 
that the official reports that fifty-five hundred pounds had been 
captured were entirely too conservative. I was sorry to see that 
the value of the wild fruit was not appreciated by some of the 
company commanders, who encpuraged their men very little in 
eating it and thus lost t)ie benefit of its anti-scorbutic qualities* 
All our wounded were cheerful and doing well, including Von 
Leuttewitz, whose leg had been amputated at the thigh. 


The barking of stray puppies, the whining of children, the 
confused hum of the conversation going on among two thousand 
soldiers, officers, and packers confined within the narrow limits 
of the ravine, were augmented by the sharp crack of rifles and 
the whizzing of bullets, because '"'Crazy Horse/'' prompt in 
answering the summons of his distressed kinsmen, was now on 
the ground, and had drawn his lines around our position, which 
he hoped to take by assault, not dreaming that the original 
assailants had been re-enforced so heavily. It was a very pretty 
fight, what there was of it, because one could take his seat almost 
anywhere and see all that was going on from one end of the field 
to the other. "Crazy Horse " moved his men up in fine style, 
but seemed to think better of the scheme after the cavalry gave 
him a volley from their carbines ; the Sioux were not left in 
doubt long as to what they were to do, because the infantry bat- 
talions commanded by Burt and Daniel W. Burke got after 
them and raced them off the field, out of range. 

One of our officers whose conduct impressed me very much 
was Lieutenant A. B. Bache, Fifth Cavalry : he was so swollen 
with inflammatory rheumatism that he had been hauled for days 
in a "travois" behind a mule; but, hearing the roll of rifles 
and carbines, he insisted upon being mounted upon a horse and 
strapped to the saddle, that he might go out upon the skirmish 
line. We never had a better soldier than he, but he did not sur- 
vive the hardships of that campaign. The Sioux did not caro to 
leave the battle-field without some token of prowess, and seeing 
a group of ten or twelve cavalry horses which had been aban- 
doned during the day, and were allowed to follow along at their 
own pace, merely to be slaughtered by Bubb for meat when it 
should be needed, flattered themselves that they had a grand 
prize within reach ; a party of bold young bucks, anxious to gain 
a trifle of renown, stripped themselves and their ponies, and 
made a dash for the broken-down cast-offs ; the skirmishers, by 
some sort of tacit consent, refrained from firing a shot, and 
allowed the hostiles to get right into the " bunch " and see how 
hopelessly they had been fooled, and then when the Sioux started 
to spur and gallop back to their own lines the humming of bul- 
lets apprised them that our men were having the joke all to 
Just as " Crazy Horse " hauled off his forces, two soldiers bare- 


footed, and in rags, walked down to our lines and entered camp ; 
their horses had "played out" in the morning, and were in the 
group which the Sioux had wished to capture ; the soldiers 
themselves had lain down to rest in a clump of rocks and fallen 
asleep to be awakened by the circus going on all around them ; 
they kept well under cover, afraid as much of the projectiles of 
their friends as of the fire of the savages, but were not discovered, 
and now rejoined the command to be most warmly and sincerely 
congratulated upon their good fortune. It rained all night, but 
we did not care much, provided as we now were with plenty of 
food, plenty of fuel, and some extra bedding from the furs taken 
in the lodges. In the drizzling rain of that night the soul of 
"American Horse " took flight, accompanied to the Happy Hunt- 
ing Grounds by the spirit of Private Kennedy. 

After breakfast the next morning General Crook sent for the 
women and children, and told them that we were not making 
war upon such as they, and that all those who so desired were 
freo to stay and rejoin their own people, but he cautioned them 
to say to all their friends that tho American Government was 
determined to keep pegging away at all Indians in hostility until 
the last had boon killed or made a prisoner, and that the red 
men would be following the dictates of prudence in surrendering 
unconditionally instead of remaining at war, and exposing their 
wives and children to accidents and dangers incidental bo that 
condition. The young warrior, "Charging Bear," declined to 
go with the squaws, but remained with Crook and enlisted as a 
scout, becoming a corporal, and rendering most efficient service 
in tho campaign during tho following winter which resulted so 

"Crazy Horse " felt our lines again as we were moving off, but 
was held in check by Sumnor, of the Fifth, who had one or two 
men slightly wounded, while five of the attacking party were seen 
to fall out of their saddles. The prisoners informed, us that we 
wore on the main trail of the hostiles, which, although now split, 
was all moving down to the south towards the agencies. Mills, 
Bubb, Schwatka, Chase, and fifty picked men of the Third 
Cavalry, with a train made up of all our strong mules under 
Tom Moore, with Frank Gruard as guide, were once more sent 
forward to try to roach Dead wood, learn all the news possible 
concerning the condition of the exposed mining hamlets near 


there, and obtain all the supplies in sight. Crook was getting 
very anxious to reach Deadwood before " Crazy Horse " could 
begin the work of devilment upon which he and his bands were 
bent, as the squaws admitted. Bubb bore a despatch to Sheri- 
dan, narrating the events of the trip since leaving Heart River. 

Knowing that we were now practically marching among hos- 
tile Sioux, who were watching our every movement, and would 
be ready to attack at the first sign of lack of vigilance, Crook 
moved the column in such a manner that it could repel an attack 
within thirty seconds ; that is to say, there was a strong advance- 
guard, a rear-guard equally strong, and lines of skirmishers 
moving along each flank, while the wounded were placed on 
"travois," for the care of which Captain Andrews and his com- 
pany of the Third Cavalry were especially detailed. One of the 
lodges was brought along from the village for the use of the sick 
and wounded, and afterwards given to Colonel Mills. The 
general character of the country between the Slim Bufctes and 
the Belle Fourche remained much the same as that from the 
head of Heart River down, excepting that there was a small por- 
tion of timber, for which we were truly thankful. The captured 
ponies were butchered and issued as occasion required ; the 
men becoming accustomed to the taste of the meat, which was 
far more juicy and tender than that of the broken-down old 
cavalry nags which we had been compelled to eat a few days 
earlier. The sight of an antelope, however, seemed to set every- 
body crazy, and when one was caught and killed squads of offi- 
cers and men would fight for the smallest portion of flesh or 
entrails ; I succeeded in getting one liver, which was carried in 
my nose-bag all day and broiled over the ashes at night, furnish- 
ing a very toothsome morsel for all the members of our mess. 

While speaking upon the subject of horse-meat, let me tell 
one of the incidents vividly imprinted upon memory. Bubb's 
butcher was one of the least poetical men ever met in my journey 
through life ; all he cared for was to know just what animals 
were to be slaughtered, and presto 1 the bloody work was done, 
and a carcass gleamed in the evening air. Many and many a 
pony had he killed, although he let it be known to a couple of 
the officers whom he took into his confidence that he had been 
raised a gentleman, and had never before slaughtered anything 
but cows and pigs and sheep. One evening, he killed a mare 


whose daughter and granddaughter were standing by her side, 
the daughter nursing from the mother and the granddaughter 
from, the daughter. On another occasion he was approached by 
one of Stanton's sctmts I really have not preserved his name, 
but it was the dark Mexican who several weeks after killed, and 
was killed by, Carey, his best friend. After being paid off, they 
got into some kind of a drunken row in a gambling saloon, in 
Deadwood, and shot each other to death. Well, this man drew 
near the butcher and began making complaint that the latter, 
without sufficient necessity, had cut up a pony which the guide 
was anxious to save for his own use. The discussion lasted for 
several minutes and terminated without satisfaction to the scout, 
who then turned to mount his pony and ride away ; no pony was 
to be seen ; he certainly had ridden one down, but it had vanished 
into vapor ; he could sec the saddle and bridle upon the ground, 
but of the animal not a trace ; while he had been arguing with 
the butcher, the assistants of the latter had quickly unsaddled 
the mount and slaughtered and divided it, and the quarters were 
then on their way over to one of the battalions. It was a piece 
of rapid work worthy of the best skill of Chicago, but it con- 
firmed one man in a tendency to profanity and cynicism. 

Our maps led us into a very serious error: from them it 
appeared that tho South Pork of Owl Creek was not more than 
twenty or twenty-five miles from the Belle Foiirche, towards which 
we were trudging so wearily, the rain still beating down without 
pity. Tho foot soldiers, eager to make tho march which was to 
end their troubles and load them to food and rest, were ready for 
tho trail by throe on the morning of the 12th of September, and 
all of thorn strung out before four. As eoon as it was light 
enough wo saw that a portion of the trail had set off towards 
tho east, and Major XJpham was sent with one hundred and fifty 
men from tho Fifth Cavalry to find out all about it. It proved 
to bo moving in tho direction of Bear Lodge Butte, and the in- 
tention evidently was to annoy the settlements in the Hills ; one 
of Upham ? s men went off without permission, after antelope, and 
was killed and cut to pieces by the prowling bands watching the 
column. The clouds lifted once or twice during the march of 
the 12th and disclosed the outline of Bear Bufcte, a great satisfac- 
tion to us, as it proved that we were going in the right direction for 
Deadwood, The country was evenly divided between cactus and 


grass, in patches of from one to six miles in breadth ; the mud 
was so tenacious that every time foot or hoof touched it there 
would be a great mass of " gumbo " adhering to render progress 
distressingly tiresome and slow. Our clotbing was in rags of the 
flimsiest kind, shoes in patches, and the rations captured at the 
village exhausted. Mules and horses were black to the houghs 
with the accretions of a passage through slimy ooze which pulled 
off their shoes. 

Crook's orders to the men in advance were to keep a sharp 
lookout for anything in the shape of timber, as the column was 
to halt and bivouac the moment we struck anything that would 
do to make a fire. On we trudged, mile succeeding mile, and 
still no sign of the fringe of cotton wood, willow, and elder which 
we had been taught to believe represented the line of the stream 
of which we were in search. The ruin poured down, clothes 
dripped with moisture, horses reeled and staggered, and were one 
by one left to follow or remain as they pleased, while the men, all 
of whom were dismounted and leading their animals, fell out 
singly, in couples, in squads, in solid platoons. It was half-past 
ten o'clock that never-to-be-forgotten night, when the last foot 
soldier had completed his forty miles, and many did not pretend 
to do it before the next morning, but lay outside, in rear of the 
column, on the muddy ground, as insensible to danger and pain 
as if dead drunk. 

We did not reach the Belle Fourche that night, but a tributary 
called Willow Creek which answered every purpose, as it had an 
abundance of box-elder, willow, ash, and plum bushes, which 
before many minutes crackled and sprang skyward in a joyous 
flame; we piled high the dry wood wherever found, thinking to 
stimulate comrades who were weary with marching and sleep- 
ing without the cheerful consolation of a sparkling camp-fire. 
There wasn't a thing to eat in the whole camp but pony-meat, 
slices of which were sizzling upon the coals, but the poor fellows 
who did not get in killed their played-out horses and ate tho 
meat raw. If any of my readers imagines that the march from, 
the head of Heart Eiver down to the Belle Fourche was a picnic, 
let him examine the roster of the command and tell off the 
scores and scores of men, then hearty and rugged, who now fill 
premature graves or drag out an existence with constitutions 
wrecked and enfeebled by such privations and vicissitudes. 


There may still be people who give credence to the old supersti- 
tions about the relative endurance of horses of different colors, 
and believe that white is the weakest color. For their informa- 
tion I wish to say that the company of cavalry which had the 
smallest loss of horses during this exhausting march was the 
white horse troop of the Fifth, commanded by Captain Eobert 
H. Montgomery ; I cannot place my fingers upon the note 
referring to it, but I will state from recollection that not one 
of them was left behind. 

On the 13th we remained in camp until noon to let men have 
a rest and give stragglers a chance to catch up with the com- 
mand. Our cook made a most tempting ragout out of some 
pony-meat, a fragment of antelope liver, a couple of handfuls of 
wild onions, and the shin-bone of an ox killed by the Sioux or 
Cheyenncs, and which was to us almost as interesting as the 
fragments of weeds to the sailors of Columbus. This had been 
simmering all night, and when morning came there was enough 
of it to supply many of our comrades with a hot platterful. At 
noon wo crossed to the Belle Fourche, six miles to the south, 
the dangerous approaches of Willow Creek being corduroyed and 
placed in good order by a party under Lieutenant Charles King, 
who had been assigned by General Mcrritt to the work. 

The Belle Fourche appealed to our fancies as in every sense 
deserving of its flattering title : it was not less than one hundred 
feet wide, throe deop, with a good flow of water, and a current of 
something like four miles an hour. The bottom was clay and 
sandstone drift, and even if the water was a trifle muddy, it 
tasted delicious after our late tribulations. Wells dug in the 
banks afforded even better quality for drinking or cooking. The 
dark clouds still hung threateningly overhead, but what of that ? 
all eyes were strained in the direction of Deadwood, for word had 
come from Mills and Bubb that they had been successful, and 
that we were soon to catch a glimpse of the wagons laden with 
food for our starving command. A murmur rippled through 
camp ; in a second it had swelled into a roar, and broken into a 
wild cry, half yell, half cheer. Down the hill-sides as fast as 
brawny men could drive them ran fifty head of beef cattle, and 
not more than a mile in the rear wagon sheets marked out the 
slower-moving train with the supplies of the commissariat. 

As if to manifest sympathy with our feelings, the sun unveiled 


himself, and for one good long hour shone down through scatter- 
ing clouds the first fair look we had had at his face for ten dreary 
days. Since our departure from Furey and the wagon-train, it 
had rained twenty-two days, most of the storms being of phe- 
nomenal severity, and it would need a very strong mind not to 
cherish the delusion that the elements were in league with the red 
men to preserve the hunting lands of their fathers from the grasp 
of the rapacious whites. When the supplies arrived the great aim 
of every one seemed to be to carry out the old command : " Eat, 
drink, and be merry, for to-morrow ye die." The busy hum of 
cheerful conversation succeeded to the querulous discontent of 
the past week, and laughter raised the spirits of the most tired 
and despondent ; we had won the race and saved the Black Hills 
with their thousands of unprotected citizens, four hundred of 
whom had been murdered since the summer began. The first 
preacher venturing out to Deadwood paid the penalty of his rash- 
ness with his life, and yielded his scalp to the Oheyenncs. It 
was the most ordinary thing in the world to have it reported that 
one, or two, or three bodies more were to be found in such and 
such a gulch ; they were buried by people in no desire to remain 
near the scene of horror, and as the Hills were filling up with 
restless spirits from all corners of the world, and no one knew his 
neighbor, it is doubtful if all the murdered ones were ever reported 
to the proper authorities. When the whites succeeded in killing 
an Indian, which happened at extremely rare intervals, Dead- 
wood would go crazy with delight ; the skull and scalp were pa- 
raded and sold at public auction to the highest bidder. 



rpHE joy of the people in the Hills knew no bounds; the 
J~ towns of Deadwood, Crook City, Montana, and many others 
proceeded to celebrate the news of their freedom and safety 
by all the methods suitable to such a momentous occasion in a 
frontier civilization : there was much in the way of bonfires, the 
firing of salutes from anvils, cheering, mass-meetings, alleged 
music, and no small portion of hard drinking. By resolution of 
the Dead wood Council, a committee, consisting of the first mayor, 
Farnum, and councilmen Kurtz, Dawson, and Philbrick, was 
sent out to meet General Crook and extend to him and his offi- 
cers the freedom of the city; in the same carriage with them 
came Mr. Wilbur Hugus, who had assisted me in burying Captain 
Philip Dwyer at Camp Date Creek, Arizona, four years previ- 
ously. The welcome extended theso representatives was none the 
IOSB cordial because they had brought along with them a most 
acceptable present of butter, oggs, and vegetables raised in the 
Hills. Despatches were also received from General Sheridan, 
informing Crook that the understanding was that the hostiles 
were going to slip into the agencies, leaving out ia the Big Horn 
country " Crazy Horse " and " Sitting Bull/' with their bands, 
until the next spring. To prevent a recurrence of the campaign 
the next year, Sheridan was determined to disarm and dismount 
all the new arrivals, and lor that purpose had stationed a strong 
force at each agency, but he wished Crook to move in with his 


command to "Red Cloud" and "Spotted Tail" and superintend 
the work there instead of remaining in the Hills as Crook wished 
to do, and continue the campaign from there with some of the 
towns, either Deadwood or Ouster City, as might he found hest 
adapted to the purpose, as a hase. Congress had authorized the 
enlistment of four hundred additional Indian scouts, and had 
also appropriated a liberal sum for the construction of the posts 
on the Yellowstone. Crook was to turn over the command to 
Herri tt, and proceed in person, as rapidly as possible, to confer 
with Sheridan, who was awaiting him at Fort Laramie, with a 
view to designating the force to occupy the site of old Fort Reno 
during the winter. 

After enduring the hardships and discomforts of the march 
from the bead of Heart River, the situation in the bivouac on 
the Whitewood, a beautiful stream flowing out of the Hills at 
their northern extremity, was most romantic and pleasurable. 
The surrounding knolls were thickly grassed ; cold, clear water 
stood in deep pools hemmed in by thick belts of timber; and 
there was an abundance of juicy wild plums, grapes, and bull 
berries, now fully ripe, and adding a grateful finish to meals 
which included nearly everything that mail could desire, brought 
down in wagons by the enterprising dealers of Deadwood, who 
reaped a golden harvest. We were somewhat bewildered at sit- 
ting down before a canvas upon which were to be seen warm 
bread baked in ovens dug in tho ground, delicious coffee, to the 
aroma of which we had been for sa long a time strangers, broiled 
and stewed meat, fresh eggs, pickles, preserves, and fresh vege- 
tables. Soldiers are in one respect like children : they forget 
the sorrows of yesterday in the delights of to-day, and give to 
glad song the same voices which a few hours ago were loudest in 
grumbling and petty complaint. So it was with our camp : the 
blazing fires were surrounded by crowds of happy warriors, each 
rivalling the other in tales of the "times wo had" in a march 
whose severity has never been approached by that made by any 
column of our army of the same size, and of which so little is 
known that it may truly be said that the hardest work is the 
soonest forgotten. 

Crook bade good-by to the officers and men who had toiled 
along with him through the spring and summer, and then headed 
for the post of Fort Robinson, Nebraska, one hundred and sixty 

BE AD WOOD. 333 

miles to the south. For one-half this distance our road followed 
down through the centre of the Bkick Hills, a most entrancing 
country, laid out apparently by a landscape artist ; it is not so 
high as the Big Horn range, although Harney's and other peaks 
of granite project to a great elevation, their flanks dark with 
pine, fir, and other coniferaa ; the foot-hills velvety with health- 
ful pasturage ; the narrow valleys of the innumerable petty 
creeks a jungle of willow, wild rose, live oak, and plum. Climb- 
ing into the mountains, one can find any amount of spruce, 
juniper, cedar, fir, hemlock, birch, and whitewood; there are no 
lakes, but the springs are legion and fill with gentle melody the 
romantic glens the retreat of the timid deer. 

A description of Deadwood as it appeared at that time will 
suffice for all the settlements of which it was the metropolis. 
Crook City, Montana, Hills City, Castleton, Ouster City, and 
others through which we passed were better built than Deadwood 
and better situated for expansion, but Deadwood had struck it 
rich in its placers, and the bulk of the population took root 
there. Crook City received our party most hospitably, and in- 
sisted upon our sitting down to a good hot breakfast, after 
which wo pressed on to Deadwood, twenty miles or more from 
our camping place on the Whitewood. The ten miles of distance 
from Crook City to Deadwood was lined on both sides with deep 
ditches and sluice-boxes, excavated to develop or work the rich 
gravel lying along the entire gulch. But it seemed to me that 
with -anything like proper economy and caro there was wealth 
enough in tho forests to make the prosperity of any community, 
and supply not alone the towns which might spring up in the 
hills, but build all tho houses and stables needed in the great 
pastures north, as far as the head of the Little Missouri, It was 
the 10th of September when wo entered Doadwood, and although 
I had been through the Black Hills with the exploring expedi- 
tion commanded by Colonel Dodge, the previous year, and was 
well acquainted with tho beautiful country we were to see, I was 
unbalanced by the exhibition of the marvellous energy of the 
American people now laid before us. The town had been laid 
off in building lots on the 15th of May, and all supplies had to 
be hauled in wagons from the railroad two hundred and fifty 
miles away and through bodies of savages who kept up a constant 
series of assaults and ambuscades. 


The town was situated at the junction of the White wood and 
Deadwood creeks or gulches., each of which was covered by a 
double line of block-houses to repel a sudden attack from the 
ever-to-be-dreaded enemy, the Sioux and Cheyennes, of whose 
cruelty and desperate hostility the mouths of the inhabitants 
and the columns of the two newspapers were filled I remember 
one of these journals, The Pioneer, edited at that time by a 
young man named Merrick, whose life had been pleasantly 
divided into three equal parts setting type^ hunting for Indians, 
and " rasslin* " for grub during the days when the whole com- 
munity was reduced to deer-meat and anything else they could 
pick up. Merrick was a very bright, energetic man, and had he 
lived would have been a prominent citizen in the new settle- 
ments. It speaks volumes for the intelligence of the element 
rolling into the new El Dorado to say that the subscription lists 
of The Pioneer even then contained four hundred names. 

The main street of Deadwood, twenty yards wide, was packed 
by a force of men, drawn from all quarters, aggregating thou- 
sands ; and the windows of both upper and lower stories of the 
eating-houses, saloons, hotels, and wash-houses were occupied by 
women of good, bad, and indifferent reputation. There were 
vociferous cheers, clappings of hands, wavings of handkerchiefs, 
shrieks from the whistles of the planing mills, reports from 
powder blown off in anvils, and every other manifestation, of 
welcome known to the populations of mining towns. The 
almond-eyed Celestial laundrymen had absorbed the contagion of 
the hour, and from the doors of the " Centennial "Wash-House " 
gazed with a complacency unusual to them upon the doings of 
the Western barbarians. We were assigned quarters in the best 
hotel of the town : "The Grand Central Hotel, Main Street, op- 
posite Theatre, 0. H. Wagner, Prop, (formerly of the Walker 
House and Saddle Eock Eestaurant, Salt Lake), the only first- 
class hotel in Deadwood City, D. T." 

This was a structure of wood, of two stories, the lower used 
for the purposes of offices, dining-room, saloon, and kitchen ; the 
upper was devoted to a parlor, and the rest was partitioned into 
bedrooms, of which I wish to note the singular feature that the 
partitions did not reach more than eight feet above the floor, and 
thus every word said in one room was common property to all 
along that corridor. The " Grand Central " was, aa might be 


expected, rather crude in outline and construction, but the 
furniture was remarkably good, and the table decidedly better 
than one had a right to look for,, all circumstances con- 
sidered. Owing to the largeness of our party, the escort and 
packers were divided off between the "I. X. L." and the 
" Centennial " hotels, while the horses and mules found good ac- 
commodations awaiting them in Clarke's livery stable. I suppose 
that much of this will be Greek to the boy or girl growing up in 
Deadwood, who may also be surprised to hear that very many of 
the habitations were of canvas, others of unbarked logs, and 
some few " dug-outs "in the clay banks. By the law of the 
community, a gold placer or ledge could be followed anywhere, 
regardless of other property rights ; in consequence of this, the 
office of The Pioneer was on stilfcs, being kept in countenance 
by a Chinese laundryman whose establishment was in the same 
predicament. Miners were at work under them, and it looked 
as if it would bo more economical to establish one's self in a 
balloon in the first place. 

That night, after supper, the hills were red with the flare and 
flame of bonfires, and in front of the hotel had assembled a large 
crowd, eager to have a talk with General Crook ; this soon came, 
and the main part of the General's remarks was devoted to an 
expression of his desire to protect the new settlements from 
threatened danger, while the citizens, on their side, recited the 
various atrocities and perils which had combined to make the 
early history of the settlements, and presented a petition, signed 
by seven hundred and thirteen, full-grown white citizens, ask- 
ing for military protection. Thou followed a reception in the 
"Dead wood Theatre and Academy of Music," built one-half of 
boards and the other half of canvas. After the reception, there 
was a performance by "Miller's Grand Combination Troupe, 
with the Following Array of Stars." It was the usual variety 
show of the mining towns and villages, but much of it was quite 
good ; one of the saddest interpolations was the vocalization by 
Miss Viola de Montmorency, the Queen of Song, prior to her 
departure for Europe to sing before the crowned heads. Miss 
Viola was all right, but her voice might have had several stitches 
in it, and boon none the worso ; if she never comes back from 
the other side of the Atlantic until I send for her, she will be 
considerably older than she was that night when a half-drunken 


miner energetically insisted that she was " old enough to have 
another set o' teeth. " We left the temple of the Muses to walk 
along the main street and look in upon the stores, which were 
filled with all articles desirable in a mining district, and many 
others not usual in so young a community. Clothing, heavy 
and light, hardware, tinware, mess-pans, camp-kettles, blankets, 
saddlery, harness, rifles, cartridges, wagon-grease and blasting 
powder, india-rubber boots and garden sqeds, dried and canned 
fruits, sardines, and yeast powders, loaded down the shelves ; the 
medium of exchange was gold dust; each counter displayed a 
pair of delicate scales, and every miner carried a buckskin pouch 
containing the golden grains required for daily use. 

Greenbacks were not in circulation, and already commanded a 
premium of five per cent, on account of their portability. Gam- 
bling hells flourished, and all kinds of games were to be found- 
three card monte, keno, faro, roulette, and poker. Close by 
these were the "hurdy-gurdies," where the music from asth- 
matic pianos timed the dancing of painted, padded, and leering 
Aspasias, too hideous to hope for a livelihood in any village less 
remote from civilization. We saw and met representatives of all 
classes of society- gamblers, chevaliers d'industrie, callow fledg- 
lings, ignorant of the world and its ways, experienced miners 
who had labored in other fields, men broken down in other pur- 
suits, noble women who had braved all perils to be by their hus- 
bands' sides, smart little children, and children who were adepts 
in profanity and all other vices just such a commingling as 
might be looked for, but we saw very little if any drinking, and 
the general tone of the place was one of good order and law, to 
which vice and immorality must bow. 

We started out from Deadwood, and rode through the beauti- 
ful hills from north to south, passing along over well-constructed 
corduroy roads to Ouster City, sixty miles to the south ; about 
half way we met a wagon-train of supplies, under charge of 
Captain Prank Guest Smith, of the Fourth Artillery, and re- 
mained a few moments to take luncheon with himself and his 
subordinates Captain Gushing and Lieutenants Jones, Howe, 
Taylor, and Anderson, and Surgeon Price. Cuater City was a 
melancholy example of a town with the "boom" knocked out of 
it , there must have been as many as four hundred comfortable 
houses arranged in broad, rectilinear streets, but not quite three 


hundred souls remained, and all the trade of the place was 
dependent upon the three saw and shingle mills still running at 
full time. Here we found another wagon-train of provisions, 
under command of Captain Egan and Lieutenant Allison, of the 
Second Cavalry, who very kindly insisted upon exchanging their 
fresh horses for our tired-out steeds so as to let us go on at once on 
our still long ride of nearly one hundred miles south to Robin- 
son ; we travelled all night, stopping at intervals to let the horses 
have a bite of grass, but as Randall and Sibley were left behind 
with the pack-train, our reduced party kept a rapid gait along 
the wagon road, arid arrived at the post the next morning shortly 
after breakfast. Near Buffalo Gap we crossed the " Amphibi- 
ous" Creek, which has a double bottom, the upper one being a 
crust of sulphuret of lime, through which rider and horse will 
often break to the discomfort and danger of both ; later on we 
traversed the tfc Bad Lands, " in which repose the bones of count- 
less thousands of fossilized monsters tortoises, lizards, and others 
which will yet be made to pay heavy tribute to the museums 
of the world. Here we met the officers of the garrison as well as 
the members of the commission appointed by the President to 
confer with the Sioux, among whom I remember Bishop Whipple, 
Judge Moneypeimy, Jxidge Gaylorcl, and others. 

This terminated the summer campaign, although, as one of the 
results of Crook's conference with Sheridan at "Port Laramie, the 
Ogallalla chiefs "Red Cloud" and "Red Leaf" were surrounded 
on the morning of the 23d of October, and all their guns and 
ponies taken from them. There were seven hundred and five 
ponies and fifty rifles. These bands were supposed to have been 
selling arms and ammunition to the part of the tribe in open 
hostility, and this action of the military was precipitated by 
"Bed Cloud's" refusal to obey the orders to move his village 
close to the agency, so as to prevent the incoming stragglers from 
being confounded with those who had remained at peace. He 
moved bis village over to the Ohadron Creek, twenty-two miles 
away, where lie was at the moment of being surrounded and 

General Crook had a conference with the head men of the Ogal- 
lallas and BrulSs, the Oheyennes and Arapahoes, and told them 
in plain language what he expected them to do. The Government 
of the United States was feeding them, and was entitled to loyal 


behavior in return, instead of which many of our citizens had 
been killed and the trails of the murderers ran straight for the 
Bed Cloud Agency ; it was necessary for the chiefs to show their 
friendship by something more than empty words, and they would 
be held accountable for the good behavior of their young men. 
He did not wish to do harm to any one, but he had been sent out 
there to maintain order and he intended to do it, and if the 
Sioux did not see that it was to their interest to help they would 
soon regret their blindness. If all the Sioux would come in and 
start life as stock-raisers, the trouble would end at once, but so 
long as any remained out, the white men would insist upon war 
being made, and he should expect all the chiefs there present to 
aid in its prosecution. 

There were now fifty-three companies of soldiers at Red Cloud, 
and they could figure for themselves just how long they could 
withstand such force. "Red Cloud "had been insolent to all 
officers placed over him, and his sympathies with the bostiles had 
been open and undisguised ; therefore he had been deposed, and 
"Spotted Tail," who had been friendly, was to be the head chief 
of all the Sioux. 

The assignment of the troops belonging to the summer expedi- 
tion to winter quarters, and the organization from new troops of 
the expedition, which was to start back and resume operations in 
the Big Horn and Yellowstone country, occupied several weeks 
to the exclusion of all other business, and it was late in October 
before the various commands began concentrating at Fort Fetter- 
man for the winter's work. 

The wagon-train left at Powder River, or rather at Goose 
Creek, under Major Furey, had been ordered in by General 
Sheridan, and had reached Fort Laramie and been, overhauled 
and refitted. It then returned to Fetterman to take part in 
the coming expedition. General Crook took a small party to 
the summit of the Laramie Peak, and killed and brought" back 
sixty-four deer, four elk, four mountain sheep, and one cinnamon 
bear ; during the same week he had a fishing party at work on. 
the North Platte River, and caught sixty fine pike weighing on 
hundred and one pounds. 

Of the resulting winter campaign I do not intend to say 
much, having in another volume described it completely and mi- 
nutely ; to that volume ("Mackenzie's Last Fight with the Obey- 


ennes a Winter Campaign in Wyoming ") the curious reader 
is referred ; but at the present time, as the country operated in 
was precisely the same as that gone over during the preceding 
winter and herein described as the Indians in hostility were the 
same, with the same habits and peculiarities, I can condense 
this section to a recapitulation of the forces engaged, the fights 
fought, and the results thereof, as well as a notice of the invalua- 
ble services rendered by the Indian scouts, of whom Crook was 
now able to enlist all that he desired, the -obstructive element 
the Indian agent having been displaced. Although this com- 
mand met with severe weather, as its predecessor had done, yet 
it was so well provided and had such a competent force of Indian 
scouts that the work to be done by the soldiers was reduced to 
the zero point ; had Crook's efforts to enlist some of the Indians 
at Red Cloud Agency not been frustrated by the agent and 
others in the spring, the war with the hostile Sioux and Chey- 
enncs would have been over by the 4th of July, instead of drag- 
ging its unsatisfactory length along until the second winter and 
entailing untold hardships and privations upon officers and men 
and swelling the death roll of the settlers. 

The organization with which Crook entered upon his second 
winter campaign was superb in equipment ; nothing was lacking 
that money could provide or previous experience suggest. There 
were eleven companies of cavalry, of which only one " K," of 
the Second (Egan's) had been engaged in previous movements, 
"but all were under excellent discipline and had seen much service 
in other sections. 

Besides Egan's there were "E" and "K," of the Third, 
"B," "D," "E/' "F," "I, "and "M/'of the Fourth, and 
ff H " and " XV of the Fifth Cavalry. These were placed under 
the command of Colonel Ranald S, Mackenzie, of the Fourth 

Colonel R. I* Dodge, Twenty-third Infantry, commanded the 
infantry and artillery companies, the latter serving as foot 
troops ; his force included Batteries " 0," " V," ee H," and " K/> 
of the Fourth Artillery ; Companies "A," "B, w "0," "F," 
" I," and K/' of the Ninth Infantry ; " D " and " G," of the 
Fourteenth Infantry ; and Cf 0," "G," and "I," of the Twenty- 
third Infantry. 

General Crook's personal staff was composed of myself as 


Acting Assistant Adjutant-General ; Schuyler and Clarke, Aides- 
de-Camp ; Bandall, Chief of Scouts ; Kockwell, of the Fifth Cav- 
alry, as Commissary ; Surgeon Joseph R. Gibson as Chief Medical 

In the list of officers starting out with this expedition are to be 
found the names of Major G. A. Gordon, Fifth Cavalry, and 
Maj^r E. F. Townsend, Ninth Infantry, and Captain C. V. 
Mauck, Fourth Cavalry, and Captain J. B. Campbell, Fourth 
Artillery, commanding battalions ; Lieutenant Huyden Delaney, 
Ninth Infantry, commanding company of Indian scouts ; and the 
following from the various regiments, arranged without regard 
to rank : Wessels and Hammond ; Gerald Eussell, Oscar Elting, 
and George A. Dodd, of the Third Cavalry ; James Egan and 
James Allison, of the Second Cavalry ; John M. Hamilton, 
E. W. Ward and E. P. Andrus, Alfred B. Taylor and H. W. 
Wheeler, of the Fifth Cavalry ; J. H. Dorst, H. W. Law ton, 
0. Mauck, J, W. Martin, John Lee, C. M. Callahan, S. A, 
Mason, H. H. Bellas, Wirt Davis, F. L. Shoemaker, J, Wesley 
Eosenquest, W. C. Hemphill, J. A. McKiimey, H. G. Otis, of 
the- Fourth Cavalry dishing, Taylor, Bloom, Jones, Campbell, 
Cummins, Crozier, Frank G. Smith., Harry E. Anderson, 
Greenough, Howe, French, of the Fourth Artillery ; Jordan, 
MacCaleb, Devin, Morris C. Foot, Pease, Baldwin, Rockefeller, 
Jesse M. Lee, Bowman, of the Ninth Infantry ; Vanderslice, 
Austin, Krause, Hasson, Kimball, of the Fourteenth Infantry ; 
Pollock, Hay, Claggett, Edward B. Pratt, Whcaton, William L. 
Clarke, Hoffman, Heyl, of the Twenty-third Infantry ; and Sur- 
geons Gibson, Price, Wood, Pcttys, Owsley, and La Garde* 

Mackenzie's column numbered twenty-eight officers and seven 
hundred and ninety men ; Dodge's, thirty-three officers and 
six hundred and forty-six enlisted men. There were one hun- 
dred and fifty-five Arapahoes, Cheyennes, and Sioux ; ninety-olio 
Shoshones, fifteen Bannocks, one hundred Pawnees, one Ute, 
and one Ne# Perc6, attached as scouts ; and four interpreters. 

The supplies were carried on four hundred pack-mules, at- 
tended by sixty-five packers tinder noon of such experience as 
Tom Moore, Dave Mears, Young Dolaney, Patrick, and ofehers ; 
one hundred and sixty-eight wagons and seven ambulances a 
very imposing cavalcade. Major Frank North, assisted by his 
brother, Luke North, commanded the Pawnees ; they, as well as 


all the other scouts, rendered service of the first value, as will be 
seen from a glance at these pages. General Crook had succeeded 
in planting a detachment of infantry at old Port Keno, which 
was rebuilt under tuo energetic administration of Major Pollock, 
of the Ninth, and had something in the way of supplies, shelter, 
and protection to offer to small parties of couriers or scouts who 
might run against too strong a force of the enemy. This post, 
incomplete as it was, proved of prime importance before the win- 
ter work was over. 

We noticed one thing in the make-up of our scouting force : 
ib was an improvement over that of the preceding summer, not 
in bravery or energy, but in complete familiarity with the plans 
and designs of the hostile Sioux and Gheyennes whom we were 
to hunt down. Of the Oheyennes, I am able to give the names 
of "Thunder Cloud," " Bird/' "Blown Away/' "Old Grow," 
" Fisher," and " Hard Robe." Among the Sioux were, in addi- 
tion to the young man, " Charging Bear/' who had been taken 
prisoner at the engagement of Slim Buttes, " Three Bears/' 
" Pretty Voiced Bull/' " Yellow Shirt/' ^ Singing Bear/' " Lone 
Feather," "Tall Wild Oat," " Bad Boy/ 5 "Bull," "Big Horse," 
" Black Mouse/' " Broken Leg/' a second Indian named ' 4 Charg- 
ing Boar/' "Crow," "Charles Eichaud/' "Eagle," "Eagle " (2), 
"Feather On The Head/ 7 " Fast Thunder," "Fast Horse," 
"Good Man/' "Grey Byes," "James Twist/' " Kills First," 
"Keeps The Battle," -'Kills In The Winter," " Lone Dog," 
"Owl Bull," "Little Warrior," "Leading Warrior/' "Little 
Bull/' "TSTo Nock/' "Poor Elk," "Bocky Bear," "Rod Bear," 
"Rod Willow," "Six Feathers," "Sitting Bear," "Scraper," 
"Swift Charger/ 7 "Shuts The Door," "Slow Boar," "Sorrel 
Horse/' u Swimmer," " Tobacco," " Knife," " Thunder Shield," 
" Horse Comes Last," " White Face," " Walking Bull," "Wait- 
ing/' "White Elk," "Yellow Boar/' "Bad Moccasin," "Bear 
Eagle/ 1 "Yank-ton," "Fox Belly," "Running Over/' "Red 
Loaf " representing the Qgallallas, Bralfis, Out Offs, Loafers, 
and Sans Arcs bands. 

The Arapahoes wore "Sharp Nose," "Old Eagle," "Six 
Feathers," " Little Fox," " Shell On-The Neck," " White Horse/' 
" Wolf Moccasin," " Sleeping Wolf," " William Friday," " Red 
Beaver," "Driving Down Hill," "Yellow Bull," "Wild Sage/' 
"Eagle Chief," "Sitting Bull/' "Short Head," "Arrow Quiv- 


er," " Yellow Owl/ 9 " Strong Bear/' " Spotted Crow/' " White 
Bear/' "Old Man/' "Painted Man/' "Left Hand/' "Long 
Hair/' "Ground Bear/' "Walking Water/' "Young Chief/' 
" Medicine Man/' "Bull Robe/' "Crying Dog/' "Flat Foot," 
"Flint Breaker/' "Singing Beaver," "Fat Belly/' "Crazy," 
" Blind Man/' " Foot/ 1 " Hungry Man," " Wrinkled Forehead, " 
"Fast Wolf/' "Big Man/' "White Plume/' "Coal/' "Sleep- 
ing Bear/' " Little Owl," "Butcher/' "Broken Horn/' "Bear's 
Backbone/' "Head Warrior/' "Big Ridge/' "Black Man," 
" Strong Man/' " Whole Robe," " Bear Wolf." 

The above will surely show that we were excellently provided 
with material from the agencies, which was the main point to be 
considered. The Pawnees were led by " Li-here-is-oo-lishar " 
and " U-sanky-su-cola ; " the Bannocks and Shoshones by 
"Tupsi-paw" and "0-ho-a-te." The chief "Washakie" was 
not with them this time ; he sent word that he was suffering 
from rheumatism and did not like to run the risks of a winter 
campaign, but had sent his two sons and a nephew and would 
come in person later on if his services were needed. These 
guides captured a Cheyenne boy and brought him in a prisoner 
to Crook, who learned from him much as to the location of the 
hostile villages. 

In the gray twilight of a cold November morning (the 25th), 
Mackenzie with the cavalry and Indian scouts burst like a tor- 
nado upon the unsuspecting village of the Cheyennes at the head 
of Willow Creek, a tributary of the Powder, and wiped it from 
the face of the earth. There were two hundred and five lodges, 
each of which was a magazine of supplies of all kinds buffalo 
and pony meat, valuable robes, ammunition, saddles, and the 
comforts of civilization in very appreciable quantities. The roar 
of the flames exasperated the fugitive Cheyennes to frenzy ; they 
saw their homes disappearing in fire and smoke ; they heard the 
dull thump, thump, of their own medicine drum, which had 
fallen into the hands of our Shoshones ; and they listened to the 
plaintive drone of the sacred flageolets upon which the medicine 
men of the Pawnees were playing as they rode at the head of 
their people. Seven hundred and five ponies fell into our hands 
and were driven off the field; as many more were killed and 
wounded or slaughtered by the Oheyonnes the night after the 
battle, partly for food and partly to let their half-naked old men 


and women put their feet and legs in the warm entrails. We 
lost one officer, Lieutenant John A. McKinney, Fourth Cavalry, 
and six men killed and twenty-five men wounded ; the enemy's 
loss was unknown ; at least thirty bodies fell into our hands, and 
at times the fighting had a hand-to-hand character, especially 
where Wirt Davis and John M. Hamilton wkre engaged. The 
village was secured by a charge on our left in which the compa- 
nies of Taylor, Hemphill, Russell, Wessells, and the Pawnees par- 
ticipated. The Shoshones, under Lieutenant Schuyler and Tom 
Cosgrove, seized a commanding peak and rained down bullets 
upon the brave Cheyennes, who, after putting their women and 
children in the best places of safety accessible, held on to the 
rocks, and could not be dislodged without great loss of life. 

Mackenzie sent couriers to Crook, asking him to come to his 
help as soon as he could with the long rifles of the infantry, to 
drive the enemy from their natural fortifications. Crook and the 
foot troops under Dodge, Townsend, and Campbell made the 
wonderful march of twenty-six miles over the frozen, slippery 
ground in twelve hours, much of the distance by night. But 
thy did not reach us in time, as the excessive cold had forced 
the Cheyennes to withdraw from our immediate front, eleven of 
their little babies having frozen to death in their mothers' arms 
the first night and three others the second night after the fight. 

The Cheyennes were spoken to by Bill Roland and Erank Gru- 
ard, but were very sullen and not inclined to talk much ; it was 
learned that wo had struck the village of "Dull Knife/* who had 
with him " Little Wolf," "Roman Nose/' "Gray Head/' "Old 
Bear," "Standing Elk/' and "Turkey Legs." "Dull Knife" 
called out to our Sioux and Cheyenne scouts : "Go home you 
have no business here ; we can whip the white soldiers alone, but 
can't fight you too." The other Cheyennes called out that they 
wore going ovor to a big Sioux village, which they asserted to be 
near by, and got its assistance, and then come back and clean us 
out. " You have killed and hurt a heap of our people," they said, 
"and you may as well stay now and kill the rest of us." The 
Ouster massacre was represented by a perfect array of mute testi- 
mony : gauntlets, hats, and articles of clothing marked with the 
names qf officers and men of the ill-fated Seventh Cavalry, sad- 
dles, silk guidons, and other paraphernalia pointing the one 
moral, that the Cheyennes had been as foremost in the battle 


with Ouster as they had been in the battle with Crook on the 
Eosebud a week earlier. 

All the tribes of the plains looked up to the Cheyennes, and 
respected their impetuous valor ; none stood higher than they as 
fierce, skilful fighters ; and to think that we had broken the back 
of their hostility and rendered them impotent was a source of no 
small gratification. They sent a party of young men to follow 
our trail and see whither we went ; these young men crawled up 
close to our camp-fires and satisfied themselves that some of their 
own people were really enlisted to fight our battles, as Ben Roland 
had assured them was the case. This disconcerted them beyond 
measure, added to what they could see of our column of scouts 
from the other tribes. "Dull Knife" made his way down the 
Powder to where "Crazy Horse " was in camp, expecting to be 
received with the hospitality to which his present destitution and 
past services entitled him. " Crazy Horse" was indifferent to 
the sufferings of his allies and turned the cold shoulder upon 
them completely, and this so aroused their indignation that they 
decided to follow the example of those who had enrolled under 
our flag and sent in word to that effect. 

At first it was not easy to credit the story that the Chcyennes 
were not only going to surrender, but that every last man of them 
would enlist as a soldier to go out and demolish " Crazy Horse ; " 
but the news was perfectly true, and in the last days of Decem- 
ber and the first of January the first detachment of them arrived 
at Red Cloud Agency; just as fast as the condition of their 
ponies and wounded would admit, another detachment arrived ; 
and then the whole body men, women, and children made their 
appearance, and announced their desire and intention to help us 
whip "Crazy Horse." " Crazy Horse " happened io bo related 
by blood or by marriage to both u Spotted Tail" and "Red 
Cloud/' and each of these big chiefs exerted himself to save him. 
" Spotted Tail" sounded the Choyenncs and found that they were 
in earnest in the expressed purpose of aiding the Americans ; and 
when he counted upon his fingers the hundreds of allies who were 
coming in to the aid of the whites in the suppression, perhaps the 
extermination, of the Dakotas, who had so long lorded it over the 
population of the Missouri Valley, ho saw that it was tho part of 
prudence for all his people to submit to the authority of the Gen- 
eral Government and trust to its promises. 


Colonel Mason was not only a good soldier, he was a man of 
most excellent education, broad views and humane impulses ; he 
had gained a great influence over "Spotted Tail," which he used 
to the best advantage. He explained to his red-skinned friends 
that the force soon to be put in the field would embrace hundreds 
of the Sioux at the agencies, who were desirous of providing 
themselves with ponies from the herds of their relations, the Min- 
neconjous ; that every warrior of the Cheyennes had declared his 
intention of enlisting to fight "Crazy Horse"; that there would 
be, if needed, two hundred and fifty men, or even more, from the 
TJtes, Bannocks, and Shoshones ; that over one hundred Pawnees 
were determined to accompany any expedition setting out ; that 
one hundred Winnebagoes had offered their services ; that all 
the able-bodied Arapahoes were enrolled, and that the Crows had 
sent word that two hundred of their best warriors would take 
part. In the early part of the winter the Crows had sent two 
hundred and fifty of their warriors under Major George M. 
Eandall and the interpreter, Pox, to find and join Crook's ex- 
pedition. After being subjected to indescribable privations and 
almost frozen to death in a fierce wind and snow storm upon the 
summits of the Big Horn range from the fury of which 
Eandall and his companions were saved by the accident of dis- 
covering a herd of buffaloes hiding from the blast in a little sag, 
which animals they attacked, killing a number and eating the 
flesh raw, as no fire could live in such a blast, and putting their 
feet inside the carcasses to keep from freezing stiff the brave 
detachment of Crows succeeded in uniting with us on Christmas 
morning, 1876, in one of the most disagreeable blizzards of 
that trip. 

Thoir number had boon reduced below one hundred, but they 
wore still able to aid us greatly, had not Crook deemed it best 
for them to return homo and apprise thoir tribe of the complete 
downfall of the Ohoyennos and the breaking of the backbone of 
hostility. There might bo other fights and skirmishes in the 
future, but organised antagonism to the whites was shattered 
when the Cheyenne camp was laid low, and future military opera- 
tions would bo minimized into tho pursuit of straggling detach- 
ments or conflicts with desperate bands which had no hope of 
success, but would wish to sell their lives at the highest rate possi- 
ble. The best thing for the Crows and Utes and Shoshones to do 


would be to move into, or at least close to, the Big Horn Moun- 
tains, and from there raid upon the petty villages of the Sioux 
who might try to live in the seclusion of the rocks and forests. 
" Spotted Tail n said that " Crazy Horse" was his nephew, and 
he thought he could make him see the absolute inutility of 
further resistance by going out to have a talk with him. 

Mason telegraphed all the foregoing facts to General Crook, 
who had been summoned to Cheyenne as a witness before a gen- 
eral court-martial ; Crook replied that there was no objection to 
the proposed mission, but that " Spotted Tail " must let "Crazy 
Horse " understand that he was not sent out with any overtures, 
and that all "Crazy Horse" could count upon was safety in his 
passage across the country, by setting out at once before another 
movement should begin. " Spotted Tail " found " Crazy Horse " 
encamped near the head of the Little Powder, about midway 
between Cantonment Keno and the southwestern corner of the 
Black Hills. He made known his errand, and had no great diffi- 
culty in making his nephew see that he had better begin his move- 
ment towards the agency without a moment's delay. Several of 
"Crazy Horse's" young men came in with "Spotted Tail/' who 
was back at Camp Robinson by the last week in January, 1877. 
General Crook's headquarters had been transferred to that point, 
and there was little to do beyond waiting for the arrival of 
"Crazy Horse " and other chiefs. 

Of our mess and its members, as well as the people who dined 
or supped with us, I am sure that my readers will pardon me for 
saying a word. 




ROBINSON was situated in the extreme northwestern 
corner of the State of Nebraska, close to the line of Dakota 
and that of Wyoming ; aside from being the focus of military 
activity, there was little in the way of attraction ; the scenery in 
the vicinity is picturesque, without any special features. There 
were great numbers of Indians of the Sioux, Cheyenne, and 
Arapahoe tribes, to whose ranks accessions were made daily by 
those surrendering, but reference to them will be postponed for 
the present. The white members of our mess were General 
Crook, General Mackenzie, Colonel J. W. Mason, Lieutenant 
William P. Clarke, Lieutenant Hayden Delaney, Lieutenant 
Walter S. Schuyler, Major George M. Randall, and myself. 
Neither Mackenzie nor Mason could, strictly speaking, be called 
a member of the mess, but as they generally "dropped in," and 
as a plato was regularly placed for each, there is no direct viola- 
tion of the unities in including them. Eandall was still full of 
his recent perilous adventure with the Crows, and we often were 
successful in drawing him out about his experiences in the Civil 
War, in which he had borne a most gallant part and of which 
he could, when disposed, relate m#ny interesting episodes. Schuy- 
ler had made a tour through Russia and Finland, and observed 
not a little of the usages and peculiarities of the people of those 


countries. Mr. Strahorn, who was often with us, had wandered 
about in many curious spots of our own territory, and was brim- 
ful of anecdote of quaint types of human nature encountered 
far away from the centres of civilization. Crook and Mackenzie 
and Mason would sometimes indulge in reminiscences to which 
all eagerly listened, and it is easy to see that such a mess would 
of itself have been a place of no ordinary interest ; but for me 
the greatest attraction was to be found in the constant presence 
of distinguished Indian chiefs whose names had become part and 
parcel of the history of our border. General Sheridan had paid 
one hurried visit and remained a day, but being better known to 
American readers, there is no use in speaking of him and his 
work during the war. 

There were two cooks, Phillips and Bos well, the former of 
whom had shared the trials and tribulations of the terrible 
march down from the head of Heart River, and seemed resolved 
to make hay while the sun shone ; he could make anything but 
pie in that he failed miserably. I think it was Oliver Wendell 
Holmes who once wrote an essay to demonstrate that the isother- 
mal line of perpetual pumpkin pie was the line of highest civiliza- 
tion and culture. The converse of the proposition would seem 
to be equally true : pie, of any kind, cannot be made except 
under the most aesthetic surroundings ; amid the chilling re- 
straints of savagery and barbarism, pie is simply an impossibility. 
It did not make much difference what he prepared, Boswell was 
sure of an appreciative discussion of its merits by a mess which 
was always hungry, and which always had guests who were still 
hungrier and still more appreciative. 

Taking our aboriginal guests in order of rank, the chief, of 
course, was "Spotted Tail." This is, unfortunately, not the 
age of monument-building in America ; if ever the day shall 
come when loyal and intelligent friendship for the American, 
people shall receive due recognition, the strong, melancholy 
features of "Sintiega-leska," or " Spotted Tail/" cast in endur- 
ing bronze, will overlook the broad area of .Dakota and Nebraska, 
which his genius did so much to save to civilization. In youth 
a warrior of distinction, in middle age a leader among his peo- 
ple, he became, ere time had sprinkled his locks with snow, the 
benefactor of two races. A diplomatist able to hold his own 
with the astutest agents the Great Father could depute to confer 


with him, u Spotted Tail " recognized the inevitable destruction 
of his kinsmen if they persisted in war and turned their backs 
upon overtures of peace. He exerted himself, and generally with 
success, to obtain the best terms possible from the Government 
in all conferences held with its representatives, but he was 
equally earnest in his determination to restrain the members of 
his own band, and all others whom he could control, from going 
out upon the war-path. If any persisted in going, they went to 
stay ; he would not allow them to return. 

There was a story current in army circles that years and years 
ago a young daughter of " Spotted Tail " had fallen in love with 
an officer just out of West Point, and had died of a broken 
heart. In her last hours she asked of her father the pledge that 
he would always remain the friend of the Americans a pledge 
given with affectionate earnestness, and observed with all the 
fidelity of a noble nature. I have often seen the grave of this 
young maiden at Fort Laramie a long pine box, resting high 
in air upon a scaffold adorned with the tails of the ponies upon 
which her gentle soul had made the lonesome journey to the 
Land of the Great Hereafter. I may as well tell here a romance 
about her poor bones, which insatiate Science did not permit to 
rest in peace. Long after her obsequies, when C( Spotted Tail's" 
people had been moved eastward to the White Earth country, 
and while tho conflict with the hostiles was at its bitterest, the 
garrison of Port Laramie was sent into the field, new troops tak- 
ing their places. There was a new commanding officer, a new 
surgeon, and a new hospital steward; the last was young, 
bright, ambitious, and desirous of becoming an expert in anat- 
omy. The Devil saw his opportunity for doing mischief; lie 
whispered in the young man's ear: "If you want an articulated 
skeleton, what's tho matter with those bones ? Make your own 
articulated skeleton." Turn whore he would, the Devil followed 
him; the word (e bones }) sounded constantly in his ears, and, 
cloHO his eyes or open them, there stood the scaffold upon which, 
wrapped in costly painted buffalo robes and all tho gorgeous 
decoration of bead-work, porcupine quill, and wampum that sav- 
age affection could supply, reposed the mortal remains of the 
Dakota maiden. . * , A dark night, a ladder, a rope, and a 
bag the bones were lying upon the steward's table, cleaned, 
polished, and almost adjusted, and if there was one happy man 


in the United States Army it was the hospital steward of Fort 

How fleeting is all human joy ! A little cloud of dust arose 
above the hills to the northeast in the direction of the Raw-Hide ; 
it grew bigger and bigger and never ceased until, in front of the 
commanding officer's quarters, it revealed the figures of " Spotted 
Tail/' the head chief of the Sioux, and a dozen of his warriors. 
The great chief had come, he said, for the bones of his child ; 
he was getting old, and his heart felt cold when it turned to the 
loved one who slept so far from the graves of her people. The 
way was long, but his ponies were fresh, and to help out the ride 
of the morrow he would start back wibh the rising of the moon 
that night. Consternation ! Panic ! Dismay ! Use any term 
you please to describe the sensation when the steward confessed 
to the surgeon, and the surgeon to the commanding officer, the 
perilous predicament in which they were placed. The command- 
ing officer was polite and diplomatic. He urged upon " Spotted 
Tail " that the requirements of hospitality could not permit of 
his withdrawal until the next day ; neither was it proper that 
the bones of the daughter of so distinguished a chief should be 
carried oft 3 in a bundle, unco ffined. He would have a coffin made, 
and when that should be ready the remains could be placed in 
it without a moment's delay or a particle of trouble. Once again, 
B> ladder, a rope, and the silence of night and: the secret of the 
robbery was secure. When the story reached our camp on Goose 
Creek, Terry's Crow Indian messengers were relating to Crook 
the incidents of the Ouster massacre. 

I thought then with horror, and I still think, what might hare 
been the consequences had " Spotted Tail " discovered the ab- 
straction of those bones ? Neither North nor South Dakota, 
"Wyoming nor Montana might now be on the map, and their 
senators might not be known in Congress ; and, perhaps, those 
who so ably represent the flourishing States of Kansas, Nebraska 
and Colorado might have some difficulty in finding all of their 
constituents. The Northern Pacific Railroad might not yet have 
been built, and thousands who to-day own happy homes on fertile 
plains would still be toiling aimlessly and hopelessly in the over- 
populated States of the Atlantic seaboard, 

We found " Spotted Tail " a man of great dignity, but at all 
moments easy and affable in manner ; not "hard to please, sharp 


as a brier, and extremely witty. He understood enough English 
to get along at table, and we picked up enough Dakota to know 
that when he asked for " ahuyape," he meant bread ; " wosunna " 
was butter ; " wka-maza," corn ; that "bell 6 " was the name for 
potatoes, "tol!6" for beef, "pazuta-sdpa" for coffee, "witkd" 
for eggs ; that white sugar became in his vocabulary " chahumpi- 
ska/' salt was transformed into "minni-squia" ; and that our 
mushrooms and black pepper resolved themselves into the jaw- 
breaking words : " yamanuminnigawpi " and " numcatchy-num- 
capa," respectively. He was addicted to one habit, not strictly 
according to our canons, of which we never succeeded in break- 
ing him : if ho didn't like a piece of meat, or if he had been 
served with a greater abundance than he needed of anything, he 
lifted what he didn't want back upon the platter. His conversa- 
tional powers were of a high order, his views carefully formed, 
clearly expressed. My personal relations with him were ex- 
tremely friendly, and I feel free to say that "Spotted Tail" was 
one of the great men of this country, bar none, red, white, black, 
or yellow. When f Crow Dog " murdered him, the Dakota 
nation had good reason to mourn the loss of a noble son. 

"Spotted Tail" was several times accompanied by "White 
Thunder," a handsome chief, most favorably disposed towards 
the whites, and of good mental calibre, but in no sense " Spotted 
Tail's " equal. On other occasions we had both " Spotted Tail " 
and "Red Cloud "at dinner or lunch on the same day. This 
we tried to avoid as much as possible, as they were unfriendly to 
each other, and were not even on speaking terms. However, at 
our table, they always behaved in a gentlemanly manner, and no 
stranger would have suspected that anything was wrong. "Ked 
Cloud" had shown a bettor disposition since the coming in of 
the Ohoyennes, their avowed intentions having as much of an 
effect upon him as upon "Spotted Tail." The delegation of 
Ogallalla warriors had done such good work during the campaign 
that General Crook had allowed the members of the other bands 
to give to the more deserving some of the ponies taken away 
from them and distributed among the other divisions of the 
Sioux. This developed a much better feeling all around, and 
"Ked Cloud" had asked to be enlisted as a soldier, to show that 
he meant well 

He had also said that "Crazy Horse" could not travel in as 


fast as General Crook expected,, partly on account of the soft 
state of the trails induced by a heavy January thaw, and partly 
because it would be necessary for him to hunt in order to get 
food for his women and children. If he, "Bed Cloud," were 
permitted to take out enough food to support the women and 
children on their way to the agency, it would deprive "Crazy 
Horse " of any excuse for delay, granting that he was disposed to 
be dilatory in his progress he would go out to see the band of 
"Crazy Horse/' and tell them all to come in at once, and give to 
all the women and children who needed it the food for their sup- 
port while coming down from the Black Hills. This proposition 
was approved, and "Bed Cloud" started out and did good work, 
to which I will allude later on. 

One day when the Cheyenne chief, "Dull Knife/' was at 
headquarters, I invited him to stay for luncheon. 

"I should be glad to do so/' he replied, "'but my daughters 
are with me." 

"Bring them in too/' was the reply from others of the mess, 
and "Spotted Tail/ 7 who was present, seconded our solicita- 
tions ; so we had the pleasure of the company, not only of old 
"Dull Knife," whose life had been one of such bitterness and 
sorrow, but of his three daughters as well. They were fairly 
good-looking the Oheyennes will compare favorably in appear- 
ance with any people I've seen and were quite young ; cue of 
nine or ten, one of twelve, and the oldest not yet twenty a 
young widow who, with the coquettishncss of the sex, wore her 
skirts no lower than the knees to let the world see that in her 
grief for her husband, killed in our fight of November 25th, she 
had gashed and cut her limbs in accordance with the severest 
requirements of Cheyenne etiquette. Had she lost a child she 
would liavo cut off one of the joints of the little linger of her 
left hand. 

Of the other Cheyennes, there were " Little Wolf/' one of the 
bravest in fights, where all were brave ; and " Standing Elk," 
cool and determined in action, wise in council, polite in de- 
meanor, reserved in speech, and adhering in dress to the porcelain 
bead breastplates of the tribes of the plains. Last among this 
deputation was the medicine man, "High Wolf/' or "Tall 
Wolf," or "Big Wolf" ; he had been proud to wear, ae his pefc 
decoration, a necklace of human fingers, which he knew had 


fallen into my possession in the fight with Mackenzie, There 
was no affection lost between us, but he imagined that by getting 
upon good terms with me negotiations might be opened for a 
return of the ghastly relic. But I knew its value too well : 
there is no other in the world that I know of that is, in any 
museum although the accounts of explorations in the early days 
in the South Sea, among the Andamanese, and by Lewis and 
Clark, make mention of such things having been seen. While we 
were destroying the Cheyenne village, "Big Bat " found two of 
these necklaces, together with a buckskin bag containing twelve 
of the right hands of little babies of the Shoshone tribe, lately 
killed by the Cheyenues. The extra necklace was buried, the 
buckskin bag with its dreadful relics was given to our Shoshone 
allies, who wept and wailed over it all night, refusing to be com- 
forted, and neglecting to assume the battle-names with which 
the Pawnees were signalizing their prowess. The necklace be- 
longing to "High Wolf" contained eight fingers of Indian ene- 
mies slain by that ornament of society, and has since been de- 
posited in the National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

There was an old, broken-down electrical apparatus in the 
post hospital, which had long ago been condemned as unservice- 
able, but which we managed to repair so that it would send a 
pretty severe shock through the person holding the poles. The 
Indian boys and girls looked upon this as wonderful " medicine, " 
and hung in groups about the headquarters, from reveille till 
retreat, hoping to see the machine at work not at work upon 
themselves exactly, but upon some "fresh fish" which they had 
enticed there from among the later surrenders. Many and many 
a time, generally about the lunch hour, a semicircle would form 
outside tlxo door, waiting lor the appearance of some one con- 
nected with the headquarters, who would be promptly nudged by 
one of the more experienced boys, as a sign that there was fun 
in sight. Tho novice couldn't exactly comprehend what it all 
meant when he saw at the bottom of a pail of water a shining- 
half-dollar which was to be his if he could only reach it while 
holding that innocent-looking cylinder -in one hand. There was 
any amount of diversion for everybody ; the crop of shorn lambs 
increased rapidly, each boy thinking that the recollection of his 
own sorrows could be effaced in no better way than by contem- 
plating those of the newer arrivals ; and so from guard mount to 


parade the wonder grew as to what was the mysterious machine 
which kept people from seizing the piece of silver. 

We were becoming more generous, or more confident, by this 
time, and doubled the value of the money prize, and issued a 
challenge to the ''medicine men " to try their powers. Several 
of them did so, only t